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Review of Psychopathy.

Update: 2013-2015.

Under construction.

2012 and before.

Table of contents

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1). Synopsis of Psychopathy

The long history of heterogeneity in both terminology and theory about psychopathy continues. The modern era of thinking about psychopathy begins with Cleckley's work, originally done in 1941. Cleckley's emphasis of the psychopath as a constellation of various personality traits was essentially overturned by the American psychiatric establishment in revisions to the DSM, culminating in 1980 in a behaviorally based description and the use of the term antisocial personality disorder. Robert Hare, through his writing and widely popular testing initiatives, returned to a personality/trait approach derived from Cleckley's original factors. Hare's approach and tests have been particularly influential both in practical forensic settings and in academic research. Although a number of other tests of psychopathy have been developed and a number of authors have expressed reservations about Hare, Hare's approach has dominated. Hare has also been important in popularizing psychopathy in the lay public, especially via his 1993 book Without conscience and by the 2006 Snakes in suits, a work he co-authored, examining the psychopath in a business context. This business/leadership theme was later followed up by Lawrence (2010). Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed.

— Types of psychopaths commonly identified:

— Dimensions of psychopathy that have been emphasized in various studies:

— Dimensions of personality have been emphasized in various studies:

A typical description:

Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment. They tend not to be deterred from their self-serving behaviors by criminal or social penalties. In conjunction with their unfeeling and incessant drive to take care of themselves, psychopaths are predators, and anyone who can feed their need at the moment is potential prey.

Psychopaths are at increased risk of engaging in both reactive and instrumental aggression. Instrumental aggression (sometimes called proactive or predatory aggression) is planned, controlled, and purposeful, and is used for a particular aim—for example, to get drugs or sex, or just to establish dominance. The primary goal is not necessarily to injure others but simply to obtain the desired outcome. This isn't aggression that arises from an emotional reaction; it's the calculated use of aggression as a tool. Reactive aggression, on the other hand, is much more impulsive and emotion driven and arises from a perceived threat or attack or uncontrolled anger. The two types of aggression, instrumental and reactive, are not mutually exclusive. People can and do engage in both. The mob hit man may commit murder as part of his job but, like others, can experience road rage after a bad day at work. The point is that the reliance on instrumental aggression to get what they want is one of me unsettling things that distinguishes some psychopaths from the general population.

Worse, psychopaths are often superficially charming and glib; they are frequently able to take advantage of others because they know that acting genuinely friendly and helpful can be a useful strategy for getting what they want. While violence may be an option, a psychopath is just as willing to use a well-timed compliment, a subtle misstatement of the truth, or an exaggerated apology to achieve his or her self-serving goals. To a psychopath, a punch in the face and a lie hidden behind a friendly smile are merely separate tools to be employed as dictated by circumstances. The bottom line: psychopaths can be dangerous even as they outwardly present a pleasant and welcoming demeanor (Schouten and Silver, 2012, pp. 18-19).

Psychopathy Is Not Synonymous with Criminality: Of course, given their proclivity for ignoring social norms and laws, quite a few psychopaths find their way into the criminal justice system, some spending significant portions of their lives incarcerated. Nevertheless, not all psychopaths are violent or serious criminals. In fact, most psychopaths manage to avoid involvement with the criminal justice system. Either their transgressions of social norms, while destructive and painful to those involved, do not rise to the level of criminal activity, or they are never apprehended by the police for the crimes they do commit. While true psychopaths share certain behavioral and emotional attributes, they are not all identical, and they exhibit these various characteristics to a greater or lesser degree. Some psychopaths can control their self-serving behaviors so they remain (perhaps just barely) within the bounds of legal behavior, not because to do otherwise would be "wrong," but because being caught would unduly interfere with their efforts to get what they want. In some circumstances, psychopathic traits may actually help an individual become a well-regarded (although not necessarily well-liked) member of society. A superficially charming and engaging personality combined with a ruthless willingness to "do whatever it takes to get the job done" can be extremely useful in a high-stakes, pressure-filled environment (Schouten and Silver, 2012, p. 24).

Antisocial personality disorder (APD)

— Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is not synonymous with psychopathy: most psychopaths will also be given an APD diagnosis, however, many who are diagnosed as APD are not considered psychopaths (a unique group receiving little research attention).

— APD has a lifetime (community) prevalence of 2 - 4% in the United States, but this varies widely with gender, men being about 6.5 % women being about 1%.

— Reliability versus validity: The criteria of APD is easy to measure, resulting in an over inclusive, highly reliable diagnosis but with questionable validity, especially when considering the personality features associated with psychopathy.

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2). Ongoing Controversies

— The addition of criminal criteria to Hare's tests has contributed to the view of psychopaths as a type of criminal versus the view that psychopathy is a type of abnormal personality.

— Psychopathy is an abnormal categorical disorder versus the view that psychopathy is a dimensional extension of abnormal personality characteristics.

— Psychopaths lack the normal capacity to feel moral emotions (normally, guilt emerges from empathy) versus the view that moral sensitivity is predominantly cognitive rather than affective in nature.

— Psychopathy is largely a genetic trait versus the view that it is mediated significantly by environment.

— Therapy is not helpful or even counterproductive in psychopaths (increasing psychopathic behavior) versus the view that the effects of therapy can be positive, especially in youth. Others have suggested results of therapy are essentially unknown based upon today's data.

— Adolescent psychopathy is essentially similar to adult psychopathy versus the view that adult and adolescent psychopathy differ significantly.

— Psychopathy reflects a heterogeneous group versus the view that psychopathy reflects a relatively uniform, homogeneous group.

— There is high convergent validity between measures of psychopathy and APD versus the view that there is poor convergent validity between the two.

— Psychopathy [is a medical disease] and should mitigate or excuse criminal responsibility versus the view that psychopathy should not be considered as a mitigating factor in criminal cases.

— Psychopathy is best seen as?:

— There is considerable overlap between psychopathy and the other personality disorders including borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, making clear classification difficult.

— Psychopathy has become a mythic construct due to the integration [by people like Hare] of fictive information (taken from the media and popular culture) with clinical and experimental findings. For example, there is a strong tendency to sensationalism or exaggeration: "A disturbing percentage of the population has psychopathic tendencies" versus research confirming that psychopathy is consistently found in only about .5 to 1% of the general population (about the same as that of schizophrenia).

— "Hare's Model" Based on Hare's testing and research, the number of factors needed to describe psychopathy varies widely:

— The use of Hare's tests have been criticized for running ahead of the evidence supporting them.

— Traditionally, empathy has been viewed as a genetic attribute however, newer views see empathy as a motivated process that is often initiated voluntarily and therefore may be amenable to training or therapy.

— There is some evidence of "burnout" in the antisocial behavior of psychopaths, starting at about age 35, however, this burnout holds true for only nonviolent offenses and, even after burnout, psychopaths still commit crimes at a rate equal to that of serious and persistent nonpsychopathic offenders

— Some authors suggest that ADHD is related to psychopathy and the two share impulsivity and antisocial features in common, suggesting a possible common underlying etiology.

— Some authors suggest that it is those who have suffered child abuse and victimization by different perpetrators who are more likely to show violent and/or sexually offending behaviour.

— Some authors suggest that psychopathy is better viewed using models such as the interpersonal circumflex approach or the Big 5.

— Some authors suggest that certain features of psychopathy appear to be adaptive and certain psychopathic features are a helpful feature in society, for example, Hare is quoted as saying too much empathy would interfere with police officers' or politicians' ability to do their jobs.

— Some authors suggest that psychopathy is seen as an evolutionarily adaptive phenomenon because psychopaths have more children, in part, because psychopathic traits facilitate short-term mating strategies leading to producing more offspring.

— Some authors suggest that psychopathy involves demonstrable brain pathology and/or developmental impairments.

— Some authors suggest that psychopathy is more prevalent in males versus other opinions that psychopathy can be seen equally in males and females.

— Some authors suggest that psychopathy is expressed differently in males versus females.

— All personality disorders face controversy in terms of classification. For example, should psychopathy be seen as a taxon (a category) or as an attribute (as a symptom), whether to view it as a dimension (with quantitative degrees of severity) or as a set of discrete types or, other? As an example of other, psychopathy may be seen as a neurophysiological disease/ brain disorder (Based on Millon 2012).

If it is categorical, then psychopathy is either present or absent; if it is dimensional, then varying degrees or features of psychopathy may be present.
Originally, Hare (1993) argued strongly that psychopathy is a distinct, categorical disorder.

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3). A brief historical context.

The concept of psychopathy has been described many times in many ways, in part, reflecting the heterogeneity of the underlying phenomena. For one of the best overall introductions to the history, see Millon, T., Simonsen, E., & Birket-Smith, M. (1998). Historical conceptions of psychopathy in the Unites States and Europe. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 3-31). New York: Guilford.

This list is not comprehensive, dates are approximate.

Franz Joseph Gall, German physician, in the late 1700s developed the theory that human behavior was regulated by twenty-seven different "faculties" or "propensities," each located in a particular part of the brain and that the exterior bone structure of the skull indicated which of these propensities were highly developed and which were atrophied in any particular individual (phrenology). Three were linked to criminal behavior if they were highly developed: greed, which could lead to theft; the instinct of self-defense, which could lead to violent fights; and the "carnivorous instinct" which could lead to murder. In general, Gall helped to popularize the notion that many criminals committed their crimes as a result of innate propensities (see Wetzell, 2000, pp. 17-18, 19).

Phillipe Pinel, a French physician, is generally credited with recognizing psychopathy as a specific mental disorder. The individual was seen as a victim of a moral character defect. Pinel 1801 described a condition termed manie sans délire or manie raisonnante where the sufferer showed bouts of extreme violence but with no signs of psychosis. Pinel's student Jean-Etienne Esquirol introduced the notion of monomania to denote "a single pathological preoccupation in an otherwise sound mind" (Wetzell, 2000, p. 18).

Analyses of criminal statistics, early 1830s: Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet, a Belgian astronomer, and André-Michel Guerry, a lawyer at the royal court in Paris. Their main finding was that the number of recorded crimes remained virtually constant from year to year. Quetelet and Guerry concluded that the commonly accepted theory that crime was caused by poverty or lack of education was not supported by their statistical findings. Instead, they found that the two most significant factors determining a person's statistical "propensity toward crime" were age and sex. Quetelet argued that society bore substantial responsibility for the crimes committed and crimes were a necessary result of our social organization (see Wetzell, 2000, p. 21).

J. C. Pritchard, an English physician (1835) "Moral insanity" "the moral or active principles of the mind are strongly perverted or depraved". [Pritchard used the word 'moral' to denote 'affective']. Strongly influenced by Pinel and Esquirol, Prichard distinguished between two types of insanity: one affecting the intellect and the other affecting emotions and will. The latter he called moral insanity. . . . . But while Prichard's term originally designated emotional-volitional disorders in general, in France and the German states moral insanity took on a more specific meaning, referring to violent, immoral, and criminal behavior that was attributed to an isolated defect of the "moral sense" (Wetzell, 2000, p. 20).

Pritchard helped to differentiate personality from mental disorder by distinguishing between more transient symptomatic states and those that are related to more enduring characteristics. This was an important distinction that contributed to the emergence of the idea of personality (Livesley, 2001)

Bénédict-Augustin Morel, French psychiatrist (1857) Degeneration theory also offered an explanation for the origins of mental illness. . . . the condition of the descendants would progressively worsen: the first generation of a degenerating family might only be "nervous," the second would be neurotic, the third psychotic, and the fourth would be imbeciles and die out. By positing that one type of mental disorder could hereditarily give rise to a different and more serious one in the next generation (polymorphic heredity), Morel offered an explanation for almost all mental diseases (Wetzell, 2000, p. 47).

Psychiatrists such as German Krafft-Ebing started to offer degeneration as an explanation for a wide variety of socially condemned behaviors, including crime, prostitution, and homosexuality (Wetzell, 2000, pp. 47-48).

H. Maudsley, British psychiatrist (1874) developed Pritchard's concept further by noting that some individuals seem to lack a moral sense, thereby differentiating what was to become the concept of psychopathy in the more modern sense.

Cesare Lombroso, Italian criminologist and physician, (1876) published L'uomo delinquente (Criminal man). Lombroso argued that criminals were characterized by distinct features, including a smaller skull with certain traits found among animals, a taller body, handle-shaped ears, insensitivity to pain, acute eyesight, and left-handedness (Wetzell, 2000, p. 29).

Lombroso initially characterized the born criminal as a throwback to an earlier evolutionary stage rather than the product of a disease process, but later linked the born criminal to a variety of pathological conditions including Prichard's concept of moral insanity, other signs of degeneration and epilepsy (Wetzell, 2000, p. 30).

E. Kraepelin, a German psychiatrist (1883) published the first edition of the psychiatry textbook that soon became the standard text in the field, going through eight editions over the next thirty years. The book's new classification of mental illnesses, which was based on the course and outcome of an illness rather than its presumed causes, became widely accepted and quickly established Kraepelin as the dean of German psychiatry. In fact, Kraepelin's division of serious mental illnesses into two basic forms, manic depression and schizophrenia, which he called dementia praecox, established the fundamental categories for the classification of mental disorders that is still followed today. . . . Kraepelin called for the medicalization of criminal justice, proposing that the practice of fixed prison sentences be abolished in favor of indefinite detention in institutions modeled on insane asylums (Wetzell, 2000, p. 43).

Kraepelin (1887) The morally insane suffer from congenital defects in their ability to restrain reckless gratification of egotistical desires.

Abraham Baer (1893) The causes of crime were social, not biological—degeneration was frequent among criminals because most criminals were members of the lower classes, among which social conditions had made degeneration rampant (Wetzell, 2000, p. 50).

Paul Nacke (1893) emerged as one of the most prolific writers in the field of criminal anthropology. Nacke attacked Lombroso's entire enterprise and estimated more than half [of habitual criminals] were degenerate and concluded that both crime and insanity were rooted in a degenerate disposition. Whether this disposition would lead to psychosis or criminal behavior depended on the social milieu, which, Nacke insisted, "must be regarded as the decisive cause" (Wetzell, 2000, p. 51).

Hans Kurella, German psychiatrist (1893) insisted that all criminal behavior was biologically determined and categorically rejected all sociological explanations of crime . . . . argued, moral feelings were based on elementary emotions such as joy, pain, and fear, whose relative strength was predetermined by each individual's nervous system. The "criminal disposition" consisted of a particular set of extreme variations in the strength of these affects. Thus the fundamental task of criminal psychology was to investigate criminals' "individual affective disposition," (Wetzell, 2000, p. 52/53).

Kraepelin (1899) Described several forms of psychopathic states of degeneration. Described four types — morbid liars and swindlers who are glib and charming but with a lack of morality or responsibility — the second group of "criminals by impulse" with crimes such as arson, rape and theft, driven by an inability to control their urges — a third group of professional criminals who are disciplined and controlled but manipulative and self-serving and a fourth type — morbid vagabonds, people who lacked self confidence and who wandered through life without taking responsibility.

Julius Koch, German psychiatrist (1888) developed degeneration theory by proposing a classification system for "all those mental irregularities, . . . be they hereditary or acquired, which do not represent mental illnesses, but . . . do not leave their bearer in full possession of his mental normality and capacity." Koch classified all these irregularities under the new title "psychopathic defects," literally "inferiorities", which he divided into three categories of increasing severity: the "psychopathic disposition," which represented "a recognizable mental infirmity"; the "psychopathic taint," characterized "by anomalies in excitability, a lack of harmony, an eccentric, contradictory self, peculiarities, primordial-instinctive impulses and outbursts and something periodic in their behavior"; and finally, "psychopathic degeneration," which was indicated "by a habitual mental weakness either mainly in the intellectual or mainly in the moral realm or in both" (Wetzell, 2000, p. 48).

Koch (1891) proposed the term psychopathic inferiority as an alternative to moral insanity to refer to these individuals. The term psychopathic was used as a label to signify Koch's belief that a physical basis existed for these "constitutional" impairments. For the next 40 years or so, the label psychopathic conveyed Koch's idea that personality was physically rooted/constitutional. At about the same time, the concept of degeneration, taken from French psychiatry, was introduced to explain this behavior. The idea of psychopathy as distinct from other mental disorders began to gain acceptance.

Koch (1894) divided habitual criminals into mentally healthy and mentally abnormal, "psychopathic" individuals. With respect to this last category, he then posed the crucial question whether "the psychopathy of such habitual criminals [merely] creates a general predisposition on the basis of which the milieu can provoke criminal behavior more easily," or whether there might not be "a psychopathic habitual criminal whose pathological constitution makes him disposed toward crime, and drives him to crimes with more or less compelling necessity." In answering this question, Koch agreed with Baer that there were psychopathic individuals whose criminal behavior was primarily caused by external circumstances. But, he argued, there was also a second group, "where the essential cause for habitual criminal behavior lies in the psychopathy itself, where there exists a pathological—congenital or acquired—moral debility and often even a positive inclination and drive toward crime." In short, there were "cases in which immanent pathological characteristics of the individual turn a person into a criminal" (Wetzell, 2000, p. 54).

Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist (1896) best known for refining Kraepelin's diagnosis of dementia praecox and giving it the name "schizophrenia." Bleuler defended Lombroso. Bleuler maintained that [criminals] were set apart by "characterological attributes" such as "moral defects, a lack of inhibition, excessive drives, etc." While Bleuler admitted that criminal psychopathology could not yet describe the different "classes" of criminals in all their forms, one such class could already be defined, namely those characterized by a "defect of moral sentiments." . . . . Bleuler explained: What the born criminal is lacking is not the laws to be instilled, but the possibility of making use of them in the same way as honest people. This defect can be congenital. . . . Since it is primarily emotional resonance, not logical reasoning that determines our behavior, such people have to become criminals as a result of the congenitally defective organization of their brain, which does not allow for the development of ethical sentiments. . . . Those who conclude that there cannot be born criminals because morality is not inborn are guilty of the same fallacy as anyone trying to argue that because language is not inborn, no one can be born deaf. (Wetzell, 2000, p. 58).

Kraepelin (1904) Kraepelin revised his textbook: the section called "Moral Insanity" became "The Born Criminal" and he moved this section from the chapter on "congenital feeblemindedness" to a new chapter on "psychopathic personalities," which he defined as "mental deformities whose pathology was not recognized through changes from an earlier, healthy condition, but through their general deviation from the range of health" (Wetzell, 2000, pp. 59-60).

Kraepelin (1915) Psychopaths described as deficient in either affect or volition, broken into two types — those with a morbid disposition — obsessive, impulsive, sexual deviants and a second group with personality peculiarities. These were divided into seven subgroups: excitable, unstable, impulsive, eccentric, liars and swindlers, antisocial, and quarrelsome. The antisocial personalities in this group were the explicit forerunners of our modern conceptualization.

Adolph Meyer (1904) introduced the concept "constitutionally inferior" to separate psychopathic cases from psychoneurotic disorders — the latter he believed to be psychogenic.

Birnbaum (1909) Appears to be the first to suggest the term sociopathic — that antisocial behavior reflected the operation of social forces that made acceptable forms of behavior difficult to acquire.

Freud never focused specifically on criminal behavior but he emphasized that modern civilization is built upon the suppression of instincts and that each individual must surrender some part of his or her aggressive or vindictive inclination. An individual who has an unyielding constitution and cannot suppress instinct becomes a criminal — unless his social position is high enough or his exceptional activities enable him to be seen as a great man or a hero (the narcissist) — paraphrased from Freud (1908) 'Civilized' sexual morality and modern nervous illness; Penguin Freud Library volume 12. Freud saw a constitutional predisposition to criminality — expressed as a weakness of repression. Freud also distinguished psychopathy as a guiltless crime — the psychopath develops no moral institutions — versus criminals who commit crimes out of a sense of guilt — deliberately creating situations where their punishment will be inevitable expressed as a manifestation of the unconscious guilt. (Fonagy & Target, 1996).

Kretschmer (1925) Described a continuum from schizothyme through schizoid to schizophrenia: an idea that anticipated current thinking about schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The notion of personality disorders as part of a continuum with mental state disorders and the idea that they are distinct nosological entities are themes that continue to influence current conceptions of personality disorder. (Livesley, 2001, p. 4)

Jaspers (1923/1963) Distinguished between personality developments and disease processes. The former are assumed to lead to changes that can be understood from the individual's previous personality, whereas disease processes lead to changes that are not predictable from the inividual's premorbid status. These ideas led to Jaspers's influential proposal that conditions arising from diseases should be seen as categorical — either present or not (Livesley, 2001, p. 5).

Kurt Schneider (1923) described 10 varieties of psychopathic personality: hyperthymic, depressive, insecure (sensitives and anankasts), fanatical, attention seeking, labile, explosive, affectionless, weak-willed, and asthenic. "Within German psychiatry, psychopathic personality did not have the narrow definition ascribed by British or American psychiatry, but rather the term embraced all forms of personality disorder and neurosis. Schneider said that his work was not the study of asocial or delinquent personality. He added that "some psychopathic personalities may act in an antisocial manner but . . . this is secondary to the psychopathy" (p. x). Thus, he avoided the tautology inherent in conceptions of antisocial personality that are defined in term of social deviance whereupon the diagnosis is then used to explain deviant behavior" (Livesley, 2001, p. 5). "Within British and American psychiatry, the concepts of psychopathy and psychopathic personality came to have dissimilar meanings to those proposed by Schneider. Psychopathy was defined more narrowly to describe what we now call antisocial personality disorder, although the two are not synonymous. Descriptions of psychopathy and, later, descriptions of personality disorders, were largely based on clinical observation" (Livesley, 2001, p. 6).

Aichorn (1925). Based on Freud's early views, suggested delinquent children are not disposed to internalize parental norms and thus will be inclined to seek immediate gratification through impulsive behaviors — defects of the superego.

Abraham (1925). Suggested that early pampering of the child leads to insatiable narcissism. In unloved children, antisocial hatred will be generated.

Partridge (1930). Observed that the concepts of psychopathic personality were widely scattered in psychiatric and criminal works. Differentiated psychopathy from antisocial behavior and noted that there is considerable personality deviation which is not expressed through antisocial behavior. "Sociopath" used to emphasize that the person was out of step with society rather than being "internally perverse". The term sociopath gained wide usage in the 50's, 60's and 70's.

Cleckley (1941). The mask of sanity: An attempt to clarify some issues about the so-called psychopathic personality. This is the seminal work upon which the modern era of psychopathy research is based upon. Defined psychopathy using a collection of descriptive personality traits.

Karpman, B. (1941/48). Distinguished between primary psychopaths and secondary "neurotic" psychopaths. Defined the variants of psychopathy to narrow the concept to include only primary psychopathy and to broaden the concept of neurosis to include neurotic secondary psychopathy. Secondary psychopaths' hostile, antisocial behavior was thought to reflect a character neurosis traceable to environmental causes, whereas that of the primary psychopath was thought to reflect the "instinctive emotional organization of a subhuman animal' which is rooted chiefly in constitutional deficits. Secondary psychopaths are capable of responding to psychotherapy because their behavior is based on an underlying conflict and they possess "the original capacity to absorb the elements of moral and ethical training" (p. 458). In contrast, according to Karpman, primary psychopaths are incurable and appropriate for indefinite institutionalization.

The DSM (1952) initiated a shift in American psychiatry to the term sociopath/sociopathy, a trend that permeated in the literature, the term psychopathy falling into disrepute as a pejorative term. This shift was also associated with the new view of the psychopath as an individual who was essentially normal genetically but who had social or environmental disadvantages that created antisocial behavior and therefore supporting the view that these individuals would normalize if given healthy social support. Further confusing the terminology was the subsequent DSM shift in 1980, in the third edition, to the term antisocial personality disorder.

Eysenck (1964). Offered a typical description; psychopaths are individuals ". . .who have manifested considerable difficulty in social adjustment over a period of many years or throughout life, but who are not of defective intelligence nor suffering from structural disease of the brain or epilepsy, and whose difficulties in adjustment have not been manifested by the behavioural syndromes which are conventionally referred to as neuroses or psychoses. Among the symptoms often stressed are defects of emotional control, inability to profit from experience, impulsiveness, lack of foresight, inability to modify infantile standards of conduct, lack of self-reliance, unsatisfactory adjustment to the group, inability to withstand tedium, and irresponsibility of character. They psychopath can usually verbalize all the social and moral rules but he does not seem to be able to understand them and to obey them in the way that others do. This is what Cleckley called the "mask of sanity."

McCord and McCord (1964). Concluded that the two essential features of psychopathy are lovelessness and guiltlessness.

Craft (1965). Considered the primary features of psychopathy to be a lack of feeling, affection, or love for others and a tendency to act on impulse and without forethought. Secondary features, stemming from those two, are aggressiveness, lack of shame or guilt, inability to profit from experience, and lack of appropriate motivation."

Harrington (1972). Pointed out psychopaths tend to be "survivors" and may actually be well equipped to succeed in today's "dog eat dog" society. Psychopaths are found in all walks of life, the professions, politics, business, etc. Essentially a forerunner to Babiak, & Hare's 2006, Snakes in suits, a description of the psychopath in the business setting.

Gray (1975) Gray's two-factor learning theory postulated a behavioral activation system (BAS), a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and a nonspecific arousal system receiving excitatory inputs from both the BAS and the BIS. The BAS initiates behavior in response to conditioned stimuli for reward (approach) or for relieving nonpunishment (active avoidance). The BIS, was viewed as an anxiety system, inhibits behavior in response to cues for punishment (passive avoidance) or frustrative nonreward (extinction), and its activity was thought to be decreased by the anti-anxiety drugs (alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers). People with a normal strong BIS would get into trouble once and learn from it. Gray suggested the BIS is faulty or weak in some psychopaths (thus they feel low fear when in dangerous or high risk situations).

Widom (1978) Primary or classic psychopaths were said to be poorly socialized, impulsive, aggressive, show very low anxiety and show little or no depression. Secondary or neurotic psychopaths are said to be impulsive and undersocialized but show high anxiety, depression and even high levels of guilt.

Fowles (1980) Formulated a theory whereby a BIS which is significantly weaker than the average can be expected to produce a number of clinical characteristics of psychopathy. The most obvious consequences are an absence of anxiety in the presence of normally threatening stimuli and an inability to inhibit behavior in the face of threats of punishment or nonreward. A weakness of behavioral inhibition in this sense will result in strong reward-seeking behavior, which will appear to be impulsive. At the same time, the inability to learn from past punishments (passive avoidance) and nonrewards (extinction) will be seen as an inability to learn from experience and will get the person into trouble with society. At the clinical level, these features include both emotional (lack of anxiety) and behavioral (approach and active avoidance unrestrained by fear of punishment or frustrative nonreward) characteristics.

Hare (1980) Presented the 22 item Psychopathy Checklist (PCL).

J. Reid Meloy (1988, 2001) developed the modern psychoanalytic view of psychopathy. The Psychopathic Mind (1988) approached the issue of causation from multiple perspectives, emphasizing the severe pathological narcissism of the psychopath and his/her biologically-based attachment disorder. A collection of papers he edited, The Mark of Cain: Psychoanalytic Insight and the Psychopath (2001), offered a historical review of past psychoanalytic contributions, although these papers focus more on psychological and environmental factors. Meloy (2007a) writes that "A substantial body of research has shown that, at most, only one out of three patients with antisocial personality disorder has severe psychopathy. . . . Psychopathy is not synonymous with behavioral histories of criminality or the categorical diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, although it is often a correlate of both in severe cases" (pp. 2-3). Meloy (2007b) summarizes his view of the psychopath by underlining three factors: no attachment, underarousal and minimal anxiety. "The more severe the psychopathy, the more psychobiologically rooted is the cause" (Meloy, 2007b, p. 8) and proceeds, on this basis, to separate out the "primary psychopath" from those who, by comparison, seem barely to merit the diagnosis of psychopathy at all. See Carveth (2007).

Hare (1991) Presented the 20 item Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R).

Hare (1993) described psychopathy as: . . . a dark mystery with staggering implications for society. . . . To give you some idea of the enormity of the problem that faces us, consider that there are at least 2 million psychopaths in North America; the citizens of New York City has as many as 100,000 psychopaths among them. And these are conservative estimates. Far from being an esoteric, isolated problem that affects only a few people, psychopathy touches virtually every one of us. . . . the prevalence of psychopathy in our society is about the same as that of schizophrenia. . . . However, the scope of the personal pain and distress associated with schizophrenia is small compared to the extensive personal, social, and economic carnage wrought by psychopaths (p. 2). "A complex — and poorly understood — interplay between biological factors and social forces" (p. 174). Factor 1 characteristics are born within certain people and Factor 2 traits emerge from [a] predisposing "seed" (probably polygenic in nature) regardless of (although not oblivious to) environmental factors. (Porter)

Stone (1993) Like a spoonful of India ink in a jar of water, even a 'little' psychopathy goes a long way in coloring the personality and in determining the life-course. In ordinary, everyday society one encounters with frequency: crooked salesmen, company embezzlers, scam-artists, philanderers, schemers who blackmail their lovers, 'rip-off' cheats of every description, dishonest politicoes, etc. (p. 306)

Lykken (1995) stated that some people have temperaments that make them harder to socialize (harder to raise as children). These children tend to be venturesome, impulsive, aggressive, and less intelligent or less talented (thus more easily frustrated). Lykken feels many of these kids would be "saved" if given the proper family atmosphere. Lykken pointed out psychopaths are people who have some trait or feature (temperament) that prevents them from becoming properly socialized. He said sociopaths are people who are essentially normal psychologically but fail to become socialized because of poor parenting. He advocated licensing for parents equivalent to the standards required by individuals adopting a child.

Hare (1998) wrote: 'The fact is that psychopathy is one of the best-validated clinical constructs in the realm of psychopathology, and arguably the single most important clinical construct in the criminal justice system' (p. 189).

Porter, S. (1996). Suggested the possibility that over time negative childhood environmental experiences can sometimes contribute to deactivation of normal human emotion (certain individuals who are severely traumatized or disillusioned by loved ones might over time learn to "turn off" their emotions as an effective coping mechanism) and eventually lead to a type of secondary psychopathy - a type of dissociative disorder. Despite absence of empathy for others, the volition of secondary (and fundamental) psychopaths is presumably functional. These individuals might represent a population for which early intervention or treatment in adulthood might be beneficial for society.

Gurley, (2009) provided a helpful summary: There is much confusion surrounding the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and its counterparts, psychopathy, and sociopathy. Some individuals refer to the three as the same diagnosis but with different names (e.g., Blackburn, 1988; Rabin, 1986; Stout, 2005). Others differentiate between the three terms in various ways. For example, Lykken (1995, 1998) believes that psychopaths and sociopaths represent subcategories of ASPD. He goes on to state that although psychopaths and sociopaths have similar patterns of behavior, the two are distinct disorders. More specifically, Lykken believes that the personality and behavior of a psychopath is due to a congenital difference in temperament whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to unsocialized character caused by parental failures. In other words, the personality and behavior a psychopath is a result of genetics whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to the environment. Hare's conceptualization of the differences between psychopath and sociopathy is similar to Lykken's (Babiak & Hare, 2006; Hare, 2007). Hare (e.g., 1993, 1996, 2007) does differentiate between psychopathy and ASPD, stating that APSD is characterized by criminal behavior whereas psychopathy is a set of personality traits that can lead to criminal behavior. According to Hare (2008), the consensus in the field of psychology is that psychopathy and ASPD are distinct disorders. . . . [in] DSM-I, 1952, one of the disorders that experienced a name change was psychopathy, which referred to a personality disturbance consisting of traits that have been delineated by Cleckley (1964) including superficial charm, manipulativeness, and irresponsibility (see Cleckley, 1998, for a complete list of criteria). According to Jenkins (1960), the American Psychiatric Association reported that the term, "psychopath" was a poor term that needed to be changed. Their reasoning behind it may have been the confusion of the term psychopathy with psychotic - two similar sounding terms that represent very different disorders. Thus, in the initial edition of the DSM, the disorder formally known as psychopathy became Sociopathic Personality Disorder, Antisocial Reaction (American Psychiatric Association, 1952; Jenkins, 1960). . . . In addition to the Antisocial Reaction, the Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association included criteria for a similar disorder called "Dyssocial Reaction." . . . The distinction between Dyssocial Reaction and Antisocial Reaction is remarkably similar to the distinction some modern day researchers have made between sociopathy and psychopathy (e.g., Lykken, 1995, 1998, see above for description); the etiology of Antisocial Reaction was genetic whereas the etiology of the Dyssocial Reaction was environmental.

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4). Cleckley's core personality traits

Cleckley proposed 16 core personality traits divided into three categories (originally published in 1941, this list is from 1976):

Positive adjustment

1. Superficial charm and good intelligence

2. An absence of delusions & other signs of irrational thinking

3. An absence of "nervousness" or psychopathic manifestations

14. Suicide is rarely carried out because of love of the self

Chronic behavioral deviance

4. Unreliability

7. Inadequately motivated antisocial behavior

8. Poor judgment and failure to learn from previous experiences

13. Fantastic and uninviting behavior with or without alcohol

15. Sex life will be impersonal, trivial, and poorly integrated

16. A failure to follow any kind of life plan

Emotional interpersonal deficits

5. Untruthfulness and insincerity

6. A lack of remorse or shame for their behavior

9. Pathologic egocentricity and incapacity for love

10. General poverty in any major affective reactions or emotions

11. A specific loss of insight

12. A general unresponsiveness to interpersonal relationships

Cleckley is famous for popularizing the phrase "the mask of sanity." "The psychopath, however perfectly he mimics man theoretically, that is to say, when he speaks for himself in words, fails altogether when he is put into the practice of actual living." (Cleckley, p. 370) "The surface of the psychopath, however, that is, all of him that can be reached by verbal exploration and direct examination, shows up as equal to or better than normal and gives no hint at all of a disorder within. Nothing about him suggests oddness, inadequacy, or moral frailty. His mask is that of robust mental health." (Cleckley, p. 383)

In a reaction to the DSM, in 1980, Cleckley's criteria were reduced to five factors by Hare: (1) an inability to develop warm, genuine relationships with others, a lack of empathy and a callous disregard for the rights and feelings of others; (2) an unstable, transient lifestyle, with an absence of long-term commitments or plans; (3) a general inability to accept responsibility for persistent antisocial behavior; (4) an absence of clinically significant intellectual and psychiatric problems; (5) and the presence of weak or unstable behavioral controls. On the basis of these five factors, Hare developed his original 22 item checklist (Hare 1980).

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5). Psychiatric diagnoses/classifications

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual:

For a comprehensive overview of psychopathy in DSM, see Patrick, C. J. (2007).

American Psychiatric Association (1952). (1st ed.). DSM-I was modeled loosely after ICD-6 which for the first time included a section devoted to the classification of mental disorders. Used the term "sociopathic," [Sociopathic Personality Disturbance (Subcategory: Antisocial Reaction)]." (The use of the term "reactions" throughout DSM I was attributable to the influence of Adolph Meyer, who viewed mental disorders as reactions of the personality to biological, social, and psychological factors.) Following earlier conceptualizations of psychopathy, this designation included a broad range of syndromes encompassing sexual deviation of various kinds, addictions, and delinquency. The manual stated that individuals who are to be categorized as sociopathic "are ill primarily in terms of society and of conformity with the prevailing cultural milieu, and not only in terms of personal discomfort and relations with other individuals." The DSM description of sociopathy included many of Cleckley's (1941) personality traits including: a lack of anxiety; lack of guilt; impulsivity; callousness; and lack of accepting responsibility for actions.

American Psychiatric Association (1968). (2nd ed.). Mirrored ICD-8. Used the term 'Personality Disorder, Antisocial Type'. Viewed these individuals as unsocialized having behaviour patterns that bring them repeatedly into conflict with society. "Sociopathy is reserved for individuals who are basically unsocialized. They are incapable of significant loyalty to individuals, groups, or social values. They are grossly selfish, callous, irresponsible, impulsive, and unable to feel guilt or to learn from experience and punishment. Frustration tolerance is low. They tend to blame others and offer plausible rationalizations for their behavior (p. 43)." Retained clinical descriptors, although the manual did not present a uniform listing of character traits. This change was in concordance with clinical tradition, but resulted in much poorer reliability. Sexual deviation, addictions, and delinquent personality types were grouped under a category entitled "personality disorders and certain other non-psychotic mental disorders." Within this category, the term antisocial personality was used for a syndrome corresponding to psychopathy. The features of the syndrome closely resembled those proposed by Cleckley and included weak socialization, incapacity for loyalty, selfishness, callousness, irresponsibility, and absence of guilt. A serious limitation of DSM-II was that the basis for diagnostic classification consisted of prototypical descriptions of each disorder rather than specific, behavior-oriented diagnostic criteria. As a result, the reliability of clinical and research diagnostic classifications used in DSM-II was generally poor. The confusion created for psychiatric classification by diverse concepts led ultimately to DSM-III and the decision to classify personality disorder on a separate axis distinct from other mental disorders and to provide precise descriptions of each diagnosis using specific diagnostic criteria.

American Psychiatric Association (1980). (3rd ed.). (1987). (3rd ed. rev.). DSM-III (1980) listed a number of specific behaviors as criteria for the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), the replacement for the term sociopathy. The clinical construct was no longer defined by personality traits, but rather by a set of specific behavioral criteria. The DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder thus represented a radical departure from the clinical tradition of DSM-I and DSM-II as they focus mainly on antisocial behaviors (Hare's Factor 2) based on the assumption that clinicians cannot validly or reliably assess interpersonal/affective characteristics (Factor 1) [this assumption was one of the main reasons why Hare developed the PCL]. Andrade: Easy to assess behavioral traits result in an over-inclusive, but a reliably measured construct. The core personality attributes of psychopathy were no longer included in the criteria. The criteria for APD adopted within DSM-III focused exclusively on behavioral indicants of deviance in childhood and adulthood, including such things as truancy, delinquency, stealing, vandalism, irresponsibility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, recklessness, and lying. As a function of this change, the DSM-III diagnosis of antisocial personality proved to be highly reliable. Some effort was made to respond to criticisms of the 3rd edition in the revised third edition by the addition of lack of remorse (i.e. "feels justified in having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another," p. 346) as an adult criterion for APD. The changes made in DSM-III led to an expanded clinical and research focus that resulted in a substantial increase in publications on personality disorder over the last decade (Blashfield & McElroy, 1987; Livesley, 2001, p. 6).

American Psychiatric Association (1994). (4th ed.). (2000). (4th ed., text revision). Continues to emphasize the behavioral characteristics of this disorder. The DSM-IV defines ASPD as a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three (or more) of seven criteria. The DSM-IV includes the following statement: "This pattern has also been referred to as psychopathy, sociopathy, or dissocial personality disorder" (p. 645). This increases diagnostic confusion as the research literature discriminates between psychopathy and ASPD (Hare, 1991/2003); while the DSM-IV indicates that these terms are synonymous.

Current Diagnostic criteria for 301.7 Antisocial Personality Disorder (4th ed., text revision).

A. There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

B. The individual is at least age 18 years.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode.

DSM-5 Proposed Revision:

The work group is recommending that this disorder be reformulated as the Antisocial/Psychopathic Type.

Individuals who resemble this personality disorder type seek power over others and will manipulate, exploit, deceive, con, or otherwise take advantage, in order to inflict harm or to achieve their goals. An arrogant, self-centered, and entitled attitude is pervasive, along with callousness and little empathy for others' needs or feelings. Rights, property, or safety of others is disregarded, with little or no remorse or guilt if others are harmed. Emotional expression is mostly limited to irritability, anger, and hostility; acknowledgement and articulation of other emotions, such as love or anxiety, are rare. There is little insight into motivations and an impaired ability to consider alternative interpretations of experience.

Temperamental aggression and a high threshold for pleasurable excitement are typically associated with this type, linked to reckless sensation-seeking behaviors, impulsivity without regard for consequences, and a sense of invulnerability. Unlawful or unethical behavior is often pursued, including substance abuse and physical violence. Aggressive or sadistic acts are common in pursuit of personal agendas, and sometimes pleasure or satisfaction is derived from humiliating, demeaning, dominating, or hurting others. Superficial charm and ingratiation may be employed to achieve certain ends, and there is disregard for conventional moral principles. General irresponsibility about work obligations or financial commitments is commonly present, as well as problems with authority figures.

Instructions: Rate the patient's personality using the 5-point rating scale shown below. Circle the number that best describes the patient's personality.

5 Very Good Match: patient exemplifies this type

4 Good Match: patient significantly resembles this type

3 Moderate Match: patient has prominent features of this type

2 Slight Match: patient has minor features of this type

1 No Match: description does not apply

Above from: http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=16

ICD-10 system (used in Europe)

From the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1992;

F60.2 Dissocial (Antisocial) Personality Disorder:

Personality disorder, usually coming to attention because of a gross disparity between behavior and the prevailing social norms, and characterized by at least 3 of the following:

There may also be persistent irritability as an associated feature. Conduct disorder during childhood and adolescence, though not invariably present, may further support the diagnosis.

Includes: * amoral, antisocial, asocial, psychopathic, and sociopathic personality (disorder)

Excludes: * conduct disorders * emotionally unstable personality disorder

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6). Hare's (1970) Psychopathic Categories

-The Primary Psychopath

-The Secondary, or Neurotic, Psychopath

-The Dyssocial Psychopath: "Dyssocial psychopaths can be said to have come about primarily due to Bandura's Social Learning Theory and his model for observational learning. They were effectively made antisocial by their environment."

[Confusion in terminology — the term dyssocial psychopath as used by American researchers basically refers to a syndrome of antisocial behavior. This usage of dyssocial is not the same as the ICD-10 diagnosis of dyssocial personality disorder which resembles the concept of primary psychopathy.]

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7). Hare's 1980 Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)

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8). Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

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9). Hare's two and four factor models

Early research divided these 20 items into two factors: analyses using The Psychopathy Checklist, by Harpur, Hare and Hakstian (1989, p. 7) identified Factor 1 reflecting affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy, and Factor 2 reflecting the lifestyle and antisocial features of the disorder.

Factor 1: Selfish, callous, and remorseless use of others [affective and interpersonal traits]

Factor 2: Chronically unstable and antisocial life-style; social deviance [lifestyle and antisocial behavior, correspond closely to APD/DSM-III criteria.]

Hare's four factor model:

More recent factor analytic studies have proposed a four-factor model of psychopathy as measured by the PCL-R (Hare, 2003, Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007), the PCL: SV (Vitacco, Neumann, & Jackson, 2005), and the PCL: YV Neumann, Kosson, Forth, & Hare, 2005). In this model, each of the original factors is divided into two dimensions: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial).

Factor 1). The Interpersonal Dimension:

Individuals with psychopathic traits are commonly characterized by a smooth interpersonal style and an ability to effectively manipulate others. Although they may be quite straightforward and direct at times, they are prone to use deception under a variety of circumstances and may be quite adept at fooling others, getting out of trouble, and persuading others to do what they want. Such individuals also tend to be interpersonally dominant and even arrogant, at times exuding tremendous self-confidence and an exaggerated sense of their abilities or influence. Even so, just as there are many different ways to influence an impression, different individuals with psychopathic traits may differ widely in their usual interpersonal style, and the same individuals may differ substantially in their presentation to different people in different situations.

Psychopaths can be characterized as having an "arrogant and deceitful interpersonal style"

Factor 2). The Affective Dimension:

Although often not obvious at first, the behavior of individuals with psychopathic traits frequently suggests that they are less impacted by emotional experiences than are others. Part of what makes this lack of emotional reactivity difficult to detect is that everyone displays emotion in different ways. Some people show emotion on their faces and in their voices; some respond with physical signs of arousal, and some do not. Moreover, although some individuals with psychopathic features may tell you directly that they do not care about other people, others will indicate that they are very upset upon learning that a friend or relative has experienced stress, failure, injury, or illness. However, there may be few signs that they are slowed down, preoccupied, or distracted by such events. In fact, some individuals with psychopathic traits will argue that interpersonal relationships are very important to them: they demonstrate their lack of attachment only through their actions, deceiving and hurting those who appear closest to them with little appreciation for the impact of their behavior on others. Moreover, when things go wrong, they are often adept at explaining the chain of events in a way that leaves them with no responsibility for negative outcomes.

Psychopaths can be characterized as having a "deficient affective experience"

Factor 3). The Lifestyle Dimension:

People with psychopathic traits often neglect their commitments and responsibilities to others. Sometimes, they may decide to change partners or jobs impulsively or even act in ways that seem to undercut their own priorities. In other cases, they consistently verbalize commitment to others, but their behavior suggests otherwise. They may have difficulty resisting exciting opportunities or an irresistible need for stimulation that somehow eclipses prior promises or plans, or they may have difficulty tolerating mundane jobs or sticking with routines. In some cases, individuals with psychopathic traits may demonstrate an unwillingness to support themselves financially. Regardless of the reasons, they tend over time to fail to meet commitments (e.g., paying bills, contributing resources, honoring marital and business contracts) and behave in ways that put others at risk either willfully, recklessly, or through inattention to the needs of others.

Psychopaths can be characterized as having an "impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style"

Factor 4). The Antisocial Dimension:

The antisocial dimension is associated not with criminal behavior per se, but with early, versatile, and persistent antisocial behavior that often is extremely distressing and frustrating for others. However, individuals with psychopathic features are more likely than others to commit offenses, including violent offenses. Their criminal activities tend to be persistent and generalized, not confined to only one type of offense. In addition, although some of their criminal activities may involve substantial planning, some of their crimes often seem impulsive or even careless. Part of the reason for such crimes is that many psychopathic offenders display poor frustration tolerance and difficulty controlling their anger. They are likely to over-react to provocations and to obstacles that block their immediate goals, and this reactivity represents an important caveat to the above description of a lack of emotional reactivity; their general lack of emotionality should not be construed as suggesting that individuals with psychopathic qualities are necessarily easy-going or immune to frustrations. In addition, several studies suggest that psychopathic offenders are more prone than other offenders to violate the rules of probation, parole, and correctional and treatment facilities. Their persistent rule-violations and criminal activity appear quite useful in identifying psychopaths within offender samples. Although there have been few studies addressing the importance of these features in non-offender samples, the available research is consistent with clinical lore about individuals with psychopathic personalities who do not break the law.

Not all researchers agree about the centrality of the antisocial factor: a three-factor model in which the antisocial dimension is omitted has been proposed (Cooke, Michie, Hart, & Clark, 2004).

To a large extent, Hare says psychopaths can be dichotomized as:

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10). Hare's white collar criminal:

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11). Other classifications and terminology used to describe psychopathy

Other classification Groupings

Inadequate psychopaths:

Form a high risk sub group for acting-out (self-harm). Generally, the more inadequate the person's level of functioning/personality, the more the risk of self-harm (particularly when upset and/or under high stress). Inadequate psychopaths tend to be more impulsive and may show little respect for their bodies (slash marks, burns, "jailhouse" tattoos, etc). They tend to lack social skills and intelligence and they are basically very vulnerable to complex situations, to pressure or to stress. They perform poorly when in ambiguous situations or situations requiring complex decision making and judgement. It is common for these persons to act out violently against themselves when frustrated or when backed into a corner: the "cornered rat syndrome." Slashing is a common method of relieving frustration and gaining a feeling of control.

Schizoid psychopaths

Raine has described a group of individuals who display a combination of moderate psychopathic traits with schizotypal traits. These individuals display strong impulsivity, lack of planning and a poorly integrated lifestyle.

Machiavellianism:

McHoskey, J. W., Worzel, W., & Szyarto, C. (1998). It is concluded that the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy in noninstitutionalized populations (i.e., one that assesses but confounds both primary and secondary psychopathy) and that the primary differences between MACH and psychopathy are not traceable to substantive theoretical issues but to the different professional affiliations they are associated with: personality and social psychology and clinical psychology, respectively. . . . The results provide strong support for our hypothesis and indicate that MACH is associated with psychopathy in general and with both primary and secondary psychopathy specifically. Thus, the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy that assesses but confounds both the unique and common sources of variance associated with primary and secondary psychopathy.

The dark triad: (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy)

Represent correlated subclinical personality traits capturing "dark personalities." (for example, Hodson et al., 2009; Paulhus, and Williams, 2002; Wai, 2012)

Callous-unemotional traits:

Frick, P., & White, S. (2008). The importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior.

Barry, C T, Frick, P J, DeShazo, T M, McCoy, M G, Ellis, M, Loney, B R. (2000) The importance of callous-unemotional traits for extending the concept of psychopathy to children.

Other

Traditionally, the terms psychopath and antisocial personality disorder have not been used for individuals under the age of 18. Instead, several other terms and traits are associated with children and adolescents that are often linked with the eventual development of adult psychopathy. These terms include: interpersonal callousness (IC), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IN), and conduct problems (CP) and impulsivity.

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12). Testing

Hare's tests:

Hare has generated a very lucrative business by selling his tests for use in forensic assessment — a potential conflict of interest with his research?

A). The Psychopathy Checklist (PCL). Original 22 item test, now outdated but seen in original research (Hare, 1980).

B). The Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). 20 items, based on a semi-structured interview and collateral information. Takes several hours to complete. 3-point scale scored for each item, scores range from 0 to 40. Based on criteria outlined by Cleckley (1976). (Hare, 1991; Hart, Hare, & Harpur, 1992).

C). The Psychopathy Checklist Screening version (PCL:SV).

The screening version has 12 items. Anyone can use the PCL:SV but I think you are advised that high scores should then be checked by the more detailed PCL-R version (hence the screening function of the PCL:SV). To use the PCL-R, technically, you have to have Hare's training program. References for the screen: Cooke, Michie, Hart, & Hare, 1999; Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995; Hart, Hare, & Forth, 1994.

Test Scores:

D). Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) (Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). The PCL:YV is a 20-item rating scale for the assessment of psychopathic traits in male and female offenders, ages 12-18 years. Based on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R), the PCL:YV uses a semistructured interview and collateral information to measure interpersonal, affective, and behavioral features of psychopathy. It yields dimensional scores for clinical purposes, and also may be used to classify individuals into groups for research purposes.

E). P-SCAN

F). Business-Scan (B-SCAN) (B-Scan 360), an instrument that screens for psychopathic tendencies in managers. The B-Scan instrument is designed to identify developmental needs in management and supervisory staff. The B-Scan assesses the degree to which a person responds to challenges to organizational responsibility and effectiveness as expressed in his or her behaviors, attitudes, and judgments.

Characteristics assessed are:

G). Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale (Hare, 1985, 1991) a 60-item self-report measure based on the theoretical underpinnings of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

H). Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) (Frick & Hare, 2001). 20 item self-report version for children and adolescents.

Other tests used to assess psychopathy:

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13). Some Notable Books on Psychopathy:

Babiak, P., & Hare, R. D. (2006). Snakes in suits: When psychopaths go to work. New York: HarperCollins.

Blair, R. J. R., Mitchell, D., & Blair, K. (2005), The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Boddy, C. R. (2011). Corporate Psychopaths: Organisational Destroyers. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Brown, P. (with Andelman, B.) (2010). The Profiler: My Life Hunting Serial Killers and Psychopaths. Hyperion e-books.

Brown, S. L. (2009). Women Who Love Psychopaths: Inside the Relationships of Inevitable Harm with Psychopaths, Sociopaths and Narcissists (2nd ed.). Penrose, NC: Mask.

Cleckley, H. (1976). The Mask of Sanity, 5th ed. St. Louis IL: Mosby.

Dutton, K. (2012). The Wisdom of Psychopaths. Toronto, Canada: Doubleday.

Gacono, C. B. (Ed.). (2000). The Clinical and Forensic Assessment of Psychopathy: A Practitioner's Guide (Personality and Clinical Psychology Series). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hakkanen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, Jan-Olof (Eds.). (2012). Psychopathy and Law: A Practitioner's Guide. Malden, MA: Wiley.

Hare, R. D. (1970). Psychopathy, Theory & Research. New York: Wiley.

Hare, R. D. (1999). Without conscience: the disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: The Guilford Press.

Kantor, M. (2006). The psychopathy of everyday life: How antisocial personality disorder affects all of us. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Lykken, D. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Malatesti, L. & McMillan, J. (Eds.) (2010). Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego: Academic Press.

Ronson, J. (2011). The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. New York: Riverhead.

Schouten, R., & Silver, R. (2012). Almost a Psychopath: Do I (or Does Someone I Know) Have a Problem with Manipulation and Lack of Empathy? Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Stout, M. (2005). The sociopath next door. New York: Broadway Books.

Verplaetse, J. (2009). Localizing the Moral Sense: Neuroscience and the Search for the Cerebral Seat of Morality, 1800-1930. New York, NY: Springer.

Waller, S. (Ed.). (2010). Serial Killers: Philosophy for Everyone - Being and Killing. Malden, MA: Wiley.

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14). Recent Handbooks on Psychopathy:

Herve, H, & Yuille, J, (Eds.) (2007). The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Millon, T., Simonsen, E., Birket-Smith, M., & Davis, R. D. (Eds.) (1998). Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

Patrick, C. J. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of psychopathy. New York: Guilford.

Salekin, R.T. & Lynam, D. R (Eds.) (2010). Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy. New York: Guilford.

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15). Recent Journal Special issues on psychopathy:

Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 21(6), 2003

Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22(1), 2004

Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28(2), 2010

Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(2), 2008

Emotion Review, 3(3), 2011

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4) 2005

Neuroethics, 1(3), 2008

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16). Prevalence of APD and psychopathy:

Hare says that in forensic populations, "the base rate for psychopathy, as defined by the PCL-R, is much lower (15-25%) than the base rate for APD (50% to 75%)" (Hare, 1998, p. 193). He also says that the figure is "perhaps 1% of the general population" (Hare, 1998, p. 196).

Coid (1998) says that APD has a lifetime (community) prevalence of 2 - 3% in the United States, Canada and New Zealand. He also quotes a 1988 study by Hare's group that 30% of male prisoners score 34 or more on the PCL (p. 437). He goes on that "Hare (1991) has estimated that 23% of adult male prisoners in North America are psychopathic according to ratings on the PCL-R, his evidence for this estimation is not entirely clear" (p. 438). Surveys of Canadian Federal offenders show that using the most stringent criteria, some 56.9% of offenders are classified as antisocial personality disorder; using "wide" criteria the figure is 74.9% (Motiuk and Porporino, 1991).

Cooke (1998, p. 263) says that for prison populations, ANorth American estimates include Guze's (1976) figure of 78%, and Hare's (1991) estimate (from a range of samples using the comparatively strict PCL-R-based definitions) of 28% psychopaths (i.e., PCL-R scores of 30 or above), with a further 44% displaying significant psychopathic traits (i.e., scoring between 20 and 29 on the PCL-R).

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17). Criminal responsibility of psychopaths

Some jurisdictions have used the designation of psychopathy as a mitigator of responsibility reflected in sentencing, often leading to more substantial sentences. There continues to be a great deal of controversy over this issue as the recent special issue of Neroethics points out:

Blair, R. J. R. (2008). Functional impairments disrupt appropriate moral socialization and impair decision-making. They also put the individual at increased risk for frustration based reactive aggression. As such, from some perspectives [55], it can be argued that the functional impairments seen in psychopathy diminish responsibility.

Glannon, W. (2008). Psychopathy likely involves enough cognitive and moral responsibility and affective impairment to rule out full responsibility, but not partial responsibility.

Maibom, M. L. (2008). Being a psychopath does not count as an excuse since it would contravene the entire point of our legal system to exculpate the bad.

Morse, S. J. (2008). Psychopaths are not morally responsible and do not deserve blame and punishment. At present, psychopathy is not a treatable condition, so all psychopaths who commit non-trivial crimes would be subject to potentially life-long involuntary civil commitment if they are excused by reason of legal insanity.

Reimer, M. (2008). How, in particular, are we to approach the question of psychopathy's status as a disorder, without being influenced—perhaps in the wrong direction—by the language in which the relevant data are formulated?

Vincent, N. A. (2008). An attempt to address Reimer's difficult and important question; argues that irrespective of which of these two characterizations is chosen, our judgments about psychopaths' responsibility should not be affected, because responsibility hinges not on whether a particular difference is (referred to as) a disorder or not, but on how that difference affects the mental capacities required for moral agency.

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18). Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Activation System (BAS)

When faced with a forbidden reward (you see the open cash register), both systems are normally activated. In the normal person, the BAS moves the person towards taking the money but when you reach for it, the BIS kicks in and you don't take the money. It is easy to see how this balance could be tipped.

Impulsive behaviour results from either too strong BAS activity or too weak BIS activity. Two types of psychopath can be described. The weak BIS, low fear (low emotion) person and the strong BAS, high anxiety type.

Combinations of a weak BIS and a strong BAS in a person would lead to a powerful situation predisposing frequent trouble.

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19). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

These techniques are often used in psychopathy research.

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are two statistical approaches used to examine the internal reliability of a measure.

Both are used to investigate the theoretical constructs, or factors, that might be represented by a set of items.

Either can assume the factors are uncorrelated, or orthogonal.

Both are used to assess the quality of individual items.

Both can be used for exploratory or confirmatory purposes.

With EFA, researchers usually decide on the number of factors by examining output from a principal components analysis (i.e., eigenvalues are used). With CFA, the researchers must specify the number of factors a priori.

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to assess the number of factors and the loadings of variables. In contrast to exploratory factor analysis, where all loadings are free to vary, CFA allows for the explicit constraint of certain loadings to be zero.

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20). Bibliography

Abbott, A. (2001). Into the mind of a killer. Nature, 410(6826), 296-298. doi: 10.1038/35066717 Brain imaging studies are starting to venture into the legal minefield of research into criminal psychopathy. Alison Abbott reports from one of the most controversial frontiers of neuroscience. . . . Today, many psychiatrists accept that some people who fall foul of the criminal justice system suffer from a condition — psychopathy — that is as much an illness as, for example, schizophrenia. Environmental factors may help to determine whether this 'illness' is expressed in the form of violent, criminal behaviour, but a growing number of experts argue that the underlying condition is biological. "More and more data are leading to the conclusion that psychopathy has a biological basis, and has many features of a disease," says Sabine Herpertz, a psychiatrist at the RWTH-Aachen University in Germany." . . . psychopaths are part of the larger group of antisocial personality disorder. . . . an estimated three quarters of prison populations to fill the criteria for antisocial personality and a quarter or more exceed a score of 30 making them true psychopaths. . . . advances in understanding the biology of psychopathy are important and may lead to pharmacological intervention.

Abbott, A. (2007). Abnormal neuroscience: Scanning psychopaths, Nature, 450(7172), 942-944. doi:10.1038/450942a Are their brains not wired to feel what others feel, or do they just not care? Alison Abbott joins researchers looking into normal neurobiology through the scope of psychopathy. . . . "Some psychopathic features are not necessarily a bad thing for society — in some professions they may even help, says Hare. "Too much empathy, for example on the part of a police officer or a politician would interfere with the job." . . . psychopaths lack empathy

Abbott, J. H. (1981). In the Belly of the Beast. New York: Vintage Books. An edited compilation of letters exchanged between Norman Mailer and inmate Jack Henry Abbott.

Adshead, G. (2003), Measuring moral identities: psychopaths and responsibility. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 10(2), 185-7. doi:10.1353/ppp.2003.0086 Doctor Ciocchetti examines the responsibility of psychopaths as a function of psychological capacities operating within relationships. He then argues against the punishment of psychopaths. I have some sympathy with both views, but perhaps argued in different ways, and from different standpoints, based on my clinical experience. Doctor Ciocchetti's offers an unusual account of responsibility as a concept that involves at least two people, and perhaps many more than two; and this I would entirely support. In this sense, responsibility is a transitive and dynamic process that involves not only the personal sense of ownership of an action or thought, but also the attribution of responsibility by others. Moral, when applied to intentions, seems to me to suggest that they are intentions that involve another person and that they are held by an active agent who can make choices about those intentions. Responsibility implies not only causal responsibility, but also that the actor owns his own intentions about his behaviors toward others. Responsibility, either as experienced by the actor or attributed by others, is a type of moral judgment; an exercise in moral reasoning.

Aharoni, E., Antonenko, O., & Kiehl, K. A. (2011). Disparities in the moral intuitions of criminal offenders: The role of psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(3), 322-327. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.02.005 The present study examined whether and in what ways psychopathy is associated with abnormal moral intuitions among criminal offenders. Using Haidt et al.'s Moral Foundations Questionnaire, 222 adult male offenders assessed for clinical psychopathy reported their degree of support for five moral domains: Harm Prevention, Fairness, Respect for Authority, Ingroup Loyalty, and Purity/Sanctity. As predicted, psychopathy total score explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reduced support for Harm Prevention and Fairness, but not the other domains. These results confirm that psychopathy entails a discrete set of moral abnormalities and suggest that these abnormalities could potentially help to explain the characteristic antisocial behavior of individuals with psychopathy.

Ali, F., Sousa, I. A., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009). Empathy deficits and trait emotional intelligence in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(7), 758-762. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.016 This study investigated the relationships between psychopathy (primary and secondary), Machiavellianism, trait emotional intelligence and empathy, using an image task that required an appropriate empathic response to the emotional displays of others (happy, sad and neutral). Results indicated that primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were positively associated with the experience of positive affect from sad stimuli, while secondary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were positively associated with the experience of negative affect in response to neutral stimuli, and the opposite pattern was found for trait emotional intelligence. Regressional analyses demonstrated that secondary psychopathy, Machiavellianism, trait emotional intelligence and state anxiety are important predictors when stimuli are ambiguous.

Alison, L., West A., & Goodwill, A. (2004). The academic and the practitioner: Pragmatists' views of offender profiling. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10(1/2), 71-101. doi: 10.1037/1076-8971.10.1/2.71 Pragmatic psychology, as outlined by D. Fishman (1999), serves as the inspiration for this article's recommendation to integrate the currently opposing factions within offender profiling. These factions have variously been referred to as "inductive/ deductive," "statistical/clinical," or "academic/practitioner" approaches. This article outlines how the separation into different factions is both misrepresentative and needlessly divisive and thus undermines the potential contribution of behavioral science to the investigative endeavor. Through a case study, the article illustrates how a pragmatist's approach would encourage a more productive and synergistic dialogue between the camps. This, in turn, may lead to the creation of a useful and productive archive that would facilitate the professionalization of what has too often seemed an ill-formed forensic discipline. . . . Fishman's argument is, in essence, that both the systematic collection of detailed case studies and the cumulative analysis of this material to extract broad trends are mutually beneficial to both the academic and practitioner. . . . there have been few efforts to validate profile classifications.

Amato, J. M., Cornell, D. G., & Xitao, F. (2004). Adolescent psychopathy: Factor structure and correspondence with the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Poster. Virginia Youth Violence Project. Retrieved from http://youthviolence.edschool.virginia.edu

Amato, J. M., Cornell, D. G., & Xitao, F. (2008). Adolescent psychopathy: Factor structure and correspondence with the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(3), 294-310. doi:10.1177/0093854807311334 This study compared five proposed factor models of psychopathy in a sample of 227 adolescent incarcerated offenders and psychiatric inpatients. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that both Cooke and Michie's three-factor model and a four-factor parceled solution using Hare's four factors provided excellent fit. The original two-factor model and the three- and four-factor models from the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version manual provided inadequate fit. Correlational analyses revealed a meaningful pattern of statistically significant relationships between psychopathy factor scores and several factor scores on the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Regression analyses indicated that Hare's antisocial factor (Factor 4) provided incremental validity beyond other psychopathy factors in predicting scores on the MACI antisocial-delinquent factor.-used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results indicated that the models proposed by Cooke and Michie (2001) and Hare (2003) provided good fit to the data when parcels, rather than individual items, were used as indicators. . . . However, even if there is no clearly "best" model, researchers may evaluate how useful they are by assessing their correspondence with external criteria. Studies should go beyond C analyses by examining the external validity of the psychopathy factors that they generate.

American Psychiatric Association (1952). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (1st ed.). Washington, DC: Mental Hospital Services. From Schneiderman 1996: as early as 1952 the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: Mental Disorders (DSM-I) used the term "sociopathic," [Sociopathic Personality Disturbance] substituting it for the term "psychopathic." The manual stated that individuals who are to be categorized as sociopathic "are ill primarily in terms of society and of conformity with the prevailing cultural milieu, and not only in terms of personal discomfort and relations with other individuals." . . . Andrade: The DSM description of sociopathy included many of Cleckley's (1941) personality traits including: a lack of anxiety; lack of guilt; impulsivity; callousness; and lack of accepting responsibility for actions. . . . Ogloff 2006 'Sociopathic Personality Disorders' (Subcategory: Antisocial Reaction) [this appears to be a mistake, the term disorders was not used it should have been disturbance]

American Psychiatric Association (1968). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Andrade: The DSM-II (APA, 1968) retained the clinical descriptors of the psychopath, although lacked a uniform listing of character traits. This change was in concordance with clinical tradition, but resulted in much poorer reliability. Clinicians using the DSM-II were guided by the above descriptors, but no guidelines for diagnosis were included. . . . Ogloff 2006 'Personality Disorder, Antisocial Type'. Basically unsocialized and whose behaviour patterns bring them repeatedly into conflict with society. They are incapable of significant loyalty to individuals, groups or social values. They are grossly selfish, callous, irresponsible, impulsive, and unable to feel guilt or to learn from experience or punishment. Frustration tolerance is low. They tend to blame others or offer a plausible rationalization for their behaviour

American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Andrade: The DSM-III (1980) and its revision DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) dramatically shifted from its preceding text with the replacement of sociopathy to the new diagnostic category: Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). This clinical construct was no longer defined by personality traits, as in the clinical tradition of psychopathy, but rather by a set of behavioral criteria. . . . Easy to assess behavioral traits result in an over inclusive, but reliably measured construct. The core personality attributes of psychopathy are no longer included in the criteria.

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Andrade: continues to emphasize the behavioral characteristics of this disorder. The DSM-IV defines ASPD as a pervasive patter of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three (or more) of seven criteria. The DSM-IV includes the following statement: "This pattern has also been referred to as psychopathy, sociopathy, or dissocial personality disorder" (p. 645). This increases diagnostic confusion as the research literature discriminates between psychopathy and ASPD (Hare, 1991/2003); while the DSM-IV indicate that these terms are synonymous.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author. . . . Ogloff 2006 the criteria for Antisocial PD are as follows: • Evidence of conduct disorder before age 15 years • pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others since the age of 15 years, as indicated by three or more of the following: 1. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviours, as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest; 2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure; 3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; 4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults; 5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others; 6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honour financial obligations; and 7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another. . . . Ogloff 2006 The problem with the current DSM-IV-TR criteria, as compared with the criteria that appeared in the DSM-II or the Cleckley criteria, is that they are based largely on behavioural symptoms and do not reflect the rich clinical descriptions of psychopathy and its progeny.

Andershed, H., Hodgins, S., & Tengstrom, A. (2007). Convergent validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) association with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). Assessment, 14(2), 144-154. doi: 10.1177/1073191106298286 This study investigates the relationship between the self-report Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and the clinician-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). A representative sample of 92 girls and 70 boys, 12 to 20 years of age (mean age, 17 years), who received services at a clinic for adolescents with substance misuse problems, was studied. Moderate correlations (r =.30—.51) were found between conceptually corresponding YPI and PCL:YV factor scores among both boys and girls, whereas correlations between individual subscales of the YPI and items of the PCL:YV were not as consistent. A cross-tabulation of groupings based on the three-factor models of the two instruments largely supported the categorical convergent validity of the YPI, particularly for low and high scorers. Although more studies with larger samples are needed, results indicate that the YPI is a cost-effective measure of psychopathic traits in adolescents in research settings. . . . In conclusion, the results of the present study are largely supportive of the convergent validity of the YPI as a measure of psychopathic traits among adolescents.

Anderson, N. E., & Kiehl, K. A. (2012). The psychopath magnetized: Insights from brain imaging. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(1), 52-60. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.11.008

Anderson, S. W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2(11), 1032-1037. doi:10.1038/14833 The long-term consequences of early prefrontal cortex lesions occurring before 16 months were investigated in two adults. As is the case when such damage occurs in adulthood, the two early onset patients had severely impaired social behavior despite normal basic cognitive abilities, and showed insensitivity to future consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment contingencies and failure to respond to behavioral interventions. Unlike adult-onset patients, however, the two patients had defective social and moral reasoning, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. Thus early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy.

Andrade, J. T. (2008). The inclusion of antisocial behavior in the construct of psychopathy: A review of the research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(4), 328-335. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.05.001 The psychopathic personality, or the construct of this disorder, has a long and contentious history. Psychopathy has been identified anecdotally for centuries; however, the ability to accurately define this construct continues to challenge researchers and clinicians. Of preliminary concern is the relevance of antisocial behavior to this disorder. Theoretical conceptualizations of psychopathy have changed over the past 65 years. Some have stressed the interpersonal and affective deficits of psychopathy [Cleckley, H. (1941). The mask of sanity (1st ed.). St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby.], while later conceptualizations have included both personality traits as well as antisocial behavior as criteria of psychopathy [Hare, R. D. (1991/2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. This article will review the literature, particularly the relevance of antisocial behavior to the core personality structure of the psychopath. In doing so, historical theories will be reviewed, followed by later theoretical and empirical research. A great deal of this research has been conducted over the past 15 years, since the publication of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; [Hare, R. D. (1991/2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]). The PCL-R has provided the field of psychopathy research with a consistent measurement device, and, therefore will be discussed at length. The limitations of the psychopathy construct will be discussed as well as needed future research and the policy implications of such research. . . . good review of the history of the term. . . . good discussion of Robert Hare's factors

Andrade, J. T. (Ed). (2009). Handbook of violence risk assessment and treatment: New approaches for forensic mental health professionals. New York: Springer. Violence risk assessment requires a well-formulated and comprehensive risk management plan. Andrade and the authors present that plan, and demonstrate how it can be clearly implemented in practice. With numerous clinical case studies, this book illustrates the process of conducting violence risk assessments, outlines the tools used in these evaluations, and explains how information is translated into an overall assessment and guide for future risk management.

Andrade, J. T. (2009). Psychopathy: Assessment, treatment, and risk management. In J. T. Andrade, (Ed). (2009). Handbook of violence risk assessment and treatment: New approaches for forensic mental health professionals, (pp. 241-290). New York: Springer.

Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct (3rd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

Archer, J. (2006). Testosterone and human aggression: an evaluation of the challenge hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(3), 319-345. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.12.007 Research on testosterone-behavior relationships in humans is assessed in relation to a version of the challenge hypothesis, originally proposed to account for testosterone-aggression associations in monogamous birds. Predictions were that that testosterone would rise at puberty to moderate levels, which supported reproductive physiology and behavior. Sexual arousal and challenges involving young males would raise testosterone levels further. In turn, this would facilitate direct competitive behavior, including aggression. When males are required to care for offspring, testosterone levels will decrease. Testosterone levels will also be associated with different behavioral profiles among men, associated with life history strategies involving emphasis on either mating or parental effort. Most of these predictions were supported by the review of current research, although most studies were not designed to specifically test the challenge hypothesis.

Arrigo, B. A., & Shipley, S. (2001). The confusion over psychopathy (I): Historical considerations. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45(3), 325-344. doi: 10.1177/0306624X01453005 This article is the first in a two-part series on psychopathy. Psychopathy is an elusive and perplexing psychological construct. Problems posed by this mental disorder are linked to changing historical interpretations impacting the current clinical community's general understanding of it, especially in relation to Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). Accordingly, the researchers provide a thorough analytical review of the major transitions associated with psychopathy's historical development. This assessment demonstrates where and how the nomenclature, meaning, degree of social condemnation, and prognosis for this mental disorder have changed. Ultimately, this article clarifies much of the uncertainty surrounding this misunderstood psychological construct. . . . Indeed, some researchers invoke descriptors for psychopathy, implying that the individual experiences morality problems that are solely personality based (e.g., Craft, 1966; Dinges, Atlis,&Vincent, 1998; Millon et al., 1998), exclusively congenitally or biologically derived (Ellard, 1988; Schneider, 1958; Smith, 1978), or principally behaviorally grounded (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Moreover, notwithstanding these interpretations, Hare's (1996) empirical and qualitative findings consistently demonstrate that the psychopath has distinctive affective, interpersonal, and behavioral attributes. . . . excellent review of the history of the concept

Asscher, J. J., van Vugt, E. S., Stams, G. J. J. M., Dekovic, M., Eichelsheim, V. I., & Yousfi, S. (2011). The relationship between juvenile psychopathic traits, delinquency and (violent) recidivism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Research Review: Psychopathy and delinquency, no-no. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02412.x A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator effects revealed that various study and participant characteristics influenced the strength of the association between psychopathy, delinquency, and (violent) recidivism. It was concluded that screening for the (early) detection of psychopathy is important, as delinquent behavior and recidivism can be predicted from psychopathy as early as the transition from middle childhood to adolescence.

Augstein, H. F. (1996). J. C. Prichard's concept of moral insanity—a medical theory of the corruption of human nature. Med Hist., 40(3): 311-343.

Babiak, P. (1995). When psychopaths go to work: A case study of an industrial psychopath. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44(2), 171-188. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.1995.tb01073.x Most research on psychopaths has been conducted in hospitals or prisons. The present paper presents an analysis of a psychopath in a industrial setting. The Psychopath Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) was used to assess psychopathy by observing and coding behaviours observed in an employment situation. Although previous research on psychopathic populations in clinical and penal settings suggests that they lead unsuccessful lives, a case study is presented as an example of a successful industrial psychopath. Industrial psychopaths display psychopathic personality characteristics but do not display the typical progression of increasing antisocial behaviour and deviant lifestyle. A model is presented which suggests that in the context of an organisation undergoing chaotic change they use their manipulation skills to effectively manage the discrepant views of supporters and detractors, resulting in successful career movement.

Babiak, P., & Hare, R. D. (2006). Snakes in suits: When psychopaths go to work. New York: HarperCollins. From Booklist: Babiak, an industrial and organizational psychologist, and Hare, the creator of the standard tool for diagnosing psychopathy, explore the infiltration into today's corporations by psychopaths, or those with destructive personality characteristics that are invisible to many with whom they interact. Their skilled manipulation begins with a perfect interview, as they are attractive job applicants who are confident and charming. They often flourish in fast-paced, changing industries with widespread uncertainty and can inflict considerable damage. Babiak and Hare explain in nontechnical language and real-world case studies how to protect employees and the company from these individuals who take advantage of organizational systems and processes, exploit communication weaknesses, and promote interpersonal conflicts. Babiak and Hare observe, "Companies accelerate their hiring practices to attract, hire, and retain new, high-potential talent before their competitors do. Gone are the days of the painstaking vetting process. Competition is fierce and qualified candidates few." This is an important perspective in the increasingly complicated hiring challenges facing corporate America. Mary Whaley

Babiak, P., Neumann, C. S., & Hare, R. D. (2010). Corporate psychopathy: Talking the walk. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 28(2), 174-193. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.925

Babinski, L.M, Hartsough, C.S, Lambert, N.M. (1999). Childhood conduct problems, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and inattention as predictors of adult criminal activity. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 40(03) 347-355. This study reconsiders the relationship of childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and childhood conduct problems with adult criminal activity by clarifying the role of the cardinal behaviors associated with the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). Since their childhood (average age 9 years), 230 male and 75 female subjects have been followed prospectively and were interviewed as young adults (average age 26 at follow-up). Early childhood behavior ratings by parents and teachers were examined to determine the role of conduct problems, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and inattention in predicting adult criminal involvement as measured by both official arrest records and self-report. Results show that both hyperactivity-impulsivity and early conduct problems independently, as well as jointly, predict a greater likelihood of having an arrest record for males, but not for females. For male subjects with 10 or more self-reported crimes, both early conduct problems and hyperactivity-impulsivity were significant predictors, both alone and in combination. Therefore, it appears that predominantly the symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, but not inattention, contribute to the risk for criminal involvement over and above the risk associated with early conduct problems alone.

Barbaree, H. E. (1997). The Last Word. Cross Currents, Spring 2006, 20-20.

Barbaree, H. E., Langton, C. M., & Blanchard, R. (2007). Predicting recidivism in sex offenders using the VRAG and SORAG: The contribution of age-at-release. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(1), 29-46. Sex offenders (N = 468) were released from custody and recidivism outcome recorded. The Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG) were scored for each offender. Results indicated that, for the majority of actuarial items contained in the VRAG and SORAG and for RAG and SORAG bin scores, offenders with lower actuarial scores were released from custody at a significantly older age. Actuarial scores were regressed on age-at-release and residuals saved as age-corrected actuarial scores. Using ROC analysis, predictive accuracy was evaluated comparing original actuarial scores with age-corrected scores. For most item scores and both bin scores, the ability to predict recidivism was significantly reduced after the effects of age-at-release had been removed.

Barocas, R. (1970). Some problems in the conception of sociopathy. Psychiatric Quarterly, 44(1), 674-686. doi: 10.1007/BF01563008 A review of sociopathy is presented in the context of the evolution of general theories of psychopathology. Particular emphasis is placed on the examination of three problems impeding the development of a sufficient conception of sociopathy. They are (1) the inconsistent use of underlying conceptual models, (2) the relativistic definitions of deviance, and (3) the unclear relationship between personality and psychopathology. Implications for the current status of sociopathy are presented. . . . Surprisingly out of date and out of touch even for 1970. Contains a bit more on DSM one.

Barry, C T, Frick, P J, DeShazo, T M, McCoy, M G, Ellis, M, Loney, B R. (2000) The importance of callous-unemotional traits for extending the concept of psychopathy to children. J Abnorm Psychol, 109(2) 335-40. This study focused on the use of callous-unemotional (CU) traits to identify a subgroup of children with both attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a conduct problem diagnosis (oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD] who show characteristics similar to adults with psychopathy. In a clinic-referred sample of children aged 6 to 13 years (N = 154), those with diagnoses of both ADHD and ODD/CD were divided on the basis of teacher ratings of CU traits. Children high on these traits showed features typically associated with psychopathy, such as a lack of fearfulness and a reward-dominant response style. Furthermore, children with CU traits seemed less distressed by their behavior problems. These findings are consistent with research on adults showing that impulsivity and antisocial behavior alone are insufficient to document persons who fit the construct of psychopathy.

Barry, P. B. (2010). Saving Strawson: Evil and Strawsonian Accounts of Moral Responsibility. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 14(1), 5-21. doi: 10.1007/s10677-009-9219-x. Almost everyone allows that conditions can obtain that exempt agents from moral responsibility—that someone is not a morally responsible agent if certain conditions obtain. In his seminal "Freedom and Resentment," Peter Strawson denies that the truth of determinism globally exempts agents from moral responsibility. As has been noted elsewhere, Strawson appears committed to the surprising thesis that being an evil person is an exempting condition. Less often noted is the fact that various Strawsonians—philosophers sympathetic with Strawson's account of moral responsibility—at least appear to have difficulty incorporating evil persons into their accounts of moral responsibility. In what follows, I argue that Strawson is not committed to supposing that being evil is an exempting condition—at least, that he can allow that evil persons are morally responsible agents.

Barry, T. D., Thompson, A., Barry C. T., Lochman, J. E., Adler, K., & Hill K. (2007).The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children. Aggressive Behavior, 33(3), 185-197. doi: 10.1002/ab.20198 The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed. . . . narcissism in children is actually linked to aggression and conduct problems. . . . In light of the finding that narcissism is unrelated to self-esteem in this sample, it is important to remember that, for any particular individual, narcissism could be an indicator of either high/ inflated or low/defensive self-esteem.

Bartol, C. R. (1995). Criminal behavior: A psychosocial approach (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Baskin-Sommers, A. R., Curtin, J. J., & Newman, J. P. (2011). Specifying the attentional selection that moderates the fearlessness of psychopathic offenders. Psychological Science, 22(2), 226-234. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21245494 Our previous research demonstrated that psychopathy-related fear deficits involve abnormalities in attention that undermine sensitivity to peripheral information. In the present study, we specified this attention-mediated abnormality in a new sample of 87 prisoners assessed with Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003). We measured fear-potentiated startle (FPS) under four conditions that crossed attentional focus (threat vs. alternative) with early versus late presentation of threat cues. The psychopathic deficit in FPS was apparent only in the early-alternative-focus condition, in which threat cues were presented after the alternative goal-directed focus was established. Furthermore, psychopathy interacted with working memory capacity in the late-alternative-focus condition, which suggests that individuals high in psychopathy and working memory capacity were able to maintain a set-related alternative focus that reduced FPS. The results not only provide new evidence that attention moderates the fearlessness of psychopathic individuals, but also implicate an early attention bottleneck as a proximal mechanism for deficient response modulation in psychopathy.

Baskin-Sommers, A. R., Wallace, J. F., MacCoon, D. G., Curtin, J. J., & Newman, J. P. (2010). Clarifying the factors that undermine behavioral inhibition system functioning in psychopathy. Personality disorders, 1(4), 203-217. doi:10.1037/a0018950. Psychopathic individuals are generally unresponsive to motivational and emotional cues that facilitate behavioral regulation. A putative mechanism for this deficiency is Gray's (1971) behavioral inhibition system (BIS). To evaluate the association between psychopathy and BIS functioning, we administered a laboratory-based assessment of BIS functioning to a group of psychopathic offenders assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). In addition, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of working memory load on BIS functioning would interact differentially with the PCL-R Factors. Replicating previous results, psychopathic offenders were less sensitive to BIS-related cues than controls. As predicted, working memory load interacted with Factor 2 (antisocial/impulsive), with higher scores predicting weaker BIS functioning under high-load though not low-load conditions. Results suggest new insights concerning the relationship among working memory, reward sensitivity, and BIS functioning in psychopathy.

Baskin-Sommers, A. R., Zeier, J. D., & Newman, J. P. (2009). Self-reported attentional control differentiates the major factors of psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(6), 626-630. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.05.027 Abstract The dual-deficit model identifies unique correlates of the two major factors associated with psychopathy (Patrick, 2007). Factor 1 is associated with deficits in amygdala-mediated emotion, while Factor 2 is related to deficits in higher-order cognitive processes. Research suggests that attention to environmental and contextual cues is critical for emotion and cognition (Ochsner & Gross, 2005). Therefore, and by extension, attention may also be important to deficits in both Factor 1 and Factor 2. The present study utilizes a sample of male prisoners in order to examine the relationship between self-reported attentional control (Derryberry & Reed, 2002) and the major factors of psychopathy, as assessed by three different methods. Across all three measures, Factor 1 is associated with superior attentional control, whereas Factor 2 is related to inferior attentional control. Furthermore, results provide support for the external validity of three commonly used methods for assessing psychopathy. We propose that anomalous attentional control may contribute to both major symptom clusters associated with psychopathy. . . . This study provides new evidence that attention-related processes play an important role in psychopathy and that the importance of these processes for the interpersonal/affective versus impulsive/antisocial components of psychopathy may differ.

Baumeister, R.F., & Butz, D. A. (2005). Roots of hate, violence, and evil. In R. J. Sternberg, (Ed). The psychology of hate (pp. 87-102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/10.1037/10930-005 This chapter seeks to provide theoretical bases for understanding hate by looking for converging evidence from related phenomena, specifically aggression and prejudice. First, material, instrumental conflicts produce both aggression and prejudice, and the authors speculate that these may or may not contribute to hate as well. In particular, chronic victims of aggression and prejudice may come to hate those who they believe have victimized and oppressed them. Second, threatened egotism gives rise to aggression and may contribute to prejudice as well, and it seems a very promising candidate as a source of hate. That is, people may come to hate those who threaten their self-esteem or otherwise impugn their favorable images of self. Third, idealism contributes to both aggression and hate. Though idealism is often a positive force, its very positivity lends it power to justify and legitimize a wide range of actions, and it may also be used to legitimize hate, or even to make hating seem obligatory under some circumstances. A fourth root of aggression, sadism, seemed less promising as a conceptual basis for hating. It also lacked the convergence of findings from the study of prejudice. These considerations lead to the following conclusions. Hate may be prone to arise among people who feel that their self-esteem has been threatened, and in that case it would be mainly directed at the source of those threats. Hate may arise out of either material or idealistic conflicts. Hate could be intensified if idealism offers justification for hating or if losing a material conflict leads to resentment toward the winners of those conflicts.

Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Blonigen, D. M., Hicks, B. M., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). Estimating facets of psychopathy from normal personality traits: A step toward community epidemiological investigations. Assessment, 12(1), 3-18. doi: 10.1177/1073191104271223 In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI factors themselves, MPQ-estimated PPI-I related negatively with internalizing disorder symptoms and fearfulness and positively with thrill and adventure seeking, sociability, activity, and narcissism. MPQ-estimated PPI-II was associated negatively with socialization and positively with externalizing disorder symptoms, impulsivity, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and trait anxiety and negative emotionality. Additionally, PPI-I was selectively related to the interpersonal facet of Factor 1 of the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R), whereas PPI-II was related preferentially to Factor 2 of the PCL-R. . . . The multifaceted, hierarchical structure of the MPQ provides for a richly layered description of personality that appears to predict the disordered personality construct of psychopathy represented by the PPI in our various samples and in Benning et al. (2003).

Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Salekin, R. T., & Leistico, A. R. (2005). Convergent and discriminant validity of psychopathy factors assessed via self-report: A comparison of three instruments. Assessment, 12(3), 270-289. doi: 10.1177/1073191105277110 Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most personality disorder symptoms and were both predicted by high Dominance and low Neuroticism. In addition, PPI Fearless Dominance correlated positively with antisocial personality features, although SRP-II Factor 1 did not. In contrast, PPI Impulsive Antisociality, SRP-II Factor 2, and both APSD factors correlated with antisocial personality features and symptoms of nearly all personality disorders, and were predicted by low Love. Results suggest ways in which the measurement of the constructs in each instrument may be improved. . . . Here, we examined in an undergraduate sample the construct validity of the two-factor structures of the PPI, the SRP-II scale, and a self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001). We examined the relations of each psychopathy factor to the others, to symptoms of other personality disorders, and to normal-range personality dimensions.

Berardino, S. D., Meloy, J. R., Sherman, M., & Jacobs, D. (2005). Validation of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory on a Female Inmate Sample. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 23(6), 819-836. doi: 10.1002/bsl.666 This investigation evaluated the construct validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996), a self-report measure designed to assess psychopathy. One hundred and two incarcerated females were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), an oral alcohol and drug screening measure, a demographic interview, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (MMPI-2), the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R), and the PPI. There were significant correlations among the PPI, MMPI-2 scales, and the PCL-R. In addition, the correlations between the PPI and the separate PCL-R factors were not significantly different from each other, indicating that the PPI is assessing both facets of the psychopathy construct to some extent. A high correlation between the PPI and the DSM-IV criteria, which assesses adult antisocial behaviors, revealed adequate concurrent validity. Nonsignificant or negligible correlations between the PPI and the MMPI-2 scales provided some support for discriminant validity. The results are discussed with respect to the clinical and forensic utility of the PPI, the limitations of the study, and the need for further research.

Berrios, G. E. (1999). Classic Text No. 37: J. C. Prichard and the concept of 'moral insanity.' History of Psychiatry, 10(37), 111-116. doi: 10.1177/0957154X9901003706

Bezdjian, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A., & Baker, L. A. (2011). The genetic and environmental covariation among psychopathic personality traits, and reactive and proactive aggression in childhood. Child Development, 82(4), 1267-1281. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01598.x The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (A. Raine et al., 2006). Significant common genetic influences were found to be shared by psychopathic personality traits and aggressive behaviors using both caregiver (mainly mother) and child self-reports. Significant genetic and nonshared environmental influences specific to psychopathic personality traits and reactive and proactive aggression were also found, suggesting etiological independence among these phenotypes. Additionally, the genetic relation between psychopathic personality traits and aggression was significantly stronger for proactive than reactive aggression when using child self-reports.

Birbaumer, N., Veit, R., Lotze, M., Erb, M., Hermann, C., Grodd, W., & Flor, H. (2005). Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62(7), 799-805. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.7.799 Context Psychopaths belong to a larger group of persons with antisocial personality disorder and are characterized by an inability to have emotional involvement and by the repeated violation of the rights of others. It was hypothesized that this behavior might be the consequence of deficient fear conditioning. Objective To study the cerebral, peripheral, and subjective correlates of fear conditioning in criminal psychopaths and healthy control subjects. Design An aversive differential pavlovian delay conditioning paradigm with slides of neutral faces serving as conditioned and painful pressure as unconditioned stimuli. Setting The Department of Medical Psychology at the University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany. Participants Ten male psychopaths as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and 10 age- and education-matched healthy male controls. The psychopaths were criminal offenders on bail and waiting for their trial or were on parole. The healthy controls were recruited from the community. Main Outcome Measures Brain activation based on functional magnetic resonance imaging, electrodermal responses, emotional valence, arousal, and contingency ratings. Results The healthy controls showed enhanced differential activation in the limbic-prefrontal circuit (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate) during the acquisition of fear and successful verbal and autonomic conditioning. The psychopaths displayed no significant activity in this circuit and failed to show conditioned skin conductance and emotional valence ratings, although contingency and arousal ratings were normal. Conclusion This dissociation of emotional and cognitive processing may be the neural basis of the lack of anticipation of aversive events in criminal psychopaths.

Bishopp, D., & Hare R. D. (2008). A multidimensional scaling analysis of the Hare PCL-R: Unfolding the structure of psychopathy. Psychology, Crime & Law, 14(2): 117-132. doi: 10.1080/10683160701483484 Recent studies examining the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) have argued for a range of factorial solutions to describe and explain the dimensions of psychopathy. This study details an empirical analysis of North American PCL-R data for 4630 male offenders, using multidimensional scaling (MDS) as a non-linear alternative to factor analysis. The emergent structure of Hare's psychopathy psychometric can be interpreted in more than one way and at different levels of specificity. The multidimensional scalograms reveal a set of facets consistent with the two- and four-factor solutions that emerge from the same data. Equally the structure of the PCL-R can be interpreted through personality theory as a set of core traits and behavioural manifestations, consistent with an evolutionary basis for psychopathic tendencies. These analyses provide support for a multidimensional structure within the PCL-R, and suggest that psychopathy can be viewed as an extreme variant of multiple dimensions of personality. . . . Results presented here support a multi-faceted view of psychopathy, but not necessarily one based upon four factors.

Blackburn, R. (1988). On moral judgments and personality disorders: The myth of psychopathic personality revisited. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153(4), 505-512. doi:10.1192/bjp.153.4.505 Psychopathic personality has always been a contentious concept, but it continues to be used in clinical practice and research. It also has its contemporary synonyms in the categories of antisocial personality disorder in DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and "personality disorder with predominantly asocial or sociopathic manifestation" in ICD-9 (World Health Organization, 1978), and some overlap between these and the legal category of psychopathic disorder identified in the English Mental Health Act 1983 is commonly assumed. Although the literal meaning of "psychopathic" nothing more specific than psychologically damaged, the term has long since been transmogrified to mean socially damaging, and as currently used, it implies a specific category of people inherently committed to antisocial behaviour as a consequence of personal abnormalities or deficiencies. . . . The prominence of 'secondary psychopaths' and of borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic disorders in these populations clearly indicates that there is no single type of abnormal personality that is prone to chronic rule violation. Nor, of course, are these categories confined to the antisocial. It must be concluded that the current concept of psychopathic or antisocial personality remains 'a mythical entity'. The taxonomic error of confounding different universes of discourse has resulted in a diagnostic category that embraces a variety of deviant personalities. . . . To define a disorder of personality in terms of socially deviant behaviour is to prejudge the issue. Our understanding of how the attributes of the person contribute to socially deviant or other problematic behavior progress when we have an adequate system for describing the universe of personality deviation. Focus on an ill-conceived category of psychopathic personality has merely served to distract attention from the development of such a system.

Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct. Chichester, UK: Wiley. Product Description Taken from published reviews: ". . . Dr Blackburn has written a remarkably good book; indeed, the best book on the topic—from either side of the Atlantic—I have read. . . . the breadth of the authors knowledge is nothing short of encyclopaedic. Not only psychology—developmental and social, as well as clinical—but also psychiatry, biology, philosophy, and law are addressed in this volume. Finally, the book is written with clarity, economy, and a lucid style. It is as inviting and user-friendly as any work of such complexity can be. . . . I hope that it will find its way into psychiatry residency training programmes as well. It could do wonders for replacing turf-battles with common ground." Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health ". . . The scholarly breadth and accuracy of this work are remarkable. There seems to be no important contribution to our psychological understanding of crime which Blackburn has omitted to discuss, including those approaches from sociological and social psychology which are frequently neglected in straightforward psychological treatments. Moreover, all approaches are intelligently and sympathetically discussed." Expert Evidence ". . . The volume is infused with the authors enthusiasm for a social cognitive perspective on offending behaviour, but he also robustly defends the utility of the notion of personality traits. . . . Overall, this book brings together a vast array of research and theory examined from the perspective of the clinician involved with the individual. It will almost certainly become the key background text for post-graduate courses teaching forensic psychology and would be a valuable addition to the bookshelf of any clinician with forensic concerns." Clinical Psychology Forum ". . . This is undoubtedly an important book. . . . The end result is a book of excellent quality, which I recommend most warmly to clinical psychologists, and indeed, to anybody who is interested in 'criminological psychology." Behaviour Research and Therapy ". . . This author is to be congratulated for having produced this impressive volume. It provides a comprehensive review which is critical yet well-balanced. It assumes no prior familiarity with the field, and specialists from many different disciplines will learn a great deal from it." Criminal Law Review

Blackburn, R. (2007a). Personality disorder and antisocial deviance: Comments on the debate on the structure of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(2), 142-159. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.2.142 The recent debate on the structure of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R: Hare, 1991; 2003) has been presented primarily as a statistical issue, but underlying it are longstanding conceptual issues about the relationship of personality concepts to deviant behavior and of psychopathy to criminality and personality disorder. I discuss these issues in this paper. The antisocial items of the PCL-R seem to reflect a propensity to commit crimes that has long been of interest to criminology. This disposition overlaps with, but differs conceptually from personality dispositions, but these surface dispositions do not provide a causal account of criminality. I present data that indicate that the core personality characteristics of psychopathy are more closely related to narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders than to antisocial personality disorder. Overemphasis on involvement in crime has obscured the nature of psychopathy as a disorder of personality characterised by interpersonally harmful behavior that need not necessarily take criminal form.

Blackburn, R. (2007b). Personality disorder and psychopathy: Conceptual and empirical integration. Psychology, Crime & Law, 13(1), 7-18. doi:10.1080/10683160600869585 The classification of personality disorders originated from German concepts of psychopathic personalities as abnormal personalities whose abnormalities cause personal or social distress, but antisocial personality disorder owes more to a British tradition that defined personal abnormality in terms of social deviance. The recent concept of psychopathy is a mixture of these traditions, but a focus on the psychopath as a criminal type has obscured its relationship to the broader class of personality disorders. Research with the PCL-R shows that it relates as closely to narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders as to antisocial personality disorder, and that psychopathy and these disorders reflect a common underlying dimension of personality disorder. Dimensions of personality disorder can be conceptualized as variations or exaggerations of normal personality dimensions, and recent findings indicate a hierarchical organization in which psychopathy represents one of two superordinate dimensions underlying normal and abnormal personality. Personality traits are critical treatment targets in high risk offenders. . . . Although APD and the PCL-R do not identify the same individuals, the mixing of abnormal personality traits with specifically criminal criteria in the PCL-R and the focus of research with the measure on offender populations have contributed to the view of psychopaths as a type of criminal. . . . Theorists who construe psychopathy as a disorder of personality emphasize self-enhancement at the expense of others . . . A conception of psychopathy as abnormal personality also deals more coherently with the confused notion of "successful psychopath". . . . Hare, however, contends that inclusion of a fourth factor composed of antisocial items provides a better fit to the data (Hare, 2003; Hare & Neumann, 2005). . . . Despite the limitations of APD, Cleckley's equation of psychopathy with APD in DSM-II has encouraged an assumption that psychopathy is a specific category of PD. . . Psychopathy therefore seems broader than a specific category of PD. . . When F1 and F2 are differentiated, however, F1 correlates more strongly with narcissistic and histrionic PDs, and F2 with APD. . . . These findings confirm that rather than representing a specific category of PD, psychopathy overlaps significantly with several DSM PDs, at least as these are measured by semi-structured interview. They are more consistent with the proposal that psychopathy represents a superordinate dimension of personality deviation pervading several PDs (Blackburn, 1988, 1993). . . . The categorical approach of the DSM implies qualitative distinctions between PDs and between normality and abnormality. A dimensional approach, in contrast, conceptualizes PDs as quantitative continua, and hence views the "inflexible and maladaptive traits" defining PDs as abnormal variations or exaggerations of normal personality traits . . . As Hare (1970) observed, in a dimensional approach, " . . . psychopaths as such do not exist"(p. 12), . . . Empirical findings overwhelmingly support a dimensional representation of PDs. . . Both psychopathy and the DSM PDs can, then, be construed as abnormal variants of "normal" personality dimensions. . . . The Big Five are not independent dimensions — two higher-order factors, or "metatraits", labelled Alpha and Beta, underlie them. We demonstrated comparable higher-order factors in a confirmatory factor analysis of a FFM questionnaire (Blackburn, Renwick, Donnelly, & Logan, 2004), the Alpha factor being represented particularly by antagonism, Beta by introversion, neuroticism and low conscientiousness. We suggested that these correspond to interpersonal dimensions of hostile-dominance and hostile-submission, respectively. . . . Factor analyses of the DSM PDs in non-offender samples find that four factors pervade the disorders. Mulder and Joyce (1997) described these as "the four A's", i.e. antisocial (paranoid, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, passive-aggressive), asocial (schizoid, schizotypal), asthenic (dependent, avoidant), and anankastic (obsessive-compulsive). . . . We proposed that the higher-order dimensions of PD and psychopathy are maladaptive variants of the higher-order dimensions of the FFM (Alpha and Beta) and of the hostile-dominant and hostile-submissive axes of the interpersonal circle.. . . Our results indicate that PDs, psychopathy, and significant dimensions identified in personality research can be conceptualized within the common framework of two superordinate factors. . . . Growing evidence that psychopaths are not a homogeneous group (Skeem, Poythress, Edens, Lilienfeld, & Cale, 2003) has renewed interest in the distinction between primary and secondary psychopaths.

Blackburn, R., Logan, C., Donnelly, J. P., & Renwick, S. J. D. (2008). Identifying psychopathic subtypes: Combining an empirical personality classification of offenders with The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(6), 604-622. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2008.22.6.604 Mentally disordered offenders who were psychopathic according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) were divided into primary psychopath, secondary psychopath, controlled, and inhibited groups on the basis of a validated empirical classification, using the Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ). They were compared on the factors and facets of the PCL-R, criminal history, Axis I and Axis II psychopathology, experience of child abuse, personality, interpersonal style, and clinical ratings of risk and treatability, to determine the utility of the APQ classification in identifying subtypes of psychopath. Significant differences between APQ primary and secondary psychopaths on several measures support the identification of these groups with the primary and secondary psychopaths hypothesized by Karpman (1948) and others. However, further differences suggest that the controlled and inhibited groups represent additional variants of primary and secondary psychopath, respectively. The results provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of psychopaths, and suggest that the PCL-R encompasses several distinct subtypes of abnormal personality.

Blackburn, R., Logan, C., Donnelly, J. P., Renwick, S. J. D., & Donnelly, J. P. (2005). Higher-order dimensions of personality disorder: hierarchical structure and relationships with the five-factor model, the interpersonal circle, and psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(6), 597-623. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.6.597 Two studies examined the higher-order factor structure of DSM-IV personality disorders using the International Personality Disorder Examination in male forensic psychiatric patients. In Study 1 (N = 168), exploratory factor analysis at the level of individual personality disorder criteria indicated nine primary factors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of these first-order factors supported a hierarchical structure in which two of three second-order factors covaried to yield a third-order factor. The two resulting superordinate factors were labelled Anxious-Inhibited and Acting Out. In Study 2 (N = 160), we used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test hypotheses of common dimensions underlying these superordinate factors of personality disorder and superordinate factors of the five-factor model of personality, dimensions of the interpersonal circle, and psychopathy. Of three common factors, one combined Anxious-Inhibited disorders, "neurotic introversion," and hostile-submission. The other two factors of Acting Out/ psychopathy and antagonism/hostile-dominance covaried to yield a superordinate factor. Possible substrates underlying two superordinate dimensions common to normal and abnormal personality were identified in the theoretical literature.

Blair, R. J. R. (1995). A cognitive developmental approach to morality: investigating the psychopath. Cognition, 57(1), 1-29. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(95)00676-P Various social animal species have been noted to inhibit aggressive attacks when a conspecific displays submission cues. Blair (1993) has suggested that humans possess a functionally similar mechanism which mediates the suppression of aggression in the context of distress cues. He has suggested that this mechanism is a prerequisite for the development of the moral/conventional distinction; the consistently observed distinction in subject's judgments between moral and conventional transgressions. Psychopaths may lack this violence inhibitor. A causal model is developed showing how the lack of this mechanism would explain the core behavioural symptoms associated with the psychopathic disorder. A prediction of such a causal model would be that psychopaths should fail to make the moral/conventional distinction. This prediction was confirmed. The implication of this finding for other theories of morality is discussed. . . . This study revealed: first, and in line with predictions, that while the non-psychopaths made the moral/conventional distinction, the psychopaths did not; secondly, and in contrast with predictions, that psychopaths treated conventional transgressions like moral transgressions rather than treating moral transgressions like conventional transgressions; and thirdly, and in line with predictions, that psychopaths were much less likely to justify their items with reference to victim's welfare.

Blair, R. J. R. (1999). Responsiveness to distress cues in the child with psychopathic tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(1), 135-145. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00231-1 This study investigates the psychophysiological responsiveness of children with emotional and behavioral difficulties, divided according to their Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD) scores (Frick and Hare, in press) to distress cues, threatening and neutral stimuli. From this population, 16 high PSD scoring children and 16 low scoring controls were shown slides of these three types of stimuli and their electrodermal responses were recorded. An additional 16 normal developing children in mainstream education were also presented with these stimuli. The high PSD scoring children showed, relative to the controls, reduced electrodermal responses to the distress cues and threatening stimuli. In contrast, the two groups did not differ in their electrodermal responses to the neutral stimuli. The results are interpreted within the Violence Inhibition Mechanism model (Blair, 1995) of Psychopathy.

Blair, R. J. R. (2003). Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182(1), 5-7. doi:10.1192/bjp.182.1.5 To understand a psychiatric disorder we need to know why the pathology causes the behavioural disturbance, the neural structures implicated in the pathology and the cause of the dysfunction in the neural structures. With regard to psychopathy, we have clear indications regarding why the pathology gives rise to the emotional and behavioural disturbance and important insights into the neural systems implicated in this pathology. What remains unclear is why these neural systems are dysfunctional. . . . The suggestion is that the pathology of individuals with psychopathy detrimentally affects two processes that are required for socialisation, i.e. aversive conditioning and instrumental learning.

Blair, R. J. R. (2005). Applying a cognitive neuroscience perspective to the disorder of psychopathy. Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891. doi: 10.1017/S0954579405050418 Four models of psychopathy (frontal lobe dysfunction, response set modulation, fear dysfunction, and violence inhibition mechanism hypotheses) are reviewed from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. Each model is considered both with respect to the psychopathy data and, more importantly, for the present purposes, with respect to the broader cognitive neuroscience fields to which the model refers (e.g., models of attention with respect to the response set modulation account and models of emotion with respect to the fear dysfunction and violence inhibition mechanism models). The paper concludes with an articulation of the more recent integrated emotion systems model, an account inspired both by recent findings in affective cognitive neuroscience as well as in the study of psychopathy. Some directions for future work are considered.-One interesting question is why there are these two forms of pathology in psychopathy; amygdala and orbito-ventrolateral dysfunction.

Blair, R. J. R. (2006). The emergence of psychopathy: Implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders. Cognition, 101(2), 414-442. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2006.04.005 In this paper, I am going to examine the disorder of psychopathy and consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with this disorder. I will argue that genetic anomalies in psychopathy reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic disturbance). I will argue that the ability of the amygdala to form the stimulus-punishment associations necessary for successful socialization is disrupted and that because of this, individuals with psychopathy do not learn to avoid actions that will harm others. It is noted that this model follows the neuropsychological approach to the study of developmental disorders, an approach that has been recently criticized. I will argue that these criticisms are less applicable to psychopathy. Indeed, animal work on the development of the neural systems necessary for emotion, does not support a constructivist approach with respect to affect. Importantly, such work indicates that while environmental effects can alter the responsiveness of the basic neural architecture mediating emotion, environmental effects do not construct this architecture. However, caveats to the neuropsychological approach with reference to this disorder are noted. . . . The main goal of this paper was to consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with psychopathy. With respect to this goal, the suggestion is that genetic anomalies reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic disturbance). This impairs various aspects of amygdala function, most importantly the ability to form stimulus-punishment associations. . . . The model that has been developed here follows a tradition of pre-supposing the existence of relatively independent neuro-cognitive systems that may be selectively impaired in developmental disorders. This neuropsychological approach has been recently criticized and sometimes considered to be not developmental. However, I would argue, at least with respect to psychopathy, and particularly given animal data on the development of the neural systems mediating emotion, that these criticisms are unfounded. I suggest that the neuropsychological approach will continue to be an invaluable tool with respect to the understanding, and ultimately the cure, of this pernicious disorder.

Blair, R. J. R. (2007). The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(9), 387-392. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.07.003 Recent work has implicated the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and, when dysfunctional, psychopathy. This model proposes that the amygdala, through stimulus-reinforcement learning, enables the association of actions that harm others with the aversive reinforcement of the victims' distress. Consequent information on reinforcement expectancy, fed forward to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, can guide the healthy individual away from moral transgressions. In psychopathy, dysfunction in these structures means that care-based moral reasoning is compromised and the risk that antisocial behavior is used instrumentally to achieve goals is increased.

Blair, R. J. R. (2008). The cognitive neuroscience of psychopathy and implications for judgments of responsibility. Neuroethics, 1(3), 149-157. [special issue] doi: 10.1007/s12152-008-9016-6 Psychopathy is a developmental disorder associated with specific forms of emotional dysfunction and an increased risk for both frustration-based reactive aggression and goal-directed instrumental antisocial behavior. While the full behavioral manifestation of the disorder is under considerable social influence, the basis of this disorder appears to be genetic. At the neural level, individuals with psychopathy show atypical responding within the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, the roles of the amygdala in stimulus-reinforcement learning and responding to emotional expressions and vmPFC in the representation of reinforcement expectancies are compromised. The implications of these functional impairments for responsibility are discussed. . . . Psychopathy is not equivalent to the DSM diagnoses of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder, nor is it similar in nature to acquired sociopathy following lesions of vmPFC. . . . Together these functional impairments disrupt appropriate moral socialization and impair decision making. They also put the individual at increased risk for frustration based reactive aggression. As such, from some perspectives [55], it can be argued that the functional impairments seen in psychopathy diminish responsibility.

Blair, R. J. R. (2011). Moral judgment and psychopathy. Emotion Review, 3(3), 296-298. http://doi.org/10.1177/1754073911406297

Blair, R. J. R., Mitchell, D., & Blair, K. (2005), The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Synopsis: Consistently portrayed in the media and popular culture as unusual, inhumane and emotionless creatures, psychopaths may seem far removed from our everyday lives. The reality, however, brings them much closer to home: estimates suggest that a disturbing percentage of the population has psychopathic tendencies. This timely new book presents the scientific facts of psychopathy and antisocial behavior, addressing critical issues such as the definition of psychopathy, the number of psychopaths in society, whether psychopaths can be treated, and whether psychopathy is due to nature or nurture. More controversially, the authors present their ground-breaking research into whether an underlying abnormality in brain development leaves psychopaths with an inability to feel emotion or fear. The resulting theory could lead to early diagnosis and revolutionize the way society, the media, and the state both views and contends with the psychopaths in our midst.

Blair, R. J. R., Monson, J, & Frederickson, N. (2001). Moral reasoning and conduct problems in children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(5) pp. 799-811. This study investigates whether performance on the moral/conventional distinction measure predicts level of childhood conduct problems as indexed by the Psychopathy Screening Device [Frick, P. J., Hare, R. D. (1996). The psychopathy screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.]. One-hundred and two children with emotional and behavioural difficulties were presented with the moral/conventional distinction measure. Performance on the moral/conventional distinction measure did predict extent of behavioural disturbance. The results are interpreted within the Violence Inhibition Mechanism model of normal and atypical moral development.

Blair, R. J. R., Peschardt, K. S., Budhani, S., Mitchell, D. G. V., & Pine, D. S. (2006). The development of psychopathy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3-4), 262-275. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01596.x The current review focuses on the construct of psychopathy, conceptualized as a clinical entity that is fundamentally distinct from a heterogeneous collection of syndromes encompassed by the term 'conduct disorder'. We will provide an account of the development of psychopathy at multiple levels: ultimate causal (the genetic or social primary cause), molecular, neural, cognitive and behavioral. The following main claims will be made: (1) that there is a stronger genetic as opposed to social ultimate cause to this disorder. The types of social causes proposed (e.g., childhood sexual/physical abuse) should elevate emotional responsiveness, not lead to the specific form of reduced responsiveness seen in psychopathy; (2) The genetic influence leads to the emotional dysfunction that is the core of psychopathy; (3) The genetic influence at the molecular level remains unknown. However, it appears to impact the functional integrity of the amygdala and orbital/ventrolateral frontal cortex (and possibly additional systems); (4) Disruption within these two neural systems leads to impairment in the ability to form stimulus-reinforcement associations and to alter stimulus-response associations as a function of contingency change. These impairments disrupt the impact of standard socialization techniques and increase the risk for frustration-induced reactive aggression respectively. . . . On the basis of the current data, we believe that there is a genetic and not a social ultimate cause to this disorder. . . . Although this was not articulated above, we believe that it is at the cognitive level that the influence of social variables emerges. The ability to form stimulus- reinforcement associations is linked to the 'empathy' deficits seen in psychopathy and is thought to disrupt the child's ability to be socialized. The child is at heightened risk for learning to use antisocial behaviors to achieve their goals.

Bland, R. C., Orn, H., & Newman, S. C. (1988). Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Edmonton. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, (Suppl 338), 24-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1988.tb08544.x 3,258 randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton were interviewed by trained lay interviewers using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Lifetime prevalence for 16 DIS/DSM III diagnoses are given. Overall 33.8% of the population had one or more diagnoses and, excluding substance use disorders, one fifth of the population had a diagnosis. The most common lifetime diagnosis was alcohol abuse/dependence, followed by phobia and major depressive episode. Men were more likely to have had substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder and women more likely to have had major depressive episode, dysthymia, agoraphobia and simple phobia. Those who were married had generally lower lifetime prevalences. Those over age 65 had the lowest prevalence of any age groups. . . . Lifetime prevalence rates of antisocial personality 3.7 overall 6.5 in males, .8 in females in Edmonton.

Bland, R. C., Newman, S. C., Thompson, A. H., & Dyck, R. J. (1998). Psychiatric disorders in the population and in prisoners. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 21(3), 273-279. doi:10.1016/S0160-2527(98)00005-3Provincial correctional facilities accommodate inmates serving sentences of under 2 years who are drawn from the same population as our population sample. The inmates of the provincial correctional facilities are poorly educated single young men, serving short sentences for repeat offences. They are far more likely to have both social and psychiatric problems than comparable members of the general population. They show the same social and psychiatric problems that are frequently associated with violent behaviors. For many, the problems started in early life and were often associated with alcohol and drugs. They have seven times the expected rate of suicide attempts. Aboriginals are over-represented, but other non-Caucasian racial groups are underrepresented.

Blonigen, D. M., Carlson, S. R., Kruegar, R. F., & Patrick, C. J. (2003). A twin study report of self-reported psychopathic personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(1), 179-197. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00184-8 Previous twin studies attempting to assess the origins of psychopathic personality traits have mainly focused on an overt behavioral conceptualization of the syndrome as defined by a history of chronic antisocial behaviors. This investigation instead focused on a personality-based approach which emphasizes maladaptive personality traits as central to the syndrome. Psychopathic traits were indexed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a self-report measure designed to assess the personality domain of the disorder. Biometric parameters obtained from the responses of 353 male twins from the Minnesota Twin Registry revealed significant genetic influences, largely non-additive in nature. Although preliminary due to the modest sample size, the findings encourage a larger scale investigation with greater statistical power to evaluate competing models of genetic influence. . . . One group of scholars view psychopathy primarily from a personality-based approach (e.g. Hare, 1970; Lilienfeld, 1994; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lykken 1995; McCord & McCord, 1964). This is exemplified by Cleckley's classic clinical description of psychopathy as a constellation of deviant personality traits. Other scholars, however, (e.g. Cloninger, 1978; Spitzer, Endicott, & Robins, 197 conceptualize psychopathy as a behavioral syndrome that should instead be operationalized in terms of a history of chronic antisocial behaviors. Such behavioral, categorical conceptualizations continue to dominate the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. . . . The objective of this investigation was to evaluate genetic and environmental contributions to psychopathy defined in terms of a personality construct. . . . Epistasis involves an interaction between genes across multiple loci as they contribute to a specific phenotype. Emergenesis (Lykken, 1982b; Lykken et al., 1992), on the other hand, refers to a situation in which several heritable traits combine in a configural, rather than additive, manner. Complex traits are considered emergenic if they reflect a non-additive aggregation of basic, metrical traits that are themselves genetically determined independently from one another. . . . Emergenic traits do not run in families. However, they are evident in studies of twins, since MZ pairs share the exact same genetic configuration. . . . Correlations from this investigation suggests a non-additive genetic influence, such as that observed in some previous research with twins on configural phenotypes.

Blonigen, D. M., Hicks, B. M., Krueger, R. F., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2005) Psychopathic Personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5), 637-648. doi:10.1017/S0033291704004180 Background. Little research has examined genetic and environmental contributions to psychopathic personality traits. Additionally, no studies have examined etiological connections between psychopathic traits and the broad psychopathological domains of internalizing (mood and anxiety) and externalizing (antisocial behavior, substance abuse). The current study was designed to fill these gaps in the literature. Method. Participants were 626 pairs of 17-year-old male and female twins from the community. Psychopathic traits were indexed using scores on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Symptoms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were obtained via structured clinical interviews. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality traits as well as the degree of genetic overlap between these traits and composites of internalizing and externalizing. Results. Twin analyses revealed significant genetic influence on distinct psychopathic traits (Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality). Moreover, Fearless Dominance was associated with reduced genetic risk for internalizing psychopathology, and Impulsive Antisociality was associated with increased genetic risk for externalizing psychopathology. Conclusions. These results indicate that different psychopathic traits as measured by the MPQ show distinct genetically based relations with broad dimensions of DSM psychopathology. . . . In summary, both Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality (analogous to primary and secondary psychopathy, respectively) have substantial genetic influences with the former conferring a genetic resiliency to Int disorders, and the latter reflecting a genetic vulnerability to Ext psychopathology. This provides construct validation for the notion of psychopathic traits as deriving from separate etiological processes (cf. Patrick, 2001) given that they exhibited convergent and discriminant relations with two distinct domains of psychopathology.

Blonigen, D M, Littlefield, A K, Hicks B M. and Sher, K J. (2010). Course of Antisocial Behavior during Emerging Adulthood: Developmental Differences in Personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(6), 729-733. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.08.008 Despite similar normative changes in antisocial behavior (AB) and traits of disinhibition and negative emotionality during "emerging adulthood," few studies have tested if there are developmental differences in personality over this period for distinct courses of AB. In a college cohort assessed at ages 18 and 25, we examined if mean-level changes on traits from the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire varied by course of AB. Compared to persisters, those who desisted in AB from 18 to 25 exhibited a larger decrease on novelty seeking and larger increase on reward dependence. A significant mean-level decline was observed for harm avoidance, but was unrelated to AB course. Findings support theories of the co-development of personality and AB during emerging adulthood.

Bloom, H., Webster, C., Hucker, S., & De Freitas, K. (2005). The Canadian contribution to violence risk assessment: History and implications for current psychiatric practice. Can J Psychiatry, 50(1), 3-11. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Over the past quarter-century, Canadian researchers, clinical practitioners, and policy specialists have made several notable contributions to the broad field of violence risk assessment and management. In part, these contributions have been fostered by major changes in law over this period; in part, they have been spurred by findings from large-scale Canadian prediction-outcome studies. This paper offers references for a range of Canadian-inspired assessment schemes designed to evaluate psychopathy and potential for violence against others. . . . It is to be hoped that this paper will give readers unfamiliar with the emerging specialty of risk assessment a clearer idea of the purpose of recently evolved assessment schemes like the Hare PCL-R, VRAG, HCR-20, HCR-20CG, SAVRY, EARL-20B, EARL-21G, and START.

Board, B. J., & Fritzon, K. (2005). Disordered personalities at work. Psychology, Crime & Law, 11(1), 17-32. doi: 10.1080/10683160310001634304 Current categorical classification systems of personality disorders (PDs) remain widely used amid growing evidence that argues against the conceptualisation of PDs as independent, discrete entities. Adopting the dimensional perspective of Morey et al. (Journal of Personality Assessment , 49, 245-251, 1985), this study compared PD traits across forensic, psychiatric and "normal" senior business manager samples. There was particular interest in the relative representations of elements of PD closely associated with psychopathic PD because of research suggesting that some "psychopaths" operate within mainstream society, and links that have been made between elements of these so-called "successful" psychopaths, and characteristics associated with success in senior business management roles. The dimensional Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Scales for DSM III Personality Disorders (MMPI-PD) were shown to be internally consistent for the "normal" sample. Evidence for the qualitative equivalence of the four PD profiles emerged. The PD profile of the senior business manager sample was found to contain significant elements of PD, particularly those that have been referred to as the "emotional components" of psychopathic PD. The findings provide strong support for the continuous distribution of personality disordered traits. . . . Firstly, it demonstrated that it is valid to measure PDs as a constellation of traits rather than categorical states . . . The PD profile for the senior business manager sample showed significant elements of PD, particularly some of those most associated with what has been referred to as the emotional component of psychopathic PD.

Boddy, C. R. (2005). The implications of corporate psychopaths for business and society: An initial examination and a call to Arms. Australasian Journal of Business and Behavioural Sciences, 1(2), 30-40.

Boddy, C. R. (2006).The dark side of management decisions: organizational psychopaths. Management Decision, 44(10), 1461-1475. doi: 10.1108/00251740610715759 Purpose-This paper aims to look at some of the implications of organisational psychopaths for organisations and corporations. Design/methodology/approach-This paper defines organisational psychopaths as being those psychopaths who exist at an incidence of about 1 percent of the general population and who work in organisations. The paper describes how these organisational psychopaths are able to present themselves as desirable employees and are easily able to obtain positions in organisations. Without the inhibiting effect of a conscience they are then able to ruthlessly charm, lie, cajole and manipulate their way up an organisational hierarchy in pursuit of their main aims of power, wealth and status and at the expense of anyone who gets in their way. Findings-The paper suggests that, just as criminal psychopaths are responsible for a greater share of crimes than their numbers would suggest, so too organisational psychopaths may be responsible for more than their fair share of organisational misbehaviour including accounting fraud, stock manipulation, unnecessarily high job losses and corporately induced environmental damage. Originality/value-The paper suggests that having organisational psychopaths running corporations that are themselves, at best, amoral is a recipe for negative consequences.

Boddy, C. R. (2010). Corporate psychopaths and organizational type. Journal of Public Affairs, 10(4), 300-312. http://doi.org/10.1002/pa.365

Boddy, C. R. (2011a). Corporate psychopaths, bullying and unfair supervision in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(3), 367-379. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0689-5

Boddy, C. R. (2011b). Corporate psychopaths: Organisational destroyers. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Psychopaths are little understood outside of the criminal image. However, as the recent global financial crisis highlighted, the behavior of a small group of managers can potentially bring down the entire western system of business. This book investigates who they are, why they do what they do and what the consequences of their presence are.

Boddy, C. R. (2011c). The corporate psychopaths theory of the global financial crisis. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(2), 255-259. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0810-4

Boddy, C. R. P., Ladyshewsky, R., & Galvin, P. (2010). Leaders without ethics in global business: Corporate psychopaths. Journal of Public Affairs, 10(3), 121-138. http://doi.org/10.1002/pa.352

Book, A. S., & Quinsey, V. L. (2004). Psychopaths: cheaters or warrior-hawks? Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 33-45. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00049-7 From a life history perspective, psychopaths can be thought to pursue both social cheating and warrior-hawk strategies. The Cheater Hypothesis suggests that psychopaths would exhibit more indignation, and less empathy and altruism than nonpsychopaths. According to the Warrior-Hawk Hypothesis, psychopaths should also be more aggressive. Questionnaires measuring empathy, altruism, indignation, antisociality, aggression, and behavioral activation and inhibition were administered to 37 psychopathic inmates, 40 nonpsychopathic inmates, 42 community recruited volunteers, and 38 undergraduate students. Both hypotheses received some support: psychopathic participants scored significantly higher than other participants on measures of indignation and aggression. Consistent with both hypotheses, psychopaths also had a lower ratio of behavioral inhibition to activation than other participants. Contrary to expectations, psychopaths did not score lower on measures of empathy or altruism. . . . "Cheater-Hawk Hypothesis" While cheating is a part of the psychopathic repertoire, the Cheater Hypothesis does not explain psychopaths' tendency to rely on violence to get what they want. Similarly, the Warrior-Hawk hypothesis does a good job of dealing with the latter, but ignores cheating and manipulative tendencies.

Borum, R. (1996). Improving the clinical practice of violence risk assessment: Technology, guidelines, and training. American Psychologist, 51(9), 945-956. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.51.9.945 Despite a long history of interest in, and criticism of, the ability of mental health professionals to assess and predict violence, there have been few efforts to develop or evaluate interventions to improve decision making in this area. This article provides a brief overview of recent research developments on violence risk. Drawing on these advances, 3 recommendations are outlined for improving the clinical practice of risk assessment: (a) to improve assessment technology, (b) to develop clinical practice guidelines, and (c) to develop training programs and curricula.

Brinkley, C. A., Newman, J. P., Widiger, T. A., & Lynam, D. R. (2004). Two approaches to parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(1), 69-94. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph054 Individuals identified as psychopathic using Hare's (1991) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) are of interest to forensic psychologists because of the high risk that they will engage in antisocial behavior (Hart, 1998). Existing crime data suggest that the PCL-R is a measure with great clinical utility, but evidence concerning the etiology of the PCL-R psychopath is less consistent. We propose that one potential source of the inconsistent evidence is that psychopathy is a construct, like mental retardation, that is etiologically heterogeneous. We suggest that the development of effective clinical interventions will require psychologists to (a) question the assumption that psychopathy is an etiologically homogeneous entity, (b) identify etiologically distinct variants of psychopathy for study, and (c) specify etiological mechanisms that may suggest tangible treatment targets. We discuss two complementary strategies for identifying etiological variants of psychopathy: (a) using general personality theory to identify specific psychopathic traits for study and (b) isolating specific bio-psychological mechanisms that possess the potential to explain specific psychopathic syndromes.

Brunellea, C., Douglasb, R. L., Pihlc, R. O., & Stewart, S. H. (2009). Personality and substance use disorders in female offenders: A matched controlled study. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 472-476. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.11.017 A number of personality traits have been investigated in relation to delinquent behaviour; however, the female offender population has received far less attention than male offenders. In the current study, 32 incarcerated female offenders, and 32 matched female controls were compared on a measure of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition, as well as on the personality dimensions of hopelessness/introversion, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. Lifetime abuse and dependence on various psychoactive substances was also investigated. Stimulant abuse/dependence, impulsivity, and sensation seeking were significant independent predictors of incarceration status in a logistic regression analysis. A stimulant use disorder was a partial mediator of the relationship between sensation seeking and incarceration status. These results suggest that, similar to male populations, disinhibited personality traits and drug use are associated with criminal behaviour in women, and may be important targets for intervention.

Brennan, P., Mednick, S. A., & Raine, A. (1997). Biosocial interactions and violence: A focus on perinatal factors. In A. Raine, P. Brennan, D. P. Farrington, & S. A. Mednick, (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 163-174). New York: Plenum.

Buker, H. (2011). Formation of self-control: Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime and beyond. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(3), 265-276. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.03.005 Self-control is an important concept in the recent criminological theory with consistent empirical support as a predictor of criminality. Although the empirical studies consistently supported the self-control-criminality relation as proposed by the general theory of crime (GTC), there is a developing body of literature concerning the formation of self-control. Testing the propositions of the GTC on the formation of self-control, criminological theory literature as well as other disciplines provided several important insights regarding how self-control is generated. This paper systematically reviews the findings of the studies from several fields (n=44) and provides an overview of their findings. In conclusion, this review process indicated that the formation of self-control is far more complex than the propositions of the GTC. In addition to the parental socialization processes as discussed by the GTC, several studies indicated that there are other factors, such as social context, education process, biological and neurological factors, affecting the generation of self-control. Other disciplines, along with criminology, contributed significantly to direct future research on this concept and provided important guidelines for public policy makers as discussed within this study.

Bulten, E., Nijman, H., & van der Staak, C. (2009). Psychiatric disorders and personality characteristics of prisoners at regular prison wards. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 32(2), 115-119. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.01.007 Dutch correctional officers are trained to observe prisoners with severe mental disorder. This 'behavioural' approach is assumed to detect psychiatrically disordered prisoners with striking symptoms. On the basis of this screening procedure about 10% of the Dutch prison population is classified as needing special care or control. In the current study, what psychopathology can still be found among the remaining 90% prisoners residing at regular wards is investigated and which personality traits characterize them. When the prevalence of major mental illness would still turn out to be high in this group, the question arises whether the current, rather unstandardized, way of screening prisoners is sufficient. . . . Current anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD and substance abuse showed prevalences of respectively 12%, 9%, 4% and 46%. ASP was diagnosed in 37% of the sample, with a striking difference between participants in a house of remand (22%) or prison (50%). Well over a third of the inmates (i.e., 72 prisoners or 38%) appeared to have had ADHD in childhood, and in 8 prisoners (4%) ADHD was still present at the time of the study. When substance abuse was included 57% of the participants suffered from one or more Axis I disorder.

Burns, T., Yiend, J., Fahy, T., Fitzpatrick, R., Rogers, R., Fazel, S., & Sinclair, J. (2011). Treatments for dangerous severe personality disorder (DSPD). Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(3), 411-426. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.577439 Four units established in England for individuals with dangerous severe personality disorder differ significantly in their treatment regimes. Their distribution and relationship to risk are unknown. In this study, a modified Delphi process identified the treatments and allocated them to 11 mutually exclusive categories. Attendance at treatments was obtained from records, and these were compared to annual assessments of risk. Of 150 proposed treatments, 50 were allocated to the 11 categories. Only two treatment categories were provided in all units. Specified psychological treatment programmes occupied an average of less than 2 h a week, and 10% of patients had no treatment in each year. Reduction in risk was significantly associated with total hours of treatment received. A rigorous rationalisation of the treatments is needed to permit a robust evaluation of their effectiveness. Further research is needed to determine whether reductions in risk reflect reoffending rates.

Burroughs, W. S. (1959). Naked lunch. Paris: Olympia.

Caldwell, M. F., McCormick, D. J., Umstead, D., & Van Rybroek, G. J. (2007). Evidence of treatment progress and therapeutic outcomes among adolescents with psychopathic features. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(5), 573-587. doi: 10.1177/0093854806297511 This study examined the relation between psychopathic features and treatment progress in a group of 86 delinquent boys. On admission to a specialized intensive treatment program, Psychopathic Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) scores were computed and subsequently compared with treatment progress. Treatment progress was measured using a series of daily behavior rating scales and with a measure of institutional misconducts that required security intervention. The results found significant improvement in behavioral and security measures with treatment. PCL:YV scores did not interact with treatment progress. Regression analysis showed that initial, but not final, behavioral and security levels were predicted by PCL:YVscores. The final scores were predicted only by the duration of treatment. Furthermore, violent recidivism during a 4-year follow-up was predicted by final behavioral scores but not initial PCL:YV scores. . . . The most important finding in this study was that youths with psychopathic features showed a significant response to treatment. Furthermore, those who responded to treatment were significantly less apt to reoffend violently. . . . The results of this study provide some basis for optimism that careful study of treatment programs that serve youths with psychopathic features may contribute to a better understanding of the condition and its amelioration.

Cale, E. M., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2002a). Histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder: Sex-differentiated manifestations of psychopathy? Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(1), 52-72. doi: 10.1521/pedi.16.1.52.22557 Little is known about the etiology of histrionic personality disorder (HPD) or its relation to other personality disorders. In this study, we examined whether HPD is etiologically related to psychopathy and more specifically whether HPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are sex-typed alternative manifestations of psychopathy. In addition, based on Newman's (1987) response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy, we examined the associations between psychopathic, HPD, and ASPD features and performance on laboratory measures of passive avoidance errors and interference effects. Seventy-five live theater actors completed self-report questionnaires and two laboratory measures of response modulation, and peers completed questionnaires concerning the participants' personality disorder features. The results provided weak and inconsistent support for the hypotheses that HPD is a female-typed variant of psychopathy and that ASPD is a male-typed variant of psychopathy. Contrary to previous findings, scores on response modulation tasks were not significantly related to psychopathy, or to either HPD or ASPD. The limitations of this study and possibilities for future research in this area are outlined.

Cale, E. M., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2002b). Sex differences in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder: A review and integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(8), 1179-1207. Although the correlates and causes of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been the subject of extensive investigation, researchers in this area have until recently focused almost exclusively on males. As a consequence, relatively little is known about psychopathy and ASPD in females. In this paper, we review the empirical literature in sex differences in the base rates, mean symptom levels, correlates, and factor structure of psychopathy and ASPD. In addition, we discuss the potential sex-differentiated phenotypic expressions of psychopathy and ASPD (e.g., somatization disorder [SD]) as well as sex differences in the developmental trajectories of these conditions. There is suggestive evidence that these conditions may be differentially expressed across biological sex, although further investigation of this issue is warranted. We conclude with recommendations for future research in this area, including suggestions for embedding the study of sex differences in psychopathy and ASPD within a construct validational framework. . . . The most consistent finding across studies is that psychopathy and ASPD are more prevalent in males than in females. However, the magnitudes of these sex differences are uncertain

Cale, E. M. & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2004). What every forensic psychologist should know about psychopathic personality. In W. O'Donohue, & E. R. Levensky (Eds.). Handbook of forensic psychology: Resource for mental health and legal professionals (395-428). San Diego CA: Elsevier.

Campbell, J. C., Webster, D., Koziol-McLain, J., Block, C. R., Campbell, D., Curry, M. A., Gary, F., McFarlane, J., Sachs, C., Sharps, P., Ulrich, Y., & Wilt, S. A. (2003). Assessing risk factors for intimate partner homicide. NIJ Journal, 250, 14-19. A team of researchers studied the Danger Assessment [a series of 15 questions designed to measure a woman's risk in an abusive relationship] and found that despite certain limitations, the tool can with some reliability identify women who may be at risk of being killed by an intimate partner.

Canter, D. V. (2011). Resolving the offender "profiling equations" and the emergence of an investigative psychology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(1), 5-10. doi:10.1177/0963721410396825

Canter, D. V., Alison, L. J., Alison, E. & Wentin, N. (2004). The organized/disorganized typology of serial murder: Myth or model? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10(3), 293-320. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.10.3.293 Despite weaknesses in the organized/disorganized classification of serial killers, it is drawn on for "offender profiles," theories of offending, and in murder trials. This dichotomy was therefore tested by the multidimensional scaling of the co-occurrence of 39 aspects of serial killings derived 100 murders committed by 100 U.S. serial killers. Results revealed no distinct subsets of offense characteristics reflecting the dichotomy. They showed a subset of organized features typical of most serial killings. Disorganized features are much rarer and do not form a distinct type. These results have implications for testing typologies supporting expert opinion or to help understand variations in criminal acts, as well as the development of a science of investigative psychology that goes beyond offender profiling. . . . Despite its wide citation, there appears to be little in the way of detailed explication of the concepts and theory underlying this twofold model. . . . These results throw considerable doubt on the utility of this dichotomy in any academic considerations. The taxonomy proposed in the CCM (Douglas et al., 1992) as a naturally occurring distinction between serial sexual murderers or their crime scenes does not garner even the weakest support from the data examined here.

Caponecchia, C., & Wyatt, A. (2006). The problem with "workplace psychopaths." J Occup Health Safety-Aust NZ, 23(5), 403-406. The purpose of this editorial is to scrutinise the recently popularised notion that some white-collar bosses who use bullying behaviour towards others may be psychopathic. Further, we question whether this labelling effectively contributes to the management of workplace bullying, or whether it compounds the problem.

Cardasis, W., Huth-Bocks, A., & Silk, K. R. (2008). Tattoos and antisocial personality disorder. Personality and Mental Health, 2(3), 171-182. doi: 10.1002/pmh.43 Objective The relationship of tattoos to the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was explored in a forensic psychiatric inpatient hospital setting. It was hypothesized that a greater proportion of forensic inpatients that possessed tattoos had ASPD than patients who did not possess tattoos. Method Forensic male psychiatric inpatients (N = 36) were administered a semi-structured interview to determine the presence of a tattoo. ASPD was determined by criteria on a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV ASPD checklist. Demographic and background characteristics of the patients were collected, and details about each tattoo were obtained including a calculation of the surface area of each tattoo. Results Significantly more forensic psychiatric inpatients with tattoos had a diagnosis of ASPD compared to patients without tattoos. Patients with ASPD also had a significantly greater number of tattoos, a trend toward having a greater percentage of their total body surface area tattooed, and were more likely to have a history of substance abuse than patients without ASPD. Tattooed subjects, with or without ASPD, were significantly more likely to have histories of substance abuse, sexual abuse and suicide attempts than non-tattooed patients. Conclusions Forensic psychiatric inpatients with tattoos should be assessed carefully for the presence of ASPD as well as for substance abuse, sexual abuse and suicide attempts, factors having potentially significant influence on the assessment and treatment of such patients.

Carozza, D. (2008). Identifying Psychopathic Fraudsters: These Men Know 'Snakes in Suits' Interview with Dr. Robert D. Hare and Dr. Paul Babiak. Fraud Magazine. http://www.fraud-magazine.com/article.aspx?id=404&terms=hare Not all psychopaths become fraudsters, but some fraudsters are psychopaths. A fraud examiner's job is to help deter fraud by discretely noticing those employees who might be exhibiting psychopathic tendencies. Psychologists Robert D. Hare, Ph.D., and Paul Babiak, Ph.D., experts in psychopath studies, explain how these aberrant characters can infect organizations and provide ways to deal with them.

Carveth, D. L. (2007, April 28th). Degrees of psychopathy vs. "The Psychopath" comments on J. Reid Meloy's "A Psychoanalytic View of the Psychopath." Paper presented at the 18th Annual Day in Psychoanalysis, Toronto, ON. Criminal gangs are wary of severe psychopaths for their extreme narcissism makes them unreliable and untrustworthy gang members. In his recent review of the concept of "antisocial personality disorder," Meloy (2007a) writes that "A substantial body of research has shown that, at most, only one out of three patients with antisocial personality disorder has severe psychopathy. . . . Meloy (2007b) summarizes his view of the psychopath by underlining three factors: no attachment, underarousal and minimal anxiety. . . . I would argue that there can be no significant wrongdoing without at least some degree, however mild, of narcissism and psychopathy, for without these our attachment to, our identification with, and our empathy and concern for others—i.e., our conscience—would restrain us. . . . two concerns: that establishing a concrete conception of a group the psychopath invites projection and scapegoating and two, the denial of a psychopathic dimension is a problem because people should be forced to confront the degree of psychopathy and each of us rather than projecting it onto a group

Chabrol, H., Leeuwen, N., Van Rodgers, R., & Sejourne N. (2009). Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(7), 734-739. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020 The aim of this study was to assess the relative contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic traits to delinquent behaviors in adolescents. Participants were 615 high-school students who completed self-report questionnaires. Psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic traits were moderately correlated suggesting they may be overlapping but distinct constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to control for other socio-familial or psychopathological risk factors. Psychopathic and sadistic traits were independent predictors of delinquent behaviors in boys only. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of sadistic traits in juvenile delinquency.

Chakhssi, F., Ruiter, C. de, & Bernstein, D. (2010). Change during forensic treatment in psychopathic versus nonpsychopathic offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 21(5), 660-682. doi:10.1080/14789949.2010.483283. Psychopathy in forensic psychiatric patients and other criminal offenders is associated with higher criminal recidivism rates. Moreover, many forensic mental health professionals believe that psychopaths are not amenable to treatment. The present study examines whether patients with psychopathy demonstrate change during forensic psychiatric treatment. Seventy-four personality disordered offenders who had been convicted for serious violence were rated on the the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and assessed repeatedly on risk-related behaviors during 20-months of inpatient forensic treatment. Group- and individual-level analyses showed no significant differences between psychopathic and non-psychopathic patients on adaptive social behavior, communication skills, insight, attribution of responsibility, and self-regulation strategies. However, a subgroup of psychopaths (22%) deteriorated during treatment with regard to physical aggression, whereas none of the non-psychopathic patients did (p < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that, contrary to clinical lore, treatment does not make a majority of psychopaths worse, but there are significant differences between psychopaths and non-psychopaths in treatment responsiveness.

Chauhan, P., Reppucci, N. D., & Burnette, M. L. (2007). Application and impact of the psychopathy label to juveniles. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(1), 3-14.

Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and Psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti, & D. Cohen (Eds.). Developmental Psychopathology (2nd ed.): Theory and Method (3 Volumes) (pp.1-23). New York: Wiley. In this chapter, we discuss the principles inherent to a developmental psychopathology perspective. . . . To begin, we describe principles that have guided the field of developmental psychopathology. We then examine the historical origins of the field. We next explicate the definitional parameters of the discipline and discuss issues that are integral to research conducted within a developmental psychopathology framework. We conclude by describing some important future directions for prevention, research on interventions, and research on developmental psychopathology.

Cima, M. & Raine, A. (2009). Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 835-840. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.031 This article both selectively reviews the evidence supporting the view that reactive and proactive aggression actually reflect related but separate constructs, and also investigates the selective relationship between these forms of aggression and psychopathic personality in 121 male prison inmates. Results show that total psychopathy scores were related to residualized scores of proactive (but not reactive) aggression. However, different sub-characteristics of psychopathy were differentially related to reactive as well as proactive aggression. Results support the view that reactive and proactive aggression have differential correlates, and suggest that while psychopathic personality is predominantly characterized by proactive aggression, some psychopathy components are more related to reactive aggression.

Clark, L. A., & Livesley, W. J. (2002). Two approaches to identifying the dimensions of personality disorder: Convergence on the five-factor model. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 161-176). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Cleckley, H. (1976). The Mask of Sanity, 5th ed. St. Louis IL: Mosby. (Original work published 1941). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Mask of Sanity is a book written by Hervey Cleckley, M.D., first published in 1941, describing the clinical interviews of Cleckley with incarcerated psychopaths. It is considered a seminal work and the most influential clinical description of psychopathy in the 20th century. The basic elements of psychopathy outlined by Cleckley are still relevant today. The title refers to the normal "mask" that conceals the mental disorder of the psychopathic person in Cleckley's conceptualization. Cleckley describes the psychopathic person as outwardly a perfect mimic of a normally functioning person, able to mask or disguise the fundamental lack of internal personality structure, an internal chaos that results in repeatedly purposeful destructive behavior, often more self-destructive than destructive to others. Despite the seemingly sincere, intelligent, even charming external presentation, internally the psychopathic person does not have the ability to experience genuine emotions. Cleckley questions whether this mask of sanity is voluntarily assumed to intentionally hide the lack of internal structure, or if the mask hides a serious, but yet unidentified, psychiatric defect. An expanded edition of the book was published in 1982, after the DSM, the manual used in the United States for categorizing psychiatric disorders, had changed the name and standards for the classification of psychopathy to antisocial personality disorder, incorporating most of Cleckley's 16 characteristics of a psychopath. . . . Cleckley's book has now become the backbone of what we view as psychopathic personality traits and, in turn, has lead to numerous research studies into the construct of psychopathy and the psychopathic personality. Cleckley proposed 16 core personality traits in psychopaths 1. Superficial charm and good intelligence 2. An absence of delusions & other signs of irrational thinking 3. An absence of "nervousness" or psychopathic manifestations 4. Unreliability 5. Untruthfulness and insincerity 6. A lack of remorse or shame for their behavior 7. Inadequately motivated antisocial behavior 8. Poor judgment and failure to learn from previous experiences 9. Pathologic egocentricity and incapacity for love 10. General poverty in any major affective reactions or emotions 11. A specific loss of insight 12. A general unresponsiveness to interpersonal relationships 13. Fantastic and uninviting behavior with or without alcohol 14. Suicide is rarely carried out because of love of the self 15. Sex life will be impersonal, trivial, and poorly integrated 16. A failure to follow any kind of life plan . . . Cleckley described semantic dementia to signify individuals who had a tendency to say one thing and do another . . . Cleckley asserted that these personalities were not just criminal but were also seen in society's most respected roles and setting and illustrated several successful psychopaths. . . . Cleckley adopts a dimensional viewpoint —The psychopath varies not only in type but also in the severity of his specific disorder, which can range from a mild or borderline degree that allows him to conduct a relatively normal and acceptable life up through great degrees of disability. There are also behavior patterns of this sort which prove to be temporary (249). . . . Cleckley contrasted the ordinary criminal from the psychopath. [This classic source, that has inspired many current descriptions of psychopathy, suggests 16 criteria for the diagnosis of the disorder: (1) Superficial charm (2) Absence of delusions and other signs of irrational thinking (3) Lack of anxiety (4) Lack of remorse or shame (5) Undependability (6) Dishonesty, untruthfulness insincerity (7) Pathological egocentricity (8) Failure to form lasting intimate relationships (9) Failure to learn from punishment (10) General poverty in major affective relations (11) Lack of insight into the impact of one's behaviour on others (12) Failure to plan ahead (13) Fantastic and uninviting behaviour with drink, and sometimes without. (14) Suicide threats rarely carried out. (15) Sex life impersonal, trivial, and poorly integrated (16) Unresponsiveness in general interpersonal relations.]

Cloninger C. R. (2005). Antisocial personality disorder: A review. In M. Mai, H. Akiskal, J. Mezzich, & A. Okasha (Eds.). Personality disorders (pp. 125-169). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. A comprehensive up to date review of antisocial personality disorder.

Coid, J. W. (1998). The management of dangerous psychopaths in prison. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis, (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 431-457). New York: Guilford Press.

Coid, J., & Yang, M. (2008). The distribution of psychopathy among a household population: Categorical or dimensional? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(10), 773-781. doi: 10.1007/s00127-008-0363-8 Objective The study aimed to examine the distribution of psychopathic traits in a representative household population to identify whether a transition point is reached on a continuum of psychopathy to indicate a 'disease' or categorical entity. Method Mixture Poisson distribution and epidemiological procedures were used to examine the distribution of the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) score in a sample of 638 adults in households in Great Britain. Analysis aimed to identify a cut-off within the population using the distribution of continuous scores (mean and ½ SD) and validate a 'probable' psychopathy category using a scale of social and behavioural problems as an external validator. Results The distribution of psychopathy within the population was quasicontinuous, represented by a mixture of three-Poisson distributions with differing demography and comorbid Axis I and II psychopathology. Independent calculation indicated a cut-score at 11.8 on the PCL:SV. There was an exponential rise of associated social and behavioural problems at a transition point of 11.3. The prevalence of 'probable' psychopathy was 3.6% (95% CI = 2.3-5.5%) above this level. Conclusions The findings suggest a transition from a non-clinical to clinical state of psychopathy which can be defined categorically using a cut-off on the PCL:SV. The cut-off approximates to that previously recommended for identification of a case using the instrument. Above this critical level, individuals are at exceptional risk of compulsory care or incarceration due to multiple social and behavioural problems. Psychopathy should be considered for future inclusion in DSM-V and successfully combines both categorical and dimensional approaches to diagnosis.

Coid, J., Yang, M., Ullrich, S., Roberts, A., & Hare, R. D. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of psychopathic traits in the household population of Great Britain. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 32(2), 65-73. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.01.002 There are no previous surveys of psychopathy and psychopathic traits in representative general population samples using standardized instruments. This study aimed to measure prevalence and correlates of psychopathic traits, based on a two-phase survey using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) in 638 individuals, 16-74 years, in households in England, Wales and Scotland. The weighted prevalence of psychopathy was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-1.6) at a cut score of 13, similar to the noncriminal/nonpsychiatric sample described in the manual of the PCL: SV. Psychopathy scores correlated with: younger age, male gender; suicide attempts, violent behavior, imprisonment and homelessness; drug dependence; histrionic, borderline and adult antisocial personality disorders; panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. This survey demonstrated that, as measured by the PCL: SV, psychopathy is rare, affecting less than 1% of the household population, although it is prevalent among prisoners, homeless persons, and psychiatric admissions. There is a half-normal distribution of psychopathic traits in the general population, with the majority having no traits, a significant proportion with non-zero values, and a severe subgroup of persons with multiple associated social and behavioral problems. This distribution has implications for research into the etiology of psychopathy and its implications for society. . . . Psychopathy is a rare condition in the general population. In this study only a very small minority of individuals met common criteria for psychopathy or demonstrated elevated levels of psychopathic traits. These findings are in accordance with previous research. Furthermore, psychopathic traits were associated with multiple social and behavioral problems and a substantial co-morbidity with mental disorders on both Axes I and II of the DSM classification. The results of our study indicate that elevated psychopathic traits in non-incarcerated and non-psychiatric individuals are a disabling condition with various negative outcomes similar to those found in forensic and psychiatric samples.

Coid, J., Yang, M., Ullrich, S., Zhang, T., Sizmur, S., Farrington, D., et al. (2011). Most items in structured risk assessment instruments do not predict violence. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(1), 3-21. doi:10.1080/14789949.2010.495990. The predictive ability of static risk assessment instruments may be explained by a limited number of their items. This study examined the independent predictive accuracy of individual items in the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) for violent reconvictions following release among 1353 male prisoners in England and Wales. The study found most items in the three instruments were not independently predictive. Items not independently predictive were removed and all significant items in the original three instruments were combined, resulting in negligible gains in predictive accuracy for the VRAG and HCR-20, but a small improvement in the PCL-R. The study demonstrated that the predictive power of the PCL-R, VRAG and HCR-20 are based on a small number of their items. This may partly explain the 'glass-ceiling' effect beyond which further improvement cannot be achieved. Instruments lack outcome-specificity for violence, and independently predictive items include measures of general criminality.

Cooke, D. J. (1998). Cross-Cultural aspects of psychopathy. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis, (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 260-276). New York: Guilford Press.

Cooke, D. J., Hart, S. D., Logan, C., & Michie, C. (2012). Explicating the construct of psychopathy: Development and validation of a conceptual model, the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP). International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11(4), 242-252. http://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2012.746759

Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (2001). Refining the construct of psychopathy: Towards a hierarchical model. Psychological Assessment, 13(2), 171-188. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.13.2.171 Psychopathy is characterized by diverse indicators. Clinical accounts have emphasized 3 distinct facets: interpersonal, affective, and behavioral. Research using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), however, has emphasized a 2-factor model. A review of the literature on the PCL-R and related measures of psychopathy, together with confirmatory factor analysis of PCL-R data from North American participants, indicates that the 2-factor model cannot be sustained. A 3-factor hierarchical model was developed in which a coherent superordinate factor, Psychopathy, is underpinned by 3 factors: Arrogant and Deceitful Interpersonal Style, Deficient Affective Experience, and Impulsive and Irresponsible Behavioral Style. The model was cross-validated on North American and Scottish PCL-R data, Psychopathy Screening Version data, and data derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) antisocial personality disorder field trial. . . . We are advocating the future revision of the full PCL-R to assist research into the nature of the disorder; however, we strongly emphasize the necessity of continuing to use the full PCL-R for risk assessment and other applied purposes. [The authors criticise the two factors analysis of PCL-R. They argue that a more appropriate account should include three factors. The interpersonal/affective factor is separated in an interpersonal and an abnormal affect component. Factor I: Arrogant and deceitful interpersonal items: 1. Glibness/superficial charm 2. Grandiose sense of self-worth 4. Pathological lying 5. Conning/manipulative. Factor II: Deficient affective experience: 6. Lack of remorse or guilt 7. Shallow affect 8. Callous/lack of empathy 16. Failure to accept responsibility for own actions. Factor III: 3. Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom 9. Parasitic lifestyle 13. Lack of realistic, long-term goals 14. Impulsivity 15. Irresponsibility. Remaining items that do not fall under any factor: 10. Poor behavioural controls 11. Promiscuous sexual behaviour 12. Early behavioural problems 17. Many short-term marital relationship 18. Juvenile delinquency 19. Revocation of conditional release 20. Criminal versatility. For a three factor analysis of psychopathy in childhood and adolescence, see Frick and Hare 2001b.]

Cooke, D. J., Michie, C., Hart, S. D., & Clark, D. A. (2004). Reconstructing psychopathy: Clarifying the significance of antisocial and socially deviant behavior in the diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders,18(4), 337-357. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2004.18.4.337 A survey of clinical views suggests that the significance of antisocial and socially deviant behavior in the diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder is unclear. To investigate this issue, we evaluated Psychopathy Checklist-Revised ratings (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) using structural equation modeling. One model, referred to as the measurement model, included PCL-R ratings related to antisocial behavior as primary symptoms of psychopathy; a second, referred to as the causal model, included the same PCL-R ratings as secondary symptoms or consequences. Compared to the measurement models, the causal model included more PCL-R items, was more parsimonious, and had equal or superior fit indices. These findings suggest that antisocial behavior is best viewed as a secondary symptom or consequence of psychopathy. In addition, the findings have important implications for future research and clinical-forensic practice, especially concerning the assessment of risk for criminality and violence.

Cooke, D. J., Michie, C., Hart, S. D., Hare, R. D. (1999). Evaluating the screening version of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL:SV): An item response theory analysis. Psychological Assessment, 11(1), 3-13. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.11.1.3 The Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) was developed to complement the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991), and for use outside forensic settings. The PCL:SV takes less time to administer and requires less collateral information than the PCL-R. An item response theory approach was adopted to determine similarities in the structural properties of the 2 instruments and whether the PCL:SV could be regarded as a short form of the PCL-R. Eight of the 12 items in the PCL:SV were strongly parallel to their equivalent PCL-R items. Of the 4 items PCL:SV items which differed from their equivalent PCL-R items, all 4 were found to be equal or superior to their equivalent PCL-R items in terms of discrimination. The analyses confirmed previous results that the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy have higher thresholds than do the impulsive and antisocial behavioral features; individuals have to be at a higher level of the psychopathic trait before the interpersonal and affective features become evident. The PCL:SV is an effective short form of the PCL-R.

Cooke, D. J., Michie, C., & Skeem J. (2007). Understanding the structure of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(suppl. 49), s39- s50. doi : 10.1192/bjp.190.5.s39 Psychopathy is the key construct in the Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) Programme. The Psychopathy Checklist - Revised is used as a primary means of selection for the programme. The Checklist confounds two distinct constructs - personality disorder and criminal behaviour. This confound is important both practically and theoretically. For example, under the criteria for DSPD it is necessary to demonstrate that personality disorder has a functional link with future risk of criminal behaviour. The confound has been exacerbated recently by claims that criminal behaviour is a core feature of psychopathic disorder. This contention is based on inappropriate analytical methods. In this paper we examine the source of this confound and illustrate how inappropriate methods can mislead.

Cooper, B. S., Herve, H., & Yuille, J. C. (2007). Psychopathy and memory for violence. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(2), 123-135. Despite theoretical speculation suggesting psychopaths have superior memory for their autobiographical experiences in comparison to nonpsychopaths, little published research has directly assessed this issue. This lack of research formed the impetus for the present investigation. As part of a larger study investigating variables associated with episodic memory in adult male offenders, 150 violent crime perpetrators were interviewed at two federal penitentiaries in British Columbia, Canada. The participants' memories for three different acts of perpetrated violence were elicited (i.e., acts of instrumental and reactive violence and a poorly remembered act of violence) and exhausted for detail. The sample was dichotomized by psychopathy status via the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). Consistent with certain assumptions of Herve, Cooper, and Yuille's (2007) biopsychosocial model of eyewitness memory, the pattern which emerged indicated that psychopathic participants reportedly had better memory for their acts of violence in comparison to nonpsychopathic participants. The results are discussed in terms of how the present research supports the extant research and theories. Future directions for empirical investigations and implications for the criminal justice system are offered.

Copestake, S., Gray, N., & Snowden, R. (2011). A comparison of a self-report measure of psychopathy with the psychopathy checklist-revised in a UK sample of offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(2), 169-182. doi:10.1080/14789949.2010.545134. Psychopathy is an extremely important construct in both forensic psychology and psychiatry. Recently, there have been attempts to produce self-report questionnaires of psychopathic traits. We examined the relationship between such a self-report measure of psychopathy [(Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R), Lilienfeld, S.O., & Widows, M.R. (2005). Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.] and an assessment of psychopathy by a third party using the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R; R.D. Hare, 2003. Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) 2nd Edition. Toronto: ON: Multi-Health Systems.). A strong relationship (r = .54) was found between the two measures of psychopathy in a sample of male offenders. However, the factors underpinning the PPI-R and the factors underpinning the PCL-R did not show any obvious correspondence. It is suggested that the PCL-R and the PPI-R measure different conceptualisations of psychopathy and that one cannot be used as a substitute for the other.

Corr, P. J. (Ed.). (2008). Reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. New York: Cambridge University Press. Jeffrey Alan Gray was known for his important contributions to many areas of psychology, latterly in his career, schizophrenia, stem-cell transplantation and a full-blown theory of the functions of consciousness. But his theory of anxiety and personality more generally-now known as Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST)-is one of his greatest achievements and secures his place in the history books.

Corr, P. J. (2010). The psychoticism–psychopathy continuum: A neuropsychological model of core deficits. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 695-703. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.12.023. A neuropsychological model of a proposed psychoticism–psychopathy continuum is sketched, which postulates that the core deficits seen both in the personality trait of psychoticism and the clinical condition of psychopathy result from a dysfunction in a behavioural inhibition system (BIS; concerned with detecting and resolving goal-conflicts and associated with the emotion of anxiety) which leads to cognitive inflexibility, inattentiveness and response modulation deficit. Furthermore, differences in activity in a fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS; concerned with avoidance/escape and associated with the emotion of fear) are postulated to differentiate primary (low fearful) and secondary (adequately fearful) psychopaths, with the latter type also experiencing increased activity in a behavioural approach system (BAS; concerned with approach behaviour and associated with the emotion of hopeful anticipation) resulting in dysfunctional impulsiveness. Sub-clinical levels of psychoticism are postulated to result from a defective FFFS and BIS, coupled with an over-active BAS (specifically the fun-seeking, impulsivity facet) – this postulation raises the possibility that psychoticism may be a conflation of these separate influences and may differentiate into two types similar to those found in psychopathy. This model reconciles previously inconsistent findings relating the BIS to psychopathy and points to new avenues of research.

Costa, P. T. Jr., & Widiger, T. A. (2002). Introduction: Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 3-14). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Cox, J., DeMatteo, D. S., & Foster, E. E. (2010). The effect of the psychopathy checklist - revised in capital cases: Mock jurors' responses to the label of psychopathy. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28(6), 878-891. doi:10.1002/bsl.958 Despite mixed empirical evidence regarding the ability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to predict violence among incarcerated inmates, it continues to be used to address such questions, even in the context of capital cases. The purpose of this study was to examine if the PCL-R has a prejudicial effect on mock jury members during the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial. Results indicated that participants were more likely to sentence the defendant to death when the defendant exhibited a high likelihood to commit future violence, whether or not the diagnostic label "psychopath" was present. Interestingly, when asked to rate the defendant's likelihood for future violence and murder, the defendant who was a high risk for future violence and not labeled a psychopath received the highest rating. These results suggest an absence of juror bias as it pertains to the label "psychopath" when sentencing a defendant in a capital murder case.

Craig, M. C., Catani, M., Deeley, Q., Latham, R., Daly, E., Kanaan, R., Picchioni, M., McGuire, P. K., Fahy, T., & Murphy, D. G. M. (2009). Altered connections on the road to psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 9 June 2009; doi: 10.1038/mp.2009.40 Psychopathy is strongly associated with serious criminal behaviour (for example, rape and murder) and recidivism. However, the biological basis of psychopathy remains poorly understood. Earlier studies suggested that dysfunction of the amygdala and/or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may underpin psychopathy. Nobody, however, has ever studied the white matter connections (such as the uncinate fasciculus (UF)) linking these structures in psychopaths. Therefore, we used in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) tractography to analyse the microstructural integrity of the UF in psychopaths (defined by a Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) score of greater than or equal to25) with convictions that included attempted murder, manslaughter, multiple rape with strangulation and false imprisonment. We report significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) (P < 0.003), an indirect measure of microstructural integrity, in the UF of psychopaths compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. We also found, within psychopaths, a correlation between measures of antisocial behaviour and anatomical differences in the UF. To confirm that these findings were specific to the limbic amygdala-OFC network, we also studied two 'non-limbic' control tracts connecting the posterior visual and auditory areas to the amygdala and the OFC, and found no significant between-group differences. Lastly, to determine that our findings in UF could not be totally explained by non-specific confounds, we carried out a post hoc comparison with a psychiatric control group with a past history of drug abuse and institutionalization. Our findings remained significant. Taken together, these results suggest that abnormalities in a specific amygdala-OFC limbic network underpin the neurobiological basis of psychopathy.

Crighton, D. (2009). Uses and abuses of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 12(2), 33-36. doi:10.1136/ebmh.12.2.33 The PCL has seen dramatic growth in its use, particularly in the criminal justice context. Growth was from a very low baseline, largely on the basis of reported promising results from early research. The development of use was underpinned by three main claims about the PCL: a. that it provided a reliable and valid means of identifying those who are unsuitable for current interventions intended to reduce criminal re-offending b. that it provided an appropriate basis for the development of new interventions for psychopathy c. that it provided the best means of assessing future risk of violent recidivism. These claims though have not been supported by the emerging evidence base. . . . Drawing largely on an initial burst of enthusiasm and reports of highly promising results, the PCL has seen dramatic growth in its use, largely in criminal justice settings but also within mental health services. Such use has run well ahead of the evidence base and the future value of the PCL to mental health practice is unclear.

Culhane, S. E., Hilstad, S. M., Freng, A., & Gray, M. J. (2011). Self-Reported Psychopathology in a Convicted Serial Killer. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 8 (December 2010), 1-21. doi: 10.1002/jip. The following paper presents a case study of a convicted serial murderer. Through data from personal correspondence, police reports, a true crime novel, witness statements, medical examiner reports, court appeals, and crime scene reports from the actual murder cases, and most important, a series of psychological self-report measures, a case study was developed. Included in the psychological measures were tests of general psychopathology, specific tests of psychopathy, anger and aggression scales, and sociological measures related to family, individual, situational, and community risk factors, as well as previous criminal behaviour, including weapon and drug use. The results of these various measures are incorporated into the life history and criminal activity of the individual. The purpose of this research was to develop a more complete psychological report of a serial killer than any other previously reported.

Curry, O., Chesters, M. J., & Viding, E. (2011). The psychopath's dilemma: The effects of psychopathic personality traits in one-shot games. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(6), 804-809. doi:doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.036 If psychopathy is the absence of the cooperative dispositions present in normally-developing individuals, then individuals with higher levels of psychopathic personality traits should exhibit lower levels of cooperation in experimental games. The present study investigated whether Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) scores were negatively correlated with cooperation in one-shot prisoner's dilemmas and bargaining games. The results show that specific PPI subscales (especially Machiavellian Egocentricity) were negatively associated with cooperation, and have diverse effects on bargaining. These results suggest that neither cooperation nor psychopathy are 'monomorphic', and that future research should identify how different aspects of psychopathic personality influence distinct types of social interaction.

Damasio, A. R. (2000). A Neural Basis for Sociopathy. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 57(2), 128-129. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.2.128 A commentary on: Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., & Colletti, P. (2000). An example of a recent article using the term sociopathy by one of the leading neurophysiological researchers.

Dawson, S., McCuish, E., Hart, S. D., & Corrado, R. R. (2012). Critical Issues in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathy: An Illustration Using Two Case Studies. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11(2), 63-79. doi:10.1080/14999013.2012.676149 To explore critical issues in the conceptualization and assessment of adolescent psychopathy, we report on the use of theYouthVersion of the Hare PsychopathyChecklist-Revised (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality- Institutional Rating Scale (CAPP-IRS; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2004) -- both derived from procedures for assessing psychopathy in adulthood -- to assess two incarcerated youth identified by clinical staff as demonstrating features of adolescent psychopathy. Consistent with the views of clinical staff, the PCL: YV and CAPP-IRS ratings indicated the presence of serious psychopathy-related personality disturbance in both cases. The PCL: YV and CAPP-IRS also revealed between-case differences in the specific nature or features of personality disturbance present, despite similarities in the overall level or severity of personality disturbance. Raters found it was relatively easy to administer the PCL: YV and the CAPP-IRS, although they identified some challenges, particularly with respect to the assessment of disturbance of self functions. Relative to the PCL: YV, which may be considered the gold standard for assessing the PCL: YV, the CAPP-IRS had some strengths and limitations. We discuss these findings in light of the literature on assessment of adolescent psychopathy and consider their implications for future research.

Daversa, M. T. (2008). Early environmental predictors of the affective and interpersonal constructs of psychopathy. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, OnlineFirst, published on December 24, 2008 as doi:10.1177/0306624X08328754 Early childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional abuse) and caregiver disruptions are hypothesized to be instrumental in altering the neurobiology of the brain, particularly the amygdala, and contributing to the development of the affective deficits examined in individuals with psychopathy. Exposure to early untoward life events in models of rodent and nonhuman primates changes the neurobiology of the stress response. It is hypothesized that these changes may permanently shape brain regions that mediate stress and emotion and therefore play a role in the etiology of affective disorders in humans. The significance of experience (e.g., the intensity/severity, chronicity/duration, and developmental timing of experiences) and how the accompanying changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system affect alterations in the amygdala are discussed as critical contributors to the etiology of psychopathy. A model is proposed in which early maltreatment experiences contribute to alterations to the amygdala and produce a blunted or dissociative response to stress, a key factor in the affective deficits observed in psychopaths.

Dawson, S., McCuish, E., Hart, S. D., & Corrado, R. R. (2012). Critical issues in the assessment of adolescent psychopathy: An illustration using two case studies. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11(2), 63-79. http://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2012.676149

Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3(2), 71-100. doi:10.1177/1534582304267187 Empathy accounts for the naturally occurring subjective experience of similarity between the feelings expressed by self and others without loosing sight of whose feelings belong to whom. Empathy involves not only the affective experience of the other person's actual or inferred emotional state but also some minimal recognition and understanding of another's emotional state. In light of multiple levels of analysis ranging from developmental psychology, social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical neuropsychology, this article proposes a model of empathy that involves parallel and distributed processing in a number of dissociable computational mechanisms. Shared neural representations, self-awareness, mental flexibility, and emotion regulation constitute the basic macrocomponents of empathy, which are underpinned by specific neural systems. This functional model may be used to make specific predictions about the various empathy deficits that can be encountered in different forms of social and neurological disorders. . . . The way our nervous system is organized and tailored by evolution provides the basic mechanism for resonating with others, as well as the capacity to simulate our own actions, their consequences, and also the actions of others (Jackson & Decety, 2004). . . . Finally, as suggested earlier, empathy is a motivated process that more often than commonly believed is triggered voluntarily. This makes empathy a flexible human capacity as well as a method of gaining knowledge of understanding another, and it is susceptible to social cognitive intervention, such as through training or enhancement programs for targeting various goals (e.g., reeducation of antisocial personalities, training of psychotherapists or physicians, and training early at-risk children

Decuyper, M., De Pauw, S., De Fruyt, F., De Bolle, M., & De Clercq, B. J. (2009). A meta-analysis of psychopathy-, antisocial PD- and FFM associations. European Journal of Personality, 23(7), 531-565. doi:10.1002/per.729 This research meta-analytically summarizes the relationships of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) with psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). Effect sizes of the associations between psychopathy, APD and the FFM were compiled from 26 independent samples (N = 6913) for psychopathy and 57 independent samples (N = 16 424) for APD. The results revealed predominantly points of similarity and some differences in the FFM associations of both disorders. Symptoms of psychopathy and APD were negatively associated with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness facets and positively with scores on Angry-Hostility (N2), Impulsiveness (N5), Excitement Seeking (E5) and negatively with Warmth (E1). Only psychopathy had a small negative association with Anxiety (N1) and was characterized by stronger negative associations with Agreeableness and Straightforwardness (A2), Compliance (A4) and Modesty (A5) compared to APD. The moderator analyses showed that sample type, use of the NEO-PI-R and APD instrument moderated the APD FFM associations, while psychopathy instrument and age group were moderators in the psychopathy MA. Implications of this research for the assessment of APD and psychopathy relying on dimensional models of personality pathology are discussed.

DeGue, S., & DiLillo, D. (2005). "You would if you loved me": Toward an improved conceptual and etiological understanding of nonphysical male sexual coercion. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(4), 513-532. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2004.09.001 This paper reviews current research regarding the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with male sexual coercion, defined here as a class of inappropriate male behaviors in which nonphysical tactics (e.g., verbal pressure, lying, deceit, and continual arguments) are utilized to obtain sexual contact with an unwilling adult female. This form of sexual misconduct is contrasted with sexual aggression (i.e., forcible rape), in which the threat or use of physical force is utilized to gain sexual contact. A conceptual framework for understanding and examining sexual coercion within the broader context of male sexual misconduct is offered. This model consists of two primary dimensions: (1) types of sexual contact and (2) tactics for obtaining sexual contact, which intersect to form quadrants representing distinct categories of sexual misconduct. The broader sexual misconduct literature is utilized to shed light on possible predictors and etiological factors associated specifically with sexual coercion. These factors fall into four categories: (1) attitudinal or belief systems, (2) behavioral tendencies, (3) personality characteristics, and (4) childhood abuse experiences. Literature in each of these areas is reviewed and discussed. Finally, methodological and conceptual considerations for sexual misconduct research are presented. . . . the need to distinguish between coercive and aggressive sexual offending is the issue

DeMatteo, D., Heilbrun, K., & Marczyk, G. (2005). Psychopathy, risk of violence, and protective factors in a noninstitutionalized and noncriminal sample. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 4(2), 147-157. The relationship between psychopathy and violence among incarcerated and institutionalized samples has received considerable attention, but less is known about the risk of violence posed by psychopaths in the community, particularly those with no prior contact with the criminal justice system. Moreover, little is known about why some psychopaths have avoided being arrested. This study considered the role of specific protective factors in relation to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores and three measures of antisocial behavior among 54 community participants with and without criminal histories. The methodology effectively recruited individuals with moderately elevated PCL-R scores. Roughly 40% of the sample reported no history of arrests, and a sizeable portion of both criminal and noncriminal participants reported a history of violent behavior. Results revealed no significant relationship between protective factors and participants' PCL-R scores and involvement in antisocial behavior. Secondary analyses found a significant negative correlation between protective factors and PCL-R scores for participants with higher levels of psychopathic characteristics. Finally, noncriminal participants endorsed considerably more protective factors than criminal participants. Findings suggest that protective factors may hold promise for explaining why some high-risk individuals can avoid contact with the criminal justice system.

DeMatteo, D., Heilbrun, K., & Marczyk, G. (2006). An empirical investigation of psychopathy in a noninstitutionalized and noncriminal sample. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24(2), 133-146. doi:10.1002/bsl.667 This study examined the construct of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) in 54 participants from the general population. To obtain a sample of community participants with psychopathic characteristics, participants were recruited using advertisements for a personality study that incorporated the characteristics of psychopathy in a nonpejorative manner. The methodology successfully recruited community participants with moderately elevated PCL-R scores. Participants exhibited the personality features of psychopathy (Factor 1) to a greater extent than the behavioral features (Factor 2), which is consistent with the results obtained with the PCL-R normative samples. Roughly 40% of the sample reported no history of involvement with the criminal justice system, yet these participants exhibited moderately elevated PCL-R scores. Moreover, a sizeable portion of the noncriminal participants reported a substantial history of violent behavior. Comparisons of PCL-R scores between participants with and without a criminal history suggest that these two groups differ in ways unrelated to criminal justice system involvement.

De Oliveira-Souza, R., Hare, R. D., Bramati, I. E., Garrido, G. J., Ignacio, F. A., Tovar-Moll, F., & Moll, J. (2008). Psychopathy as a disorder of the moral brain: Fronto-temporo-limic grey matter reductions demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage, 40(3), 1202-1213. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.12.054 Major advances have been made in the understanding of the neurobiology of psychopathy in the past years, yet the distribution and extent of neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying the disorder are still poorly known. It is also unclear if different dimensions of the construct of psychopathy (e.g., emotional callousness, antisocial behavior) correspond to structural abnormalities in distinct regions of the brain. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) psychopathy is related to grey matter reductions in regions of the brain that underlie moral conduct and (2) the severity of psychopathy is related to the degree of structural abnormalities. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and the screening version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL: SV) were employed to investigate a matched sample of 15 community psychiatric patients with high PCL: SV scores, and 15 healthy normal volunteers. The analyses controlled for total grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumes. Grey matter reductions were observed in the frontopolar, orbitofrontal and anterior temporal cortices, superior temporal sulcus region, and insula of the patients. The degree of structural abnormalities was significantly related to the interpersonal/affective dimension of psychopathy. The pattern of grey matter reductions in patients with high psychopathy scores comprised a distributed fronto-temporal network which plays a critical role in moral sensibility and behavior.

Derefinko, K. J., & Lynam, D. R. (2006). Convergence and divergence among self-report psychopathy measures: a personality-based approach. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20(3), 261-280. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2006.20.3.261 The study examined, in a sample of 346 undergraduates, the convergence and divergence of three self-report measures of psychopathy; the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (Lillienfeld & Andrews, 1996), the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Hare, Harpur, & Hemphill, 1989), and the Five Factor Psychopathy Index (Miller, Lynam, Widiger, & Leukefeld, 2001). Measures demonstrated strong convergence at the total score level, but weak convergence at the factor level. Correlations with domains and facets of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992) provided personality parsings of each measure. Across measures, psychopathy was composed of low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and a blend of high and low facets of Neuroticism and Extraversion. Divergence among subscales was due to differences in personality characteristics assessed. Additionally, the potential moderating effects of sex were also examined, but very few were identified. Implications of these results and future directions are discussed.

Derefinko, K. J., & Lynam, D. R. (2007). Using the FFM to conceptualize psychopathy: A test using a drug abusing sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(6), 638-656. doi:10.1521/pedi.2007.21.6.638 The present study examined whether psychopathy can be understood as a constellation of traits from the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. Using a prototype matching approach, we examined the ability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) to represent psychopathy in a sample of 297 male and female known crack cocaine abusers. Importantly, we examined the convergence and divergence between FFM psychopathy and other personality disorders assessed using the FFM. FFM psychopathy was correlated with self-reports of antisocial behavior, drug use, risky sex, and externalizing and internalizing disorder symptoms. As expected, there was overlap in the relations between psychopathy and several Cluster B personality disorders, but there were also important points of divergence. These results further extend the nomological network of FFM psychopathy and provide additional support for considering psychopathy a constellation of personality traits from a general model.

Deutschman, A. (2005). Is your boss a psychopath? Fast Company, 96, 44-50. An extremely thorough, well-researched and well-written cover story by Alan Deutschman including side bars with photos/bios of individuals the author labels "bosses from hell", and an eight-item "quiz" for readers to check out their bosses.

DiLalla, L., & Gottesman, I. (1991). Biological and genetic contributors to violence: Widom's untold tale. Psychological Bulletin, 109(1), 125-129. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.109.1.125 In her review of the literature on the intergenerational transmission of violent behaviors, Widom (1989a) addressed the social issues but omitted all references to the relevant biological and genetic literature. This addition to her review introduces studies of criminality, delinquency, and violence from a behavioral genetic standpoint. There is clear evidence for a genetic role in criminality and for a physiological basis for violent behavior. The inclusion of such genetic and biological evidence is necessary for a more complete understanding of the transmission of violence from one generation to another. . . . Widom (1989a) concluded that although current research results are far from definitive, an abused child is at risk for becoming violent, delinquent, or criminal later in life.

Docker, J. (2008).The origins of violence: Religion, history and genocide. London: Pluto Press. In this book I discuss violence and genocide, and questioning of violence and genocide, as constitutive of the human condition down the ages. My focus is not on violence between individuals, but on intergroup violence. My aim is to evoke and explain such intergroup violence in ways that include both physical violence and the violence that inheres in language and culture, in ideas, notions, concepts, narratives and images.

Dolan, R. J. (1999). On the neurology of morals. Nature Neuroscience, 2(11), 927-929. doi:10.1038/14707 Patients with medial prefrontal lesions often display irresponsible behavior, despite being intellectually unimpaired. But similar lesions occurring in early childhood can also prevent the acquisition of factual knowledge about accepted standards of moral behavior.

Dolan, M. (2008). Neurobiological disturbances in callous-unemotional youths. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(6) 668. Recently, there has been growing interest in the utility of the construct of psychopathy as an alternative to ADHD for subtyping antisocial youths (3, 4). Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder that includes interpersonal and affective traits, such as glibness and lack of empathy, guilt, and remorse, and behavioral characteristics, such as impulsivity and poor behavioral control. Despite debate on the number of dimensions needed to capture the construct of psychopathy in adults, research in antisocial youths has highlighted a potentially useful distinction between the impulsive-conduct problem dimension of psychopathy and callous-unemotional traits (e.g., lack of empathy, lack of guilt, and callous use of others for personal gain.

Dolan, M. (2012). The neuropsychology of prefrontal function in antisocial personality disordered offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy. Psychological medicine, 42, 1715-25. doi:10.1017/S0033291711002686

Doren, D. M., & Yates, P. M. (2008). Effectiveness of sex offender treatment for psychopathic sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(2), 234-245. doi: 10.1177/0306624X07303914 Meta-analyses have suggested that sexual offender treatment (SOT) completion is associated with lowered sexual recidivism rates for convicted sexual offenders. The paucity of properly designed studies allows for the alternative explanation of less recidivism among treated samples as reflecting that lower risk offenders disproportionately selfselect into treatment. A test of the "self-selection explanation" can occur by investigating treatment effect on known high-risk offenders. Psychopathy correlates with increased sexual recidivism risk, such that an exploration of the SOT effect on psychopathic offenders could clarify the accuracy of the self-selection hypothesis. Additionally, the debated degree to which psychopaths are treatable might obtain clarification by a research review. This article examines empirical findings concerning the effectiveness of SOT for psychopathic sexual offenders. Ten studies were found to meet the minimal quality standards used, stemming from only four data sources. Shortcomings of existing research precluded clear conclusions, though trends in the data are delineated. . . . Hence, no conclusion can be drawn from existing research about the degree to which psychopathic offenders benefit from sex offender treatment.

D'Silva, K., Duggan, C., & McCarthy, L. (2004). Does treatment really make psychopaths worse? A review of the evidence. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(2), 163-177. doi: 10.1521/pedi.18.2.163.32775 We aimed to evaluate critically the evidence behind the perceived inverse association between the degree of psychopathy as reflected by a high score on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and treatment response. A literature search with the key identifiers of PCL-R (or its derivatives) and treatment response produced 24 studies that were then systematically evaluated. This showed that only three studies were of an appropriate research design to answer the question and of these, none met our standard for an acceptable study. We conclude therefore that the commonly held belief of an inverse relationship between high-scores on the PCL-R and treatment response has not been established.

Duggan, C. (2009). Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention. NICE Clinical Guideline 77.

Duntley, J. D., & Shackelford, T. K. (2008). Darwinian foundations of crime and law. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(5), 373-382. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.06.002 Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provides a powerful meta-theoretical framework that has the potential to unify and energize research in the social sciences just as it has the biological sciences and the field of psychology. A rapidly growing body of research in the field of evolutionary psychology has documented the importance of evolutionary forces in shaping patterns of human cognition and behavior. The process of natural selection is proposed to have shaped many behaviors that represent crimes in modern societies, such as murder, assault, rape, and theft, to address ancestrally recurrent conflicts between individuals. The cost-inflicting strategies that we recognize as crimes may have been favored by natural selection when they gave individuals an advantage in competition for scarce, reproductively reproductively-relevant resources. An exploration of the contexts of ancestrally recurrent conflicts for these resources and how the process of selection operates to shape adaptive strategies in individuals to best competitors can help to elucidate the nature of cognitive and behavioral adaptations that are hypothesized to produce criminal behaviors. An evolutionary forensic psychology represents the beginning of a revolution of thought and discovery that will bring us closer to the true nature of individuals, societies, morality, crime, and what our laws are capable of doing. . . . The adaptationist approach outlined in this article has great promise to improve our understanding of a range of cognitive and behavioral phenomena. Evolutionary theory provides a powerful set of tools for exploring the functions of psychological mechanisms. It suggests specific, novel hypotheses and provides a logical framework that open and unites data sources not routinely utilized in psychological research (e.g., comparative, ethnographic, bioarcheological).

Dvorak-Bertsch, J. D., Curtin, J. J., Rubinstein, T. J., & Newman, J. P. (2007). Anxiety moderates the interplay between cognitive and affective processing, Psychological Science, 18(1), 699-705. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01963.x Evidence suggests that focus of attention and cognitive load may each affect emotional processing and that individual differences in anxiety moderate such effects. We examined (a) fear-potentiated startle (FPS) under threat-focused (TF), low-load/alternative-set (LL/AS), and high-load/alternative-set (HL/AS) conditions and (b) the moderating effect of trait anxiety on FPS across these conditions. As predicted, redirecting attentional focus away from threat cues and increasing cognitive load reduced FPS. However, the moderating effects of anxiety were specific to the LL/AS condition. Whereas FPS was comparable for high-anxiety and low-anxiety subjects in the TF and HL/AS conditions, FPS was significantly greater for high-anxiety than for low-anxiety subjects in the LL/AS condition. These results suggest that affective processing requires attentional resources and that exaggerated threat processing in anxious individuals relates to direction of attention rather than emotional reactivity per se.

Edens, J. F. (2006). Unresolved Controversies Concerning Psychopathy: Implications for Clinical and Forensic Decision Making. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(1), 59-65. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.37.1.59 At some point in their careers, clinicians who work or consult in forensic and correctional settings will almost certainly encounter individuals who exhibit psychopathic personality features. Because of the widespread use of this disorder to inform legal and clinical decision making, psychologists should be exceedingly familiar with the relevant research literature on this topic before venturing into these settings. This article reviews the empirical bases of several clinically relevant claims and assertions regarding psychopathy and concludes that many areas of research are decidedly more equivocal in their findings than is commonly perceived. Although there is much to be gained by assessing psychopathy in various contexts, clinicians need to be cautious about drawing overzealous and empirically questionable conclusions about an important disorder that also has great potential for abuse. . . . two general themes related to potential overreaching on the part of mental health experts that are not unique to psychopathy per se. The first is the longstanding nomothetic-versus-idiographic problem of what types of conclusions or predictions are appropriate to make about individuals on the basis of group-level data. The second general theme is the effect of working in an adversarial criminal context, where there is a press to move from objective "expert" neutrality toward asserting positions or opinions that are most favorable to the side that has retained the clinician, or at least asserting them in the most favorable way possible. . . . I would suggest that some of what drives what I perceive to be the overzealousness about psychopathy is the desire of some professionals to bolster the relevance of clinical psychology in forensic and correctional decision making, where its contributions over the past few decades have been (somewhat speciously, I would argue) devalued (see, generally, Andrews, Bonta, & Hoge, 1990). . . . Ten years ago, Hare (1996) asserted that psychopathy was "a clinical construct whose time has come" (p. 25). Let us hope that in the next decade it does not become, because of overly enthusiastic misapplication, a clinical construct in need of restraint.

Edens, J. F. (2009). Interpersonal characteristics of male criminal offenders: Personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 89-98. doi: 10.1037/a0014856 Interest in conceptualizing the interpersonal style of individuals who engage in serious antisocial behavior has increased in recent years. This study examines the personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates of interpersonal dominance and warmth, as operationalized via scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. Morey, 2007), across several samples of male prison inmates (combined N = 1,062). Consistent with theory, multivariate analyses indicated that low warmth and, to a lesser extent, high dominance were associated with antisocial and paranoid traits, specifically, and externalizing-spectrum psychopathology more generally, whereas borderline traits and internalizing-spectrum psychopathology were uniquely associated with low interpersonal warmth. Among smaller subsamples of inmates followed prospectively, high dominance and, to a lesser extent, low warmth predicted general and aggressive institutional misconduct, whereas dominance uniquely predicted staff ratings of treatment noncompliance/failure. . . . The findings are consistent with the notion that an interpersonal style characterized by high dominance and low warmth/affiliation is associated with various indicators of maladjustment and dysfunction among those with significant histories of antisocial conduct.

Edens, J. F., & Campbell, J. S. (2007). Identifying youths at risk for institutional misconduct: A meta-analytic investigation of the psychopathy checklist measures. Psychological Services, 4(1), 13-27. doi: 10.1037/1541-1559.4.1.13 Identifying and intervening with youths who may be prone to misconduct and aggression is an important management task in institutional settings. Psychopathy, typically assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) or Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), has been asserted to be a prominent predictor of acting out among youths, even in controlled environments such as detention facilities or psychiatric hospitals. The present study investigated this association meta-analytically by aggregating effect sizes for three types of institutional misconduct (total, aggressive, physically violent) across 15 samples (N = 1,310). The weighted mean correlations ranged from .24 to .28, although there was considerable heterogeneity for aggressive and physically violent misbehavior. The file drawer problem was reflected in the variability in aggressive misconduct, with published studies reporting larger effects (weighted r = .33) than unpublished reports (weighted r = .14). Moreover, this difference could not be explained in terms of differing methodological quality between published and unpublished studies. Failure to consider the totality of the extant research may lead to inflated perceptions of the predictive utility of juvenile psychopathy measures in institutional settings. . . . there appears to be growing interest in using the "youth psychopathy" construct to inform clinical and forensic decision-making.

Edens, J. F., Marcus, D., Lilienfeld, S., & Poythress, N. (2006). Psychopathic, not psychopath: Taxometric evidence for the dimensional structure of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), 131-144. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.115.1.131 Although psychopathy is frequently regarded as qualitatively distinct from other conditions, relatively little research has examined whether psychopaths represent a distinct class of individuals. Using a sample of 876 prison inmates and court-ordered substance abuse patients who were administered the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003), the authors examined the latent structure of psychopathy using several taxometric procedures developed by Meehl and colleagues (P. E. Meehl & L. J. Yonce, 1994; N. G. Waller & P. E. Meehl, 1998). The results across these procedures offer no compelling support for the contention that psychopathy is a taxonic construct and contradict previous reports that psychopathy is underpinned by a latent taxon. The authors discuss the theoretical, public policy, and practice-level implications of these findings. . . . In summary, our findings contrast sharply with those of Harris and et al. (1994) and fail to offer support for the view that psychopathy assessed by the PCL-R is underpinned by a discrete taxon.

Edens, J. F., Poythress, N. G., & Watkins, M. M. (2001). Further validation of the psychopathic personality inventory among offenders: Personality and behavioral correlates. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(5), 403-415. doi: 10.1521/pedi.15.5.403.19202 The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) is a relatively new self-report measure that has shown considerable promise as an index of psychopathic traits in both nonoffender and offender samples. The present study examined the construct validity and predictive utility of the PPI by examining its association with theoretically relevant scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) among 60 male prison inmates, and its ability to predict institutional misbehavior in an expanded sample (n = 89). As expected, correlations with the PAI scales were highest for the Antisocial Features (ANT) and Aggression (AGG) scales (rs = .68 and .57, respectively). The PPI also predicted various forms of nonviolent and physically aggressive disciplinary infractions significantly better than chance (point biserial correlations ranging from .26 to .37).

Eisenbarth, H., Alpers, G. W., Conzelmann, A., Jacob, C. P., Weyers, P., & Pauli, P. (2008). Psychopathic traits in adult ADHD patients. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 468-472. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.022 Previous studies have shown that the prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is elevated in prison inmates and in forensic patients with psychopathic traits. However, it is not clear whether ADHD and psychopathy scores also correlate in adult non-incarcerated samples. Moreover, it has not been examined if this correlation is due to specific facets of psychopathy. We assessed psychopathy in 30 adult ADHD patients and in 41 healthy participants using the psychopathic personality inventory revised (PPI-R). Male ADHD patients had higher scores compared to healthy male and female participants on the subscales blame externalization, rebellious nonconformity, and carefree nonplanfulness. Irrespective of gender, ADHD patients had lower scores compared to healthy participants on stress immunity and coldheartedness. These data specify the previously documented correlation between ADHD and psychopathy, and suggest that only the behavioral features of psychopathy are affected in ADHD whereas, the emotional features are not. . . . Together, these data provide convincing evidence for the model of Colledge and Blair (2001), who suggested that psychopathy and ADHD share impulsivity and antisocial features but not the emotion processing deficit which is typical for psychopathy. . . . Taken together, this study adds an interesting perspective to the discussion on ADHD and its relationship to psychopathy. We found specific relationships of these constructs for male ADHD patients, suggesting that Colledge and Blair's model should be specified for gender aspects. Furthermore, our data could point to a better understanding of the prevalent delinquency in ADHD patients (Roesler et al., 2004). Although these patients seem to share characteristics with psychopaths, they do not show the callous unemotional and manipulative traits of psychopathy. A common underlying mechanism of conduct problems in both, ADHD patients and high psychopathic individuals, as suggested by Colledge and Blair (2001), is very plausible.

Ellis, L. (2006). Sex, status, and criminality: A theoretical nexus. Social Biology, 51(3/4), 144-160. This article offers a theoretical explanation for relationships between social status and involvement in serious and persistent criminal behavior from an evolutionary perspective. The theory's central premise is that natural selection has produced females who bias their mating choices toward males who strive for status. This bias has resulted in males devoting greater time and energy to status striving (relative to females). To account for why nearly all "victimizing" forms of criminality are more common among males than among females, the theory asserts that status striving exists along a continuum of competitive/victimizing behavior. One end of this continuum is epitomized by crude (criminal) forms of the behavior that societies generally discourage and even punish. The other end consists of sophisticated (commercial) forms that societies tolerate and even encourage. According to the theory, most males begin to exhibit non-playful forms of competitive/victimizing behavior around the onset of puberty as they start their reproductive careers. Adolescent males with the greatest abilities to learn will transition quickly from crude forms of competitive/victimizing behavior to more sophisticated forms, while males who have the greatest difficulties learning will transition more slowly. A major deduction from the theory is that genes on the Y-chromosome must be affecting the brain in ways that promote status-striving behavior. This deduction needs empirical scrutiny, although it is consistent with evidence (a) that the Y-chromosome transforms would-be ovaries into testes, the latter being specialized organs for the production of testosterone, and (b) that testosterone alters brain functioning in ways that contribute to both status striving and criminality. . . . offers a theory called evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory that assert that in response to female preferences for males who are reliable resource providers, males have evolved a continuum of strategy called competitive/victimizing behavior that assists them in the status striving. One end of this continuum is epitomized by crude (criminal) forms of the behavior that societies generally discourage and even punish. The other end consists of sophisticated (commercial) forms that societies tolerate and even encourage. Near the middle of our social arrangements in which most business dealings often involving huge profit potentials reside.

Ermer, E., Kahn, R. E., Salovey, P., & Kiehl, K. A. (2012). Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits. Journal of personality and social psychology, 103, 194-204. doi:10.1037/a0027328

Ermer, E., & Kiehl, K A. (2010). Psychopaths Are Impaired in Social Exchange and Precautionary Reasoning. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1399-1405. doi:10.1177/0956797610384148 Psychopaths show a profound lack of morality and behavioral controls in the presence of intact general intellectual functioning. Two hallmarks of psychopathy are the persistent violation of social contracts (i.e., cheating) and chronic, impulsive risky behavior. These behaviors present a puzzle: Can psychopaths understand and reason about what counts as cheating or risky behavior in a particular situation? We tested incarcerated psychopaths' and incarcerated nonpsychopaths' reasoning about social contract rules, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules using the Wason selection task. Results were consistent with our hypotheses: Psychopaths (compared with matched nonpsychopaths) showed significant impairment on social contract rules and precautionary rules, but not on descriptive rules. These results cannot be accounted for by differences in intelligence, motivation, or general antisocial tendency. These findings suggest that examination of evolutionarily identified reasoning processes can be a fruitful research approach for identifying which specific mechanisms are impaired in psychopathy.

Fabian, J. (2006). A literature review of the utility of selected violence and sexual violence risk assessment instruments. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 34(3), 307-350. Retrieved March 7, 2009, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database. The rationale for this article is to comprehensively outline and describe the strengths and weaknesses of various risk assessment instruments/tools relevant to the evaluation of sexually violent and violent offenders. The author will briefly discuss ethical obligations the forensic mental health professional (FMHP) must consider when conducting risk assessments.

Fabian, J. (2008). Current standards and practices in violence risk assessment at a maximum security forensic hospital following a high profile sexual homicide. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(5), 337-345. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.05.002. Often high profile cases impact the standards for ethical practices in forensic psychology and psychiatry. In Minnesota, a high profile sexual homicide allegedly committed by a parolee who was not civilly committed as mentally ill and dangerous or sexually dangerous (likely due to older age) has brought to question the state's risk assessment policies. Due to the high profile nature of this case, the State Operated Forensic Services (SOFS) in Minnesota has attempted to implement heightened standards in their violence risk assessment policy for both mentally ill and dangerous and sexually violent offender populations. The rationale for this article is to outline how the publicity of a high profile sexual homicide can result in changes in a state's risk assessment procedures. The author will briefly outline the revised risk assessment standards within a state operated civil commitment forensic hospital and describe a case study of a civilly committed sex offender who was examined under these new standards. The author will also question whether more is better. Specifically, the question will be asked whether such standards and practices are efficient and necessary given the issues of incremental validity and the fact that there will always be false negatives (an offender who is deemed to be nondangerous, who ultimately is).

Fairchild, G., Passamonti, L., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., dem Hagen, von, E. A. H., van Goozen, S. H. M., Goodyer, I. M., et al. (2011). Brain Structure Abnormalities in Early-Onset and Adolescent-Onset Conduct Disorder. The American journal of psychiatry. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10081184 Objective: The developmental taxonomic theory proposes that neurodevelopmental factors play a critical role in the etiology of early-onset conduct disorder, whereas adolescent-onset conduct disorder arises as a result of social mimicry of deviant peers. Recent studies have challenged this theory by demonstrating that adolescents with both early- and adolescent-onset forms of conduct disorder show impaired emotional learning and abnormal neural activation during facial expression processing. The present study extends this work by investigating brain structure in both subtypes of conduct disorder. Method: Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes in four regions of interest (amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortex) in male adolescents with early-onset (N=36) or adolescent-onset (N=27) conduct disorder and in healthy comparison subjects (N=27). Whole-brain structural analyses were also performed. Results: The combined conduct disorder group displayed gray matter volume reductions in the bilateral amygdala, extending into the insula, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Separate comparisons between healthy subjects and each conduct disorder subgroup revealed lower amygdala volume in both subgroups and reduced right insula volume in the adolescent-onset subgroup. Regression analyses within the conduct disorder subjects alone demonstrated a negative correlation between conduct disorder symptoms and right insula volume. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that gray matter volume reductions in brain regions involved in processing socioemotional stimuli are associated with conduct disorder, regardless of age of onset. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of adolescent-onset as well as early-onset conduct disorder.

Falkenbach, D. (2007). Psychopathic traits in juveniles. In D. W. Springer, & A. R. Roberts (Eds.). Handbook of forensic mental health with victims and offenders: assessment, treatment, and research (pp. 225-246). New York: Springer.

Falshaw, L., Browne, K. D., & Hollin, C. R. (1996).Victim to offender: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1(4), 389-404. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(96)00005-5 It has been suggested that victimization during childhood may be a primary factor in the adoption of offending behaviour during adolescence. Why is it, therefore, that the majority of child abuse victims do not become delinquent? Although empirical and theoretical evidence abounds in the victim to offender literature, the pathways responsible for vulnerability towards and protection against criminal activity have so far been unidentified. The significance of detecting these influencing factors is apparent, specifically in relation to termination of the cycle either before or after it has begun.

Farrington, D. P. (2000). Psychosocial predictors of adult antisocial personality and adult convictions. Behavioral sciences & the law, 18(5), 605-22. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113964. In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 South London males have been followed up since age 8. This article investigates the ability of psychosocial risk factors measured at age 8 - 10 to predict antisocial personality measures at ages 18 and 32 and convictions between ages 21 and 40. The most important childhood predictors were a convicted parent, large family size, low intelligence or attainment, and child-rearing factors, including a young mother and a disrupted family. The accuracy of prediction of antisocial personality at age 32 on the basis of childhood risk factors measured more than 20 years before was surprising: nearly half of boys with a convicted parent at age 10 were antisocial at age 32, compared with one in six of the remainder. Over 60% of boys very high risk at age 8 - 10 became antisocial at age 32. While the present research shows how far adult antisocial and criminal behavior can be predicted in childhood, more research is needed to establish the precise causal mechanisms involved.

Farrington, D. P. (2005). The importance of child and adolescent psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4), 489-497. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-5729-8 In commenting on the five articles in this special issue, this paper discusses (1) the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, and whether adolescent psychopaths are qualitatively distinct from other young people; (2) the measurement of adolescent psychopathy; (3) the relationship between psychopathy and other personality dimensions; (4) childhood risk factors for psychopathy; (5) psychopathy in the context of risk factors for delinquency; and (6) the prevention and treatment of adolescent psychopathy. It is argued that the three dimensions of an arrogant, deceitful interpersonal style, deficient affective experience, and an impulsive or irresponsible behavioral style are most important at present in the definition of psychopathy. An ambitious research agenda is recommended, investigating the concept of adolescent psychopathy, developing new measures, conducting new longitudinal studies on development and risk factors, and mounting new randomized experiment on prevention and treatment.

Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Genetic contributions to antisocial personality and behavior: A meta-analytic review from an evolutionary perspective. The Journal of social psychology, 150(2) 160-180. Evidence from behavioral genetics supports the conclusion that a significant amount of the variance in antisocial personality and behavior (APB) is due to genetic contributions. Many scientific fields such as psychology, medicine, and criminal justice struggle to incorporate this information with preexisting paradigms that focused exclusively on external or learned etiology of antisocial behavior. The current paper presents a meta-analytic review of behavioral genetic etiological studies of APB. Results indicated that 56% of the variance in APB can be explained through genetic influences, with 11% due to shared non-genetic influences, and 31% due to unique non-genetic influences. This data is discussed in relation to evolutionary psychological theory.

Ferguson, C. J. & Beaver, K. M. (2009). Natural born killers: The genetic origins of extreme violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(5), 286-294. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2009.03.005 The current article examines the influence of genetics and evolution on acts of extreme and criminal violence among human primates. Moderate aggression can function to increase an organism's reproductive success; extreme violence can place the organism at unnecessary risk. Genetic polymorphisms that have been linked to extreme acts of violence are reviewed as is research elucidating how genetic risk and environmental stress may interact to increase risk of extreme violence. Extreme violence is viewed as high-end variance in an evolutionarily adaptive process in which the propensity for aggression and violent behavior, in moderate doses, has been adaptive for individual humans.

Flor-Henry, P. (1983). Cerebral Basis of Psychopathology. Bristol: PSG Wright. . . . suggested that hysteria and psychopathy are equivalent syndromes, the gender determining the manifestation. In males, you see a continuum from normal to psychopathic to the most extreme — hysteria. In females, you see a continuum from normal to hysteria to psychopathic at the most extreme. Regardless of sex, the presence of one increases the probability of the occurrence of the other. Hysteria has been found in the population at a prevalence of about 1% and therefore is roughly equivalent to the prevalence of psychopathy. Psychopathy in the male is associated with dysfunction of the dominant hemisphere (frontaltemporal). The genetic expression is seen in that psychopathic fathers tend to produce daughters with hysteria.

Flor, H., Birbaumer, N., Hermann, C., Ziegler, S., Patrick, C. J. (2002). Aversive Pavlovian conditioning in psychopaths: Peripheral and central correlates. Psychophysiology, 39(4), 505-518. doi: 10.1111/1469-8986.3940505

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (1996). Personality and sexual development, psychopathology and offending. In C. Cordess & M. Cox (Eds.). Forensic psychotherapy: Crime, psychodynamics and the offender patient (pp. 117-151). London: Kingsley.

Fontaine, N., Barker, E., Salekin, R., & Viding, E. (2008). Dimensions of Psychopathy and their Relationships to Cognitive Functioning in Children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 690-696. doi:10.1080/15374410802148111 Individuals with psychopathic traits are hypothesized to be free of intellectual deficits and possibly even to exhibit good cognitive abilities. Previous studies, based on clinical and incarcerated youth, have shown inconsistent findings. We investigated the relationships between 3 different dimensions of psychopathy (callous/unemotional traits, narcissism, impulsivity) and cognitive abilities in a large population-based sample of children (age 9, N = 4,713). Findings indicated a positive relationship between narcissism and both verbal and nonverbal abilities, even after accounting for conduct problems and hyperactivity. Callous/unemotional traits and impulsivity were negatively related to both types of cognitive abilities but did not remain significant after accounting for conduct problems and hyperactivity. Interactions between gender and the dimensions of psychopathy were not significant. . . . Further, a better understanding of the relationships between the dimensions of psychopathy and cognitive functioning may facilitate our comprehension of the possible etiological factors associated to the construct of psychopathy (Salekin et al., 2004). For example, our results support previous research in suggesting that there may be different pathways to arrive at an elevated score of psychopathy that combines all three dimensions and that different subtypes may be associated with different etiological processes (see Poythress & Skeem, 2006). The narcissism dimension of psychopathy, in particular, could be an interesting and important phenomenon to study further as it appears to relate to better, rather than worse cognitive abilities.

Forsman, M., Lichtenstein, P., Andershed, H., & Larsson, H. (2008). Genetic effects explain the stability of psychopathic personality from mid- to late adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(3), 606-617. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.3.606 This study examined the importance of genetic and environmental influence for the stability of psychopathic personality between mid- and late adolescence. The target sample consisted of all 1,480 male and female twin pairs born in Sweden between 1985 and 1986. Psychopathic personality was measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; H. Andershed, M. Kerr, M. Stattin, & S. Levander, 2002) when the participants were 16 and 19 years old. Results showed that the 3 psychopathic personality dimensions were stable at different levels of analysis and linked to a stable higher order general factor (i.e., psychopathic personality factor). Genetic factors contributed substantially to the stability of this general higher order factor, whereas environmental factors were of little importance. However, the authors also found specific genetic stability in the Callous/unemotional and Impulsive/irresponsible dimension. Thus, the model provides evidence for etiologic generality and etiologic specificity for the stability of psychopathic personality between mid- and late adolescence. . . . Taken together, our model supports both etiologic generality and etiologic specificity for the stability of psychopathic personality. That is, most of the stable variance in psychopathic personality can be traced not only to a genetically influenced higher order general factor but also to unique genetic effects in the Callous/ unemotional and Impulsive/irresponsible dimensions.

Fountoulakis, K. N., & Kaprinis, G. S. (2006). Personality disorders: New data versus old concepts. Curr Opin Psychiatry, 19(1), 90-94. doi:10.1097/01.yco.0000196158.98540.b6 Purpose of review: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on personality disorders. Recent findings: Recent data suggest that individual personality disorder criteria and full diagnosis may remit within 1-2 years. The same line of evidence disputes the separation of axis I and axis II disorders and suggests the presence of a continuum. Neuropsychological, neurobiological and genetic studies favor the presence of cognitive disorders and a non-specific mode of hereditability concerning all externalizing disorders. How to best treat personality disorders remains elusive. The most impressive news in the forensic field concerns the introduction of a new concept, dangerous and severe personality disorder by the UK government, for prevention and treatment purposes. Summary: The most recent data do not adequately support a separate axis II. Future classification may need to move personality disorders to axis I, each under a suitable group of diseases and eliminate the very term 'personality' from the nomenclature, since it constitutes an empirically unsupported theoretical invasion in a system supposed to be 'atheoretical'. . . . In 1980, when the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III introduced the separation of axis I and II, several questions arose, and most of them still remain unanswered. It is not clear whether personality disorders are qualitatively distinct or they lie on a continuum with normal personality traits. . . . Recent research in a maximum security psychiatric facility revealed that 30% of inmates met criteria for psychopathy [50]. Putkonen et al. [51] reported that of those who committed repeat offenses, 81% were diagnosed with a personality disorder [51]. Bergvall et al. [52] suggested that poor development of certain personality traits may be associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning in incarcerated offenders.

Fowler, K. A., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Patrick, C. J. (2009). Detecting psychopathy from thin slices of behavior. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 68-78. doi:10.1037/a0014938 This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used these excerpts to complete assessments of overall psychopathy and its Factor 1 and Factor 2 components, various personality disorders, violence proneness, and attractiveness. Thin-slice ratings of psychopathy correlated moderately and significantly with psychopathy criterion measures, especially those related to interpersonal features of psychopathy, particularly in the 5- and 10-s excerpt conditions and in the video and combined channel conditions. These findings demonstrate that first impressions of psychopathy and related constructs, particularly those pertaining to interpersonal functioning, can be reasonably reliable and valid. They also raise intriguing questions regarding how individuals form first impressions and about the extent to which first impressions may influence the assessment of personality disorders.

Fowles, D. C. (1980). The three arousal model. Psychophysiology, 17(2), 87-104. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1980.tb00117.x Gray's two-factor learning theory postulates a behavioral activation system (BAS), a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and a nonspecific arousal system receiving excitatory inputs from both the BAS and the BIS. The BAS initiates behavior in response to conditioned stimuli for reward (approach) or for relieving nonpunishment (active avoidance). The BIS, which is viewed as an anxiety system, inhibits behavior in response to cues for punishment (passive avoidance) or frustrative nonreward (extinction), and its activity is decreased by the anti-anxiety drugs (alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers). Thus, the BIS is an arousal system which inhibits rather than energizes behavior. A review of the literature suggests that heart rate (HR) is strongly associated with activity of the BAS. This interpretation subsumes the previous findings of cardiac-somatic coupling, incentive effects on HR, and increased HR in connection with active coping in the face of threat. Electrodermal activity (EDA), on the other hand, increases when there is an activation of the BIS. A consideration of these differing effects on HR and EDA permits a specification of conditions in which these two measures will or will not show directional fractionation. With this theoretical model it is possible to relate the clinical features of psychopathy to the psychophysiological data with the single assumption that primary psychopaths have a deficient BIS. As a result, they show normal approach, active avoidance, and HR, but they suffer from poor passive avoidance and extinction with reduced EDA in response to threatening stimuli. . . . A BIS which is significantly weaker than the average can be expected to produce a number of clinical characteristics of psychopathy. The most obvious consequences are an absence of anxiety in the presence of normally threatening stimuli and an inability to inhibit behavior in the face of threats of punishment or nonreward. A weakness of behavioral inhibition in this sense will result in strong reward-seeking behavior, which will appear to be impulsive. At the same time, the inability to learn from past punishments (passive avoidance) and nonrewards (extinction) will be seen as an inability to learn from experience and will get the person into trouble with society. . . . At the clinical level, these features included both emotional (lack of anxiety) and behavioral (approach and active avoidance unrestrained by fear of punishment or frustrative nonreward) characteristics.

Fowles, D. C. (2011). Current scientific views of psychopathy. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12(3), 93-94. doi:10.1177/1529100611429679

Fowles, D. C., Dindo, L. (2009). Temperament and psychopathy: A dual-pathway model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(3), 179-183. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01632.x The concept of psychopathy refers to a pattern of chronic antisocial behavior and personality features, such as emotional detachment, lovelessness, and guiltlessness, attributable in part to a temperament deficit. Historically, that deficit has been seen as a low reactivity to fear, but recent research has documented a second temperament deficit in adults that involves poor emotional and behavioral control. Both pathways are found in the child psychopathology literature, pointing to multifactorial developmental pathways from childhood to adult psychopathy.

Freedman L. F. , & Verdun-Jones, S. N. (2010). Blaming the parts instead of the person: Understanding and applying neurobiological factors associated with psychopathy. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 52(1), 29-53. doi:10.1353/ccj.0.0081This article examines the implications of the body of research that asserts that psychopaths have neurobiological irregularities that are manifested by learning and fear-processing deficits as well as neurotransmitter abnormalities. While this research suggests that psychopaths may have many neurobiological irregularities, the present article focuses on abnormalities related to the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex of the brain, in addition to those related to neurotransmitters. It is argued that these irregularities influence the conduct of psychopaths and help to explain their propensity to engage in antisocial behaviour. Further, it is argued that these factors should mitigate the degree of criminal responsibility that is attributed to the actions of psychopathic offenders.

Frick, P. J. (2004). Integrating research on temperament and childhood psychopathology: Its pitfalls and promise. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 2-7. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_1 [SPECIAL SECTION: TEMPERAMENT AND CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY] This article discusses the promise and problems associated with integrating research on child temperament and research on childhood psychopathology. Unfortunately, these 2 extensive and influential areas of psychological research with children have largely been conducted independently of each other. This article provides a summary of the disciplinary, conceptual, and methodological issues that have hampered an integration of these 2 important bodies of research. It also highlights the great promise that such an integration could have for advancing causal theories of childhood disorders and for eventually improving the treatment provided to children with serious emotional and behavioral disturbances.

Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D. (2001a). The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems. APSD is an assessment tool for psychopathy in childhood and adolescence based on developments of Hare's (PCL-R) (Hare 2003, Hart 1995). The APSD is scored on the basis of parental/teacher reviews. See also Kosson et al. 2002.

Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D. (2001b). Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) Technical Manual. Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems.

Frick, P. J. & Morris, A. S. (2004). Temperament and developmental pathways to conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 54-68. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_6 This article reviews research linking a number of temperamental vulnerabilities to the development of severe conduct problems in children. Also reviewed are 2 areas of research that focus on important developmental processes that could mediate the relation between temperament and conduct problems. These processes are the development of emotional regulatory abilities and the development of the affective components of conscience. Both of these processes have been associated with certain temperamental vulnerabilities, and they can both place a child at risk for the development of conduct problems. Importantly, these 2 processes may designate children who develop conduct problems through distinct causal pathways and, as a result, could help to explain some of the subtypes of antisocial youth reported in past research. . . . the available research clearly indicates that certain temperamental styles are associated with the development of severe conduct problems in youth. This link has been established using many different measurement approaches for both temperament and conduct problems and using both cross-sectional and prospective research designs. . . . First, our understanding of the link between temperamental styles and conduct problems requires recognition of the distinct pathways through which children develop severe antisocial and aggressive behavior patterns. One of the more widely accepted distinctions is between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset pathways to conduct problems, with the former often considered to be more strongly linked to temperamental vulnerabilities (Hinshaw, Lahey, & Hart, 1993; Moffitt, 1993). However, the research reviewed in this article suggests that this distinction may be too broad, in that there may be several distinct temperamental vulnerabilities . . . Second, . . .research must begin to address the potential developmental processes that may be affected by certain temperamental styles and that may mediate the link between the temperamental vulnerabilities and the development of conduct problems. . . . Third, advances in our understanding of the link between temperament and conduct problems require research that recognizes that the pathways from temperamental vulnerabilities to conduct problems are not immutable.

Frick, P., & White, S. (2008). Research Review: The importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 49(4), 359-375. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01862.x The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and adolescence and they designate a group of youth with a particularly severe, aggressive, and stable pattern of antisocial behavior. Further, antisocial youth with CU traits show a number of distinct emotional, cognitive, and personality characteristics compared to other antisocial youth. These characteristics of youth with CU traits have important implications for causal models of antisocial and aggressive behavior, for methods used to study antisocial youth, and for assessing and treating antisocial and aggressive behavior in children and adolescents. . . . In summary, there now appears to be a rather substantial and growing body of research supporting the use of CU traits to designate a distinct subgroup of antisocial youth. These traits seem to be relatively stable across childhood and adolescence and they seem to designate a group of antisocial youth who show a more severe, aggressive, and stable pattern of antisocial behavior. Further, this subgroup of youth show a number of distinct cognitive, emotional, and personality characteristics such as showing abnormalities in their responsiveness to punishment cues, showing a diminished responsiveness to distress cues in others, and showing less trait anxiety when controlling for their level of antisocial behavior. . . . Both studies suggest that children with CU traits may be more difficult to treat but they are not unresponsive to treatment. They do respond to certain types of interventions. Research on the unique developmental mechanisms underlying their antisocial behavior could provide important clues as to what types of interventions may be most effective for this group of youth (Frick, 2006).

Fumagalli, M., & Priori, A. (2012). Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 135, 2006-21. doi:10.1093/brain/awr334

Furnham, A., Daoud, Y., & Swami, V. (2009). How to spot a psychopath: Lay theories of psychopathy. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 44(6), 464-472. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0459-1 The present study examined lay recognition of psychopathy and beliefs about the behavioural manifestations, aetiology, and treatments of psychopathy. A community sample of 232 participants completed a questionnaire consisting of a vignette-identification task, a ratings task of 45 attitudinal items about psychopathy, and demographics. Analysis of the vignette-identification data showed that participants were significantly less likely to correctly identify a case of psychopathy than they were of either depression or schizophrenia. Factors derived from principal components analysis of the attitudinal items revealed that participants generally believed psychopaths to be intelligent and to have criminal tendencies, and that psychopathy was likely caused by early trauma and stress. Overall, participants may have had monological beliefs about the manifestations, aetiology, and treatments of psychopathy. These results suggest that educational programmes are required to improve mental health literacy in relation to psychopathy among the general public. . . . It is possible that the general public have a skewed understanding of psychopathy because of the manner in which the disorder is portrayed in popular culture. Indeed, psychopaths appear to be over-represented in popular culture, almost always in guise of serial killers or mass murderers (e.g., the Joker in DC Comic's Batman, Patrick Bateman in American Psycho, and various James Bond villains). It may also be postulated that popular beliefs often confuse psychopathy and psychotic disorders, such as symptoms of schizophrenia, and that media depictions of psychopathy typically contain as much fiction as fact. Thus, it may be the case that lay theories of psychopathy stem from misinformation or confusion, as well as a lack of real information.

Furtner, M. R., Rauthmann, J. F., & Sachse, P. (2011). The self-loving self-leader: An examination of the relationship between self-leadership and the dark triad. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(3), 369-379. doi:10.2224/sbp.2011.39.3.369. Self-leadership should be integrated within a nomological network, and its associations with the Dark Triad of personality comprising narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, explored. In this self-report study, participants completed measures of self-leadership and the Dark Triad. Narcissism was positively associated with self-leadership scales, whereas Machiavellianism and psychopathy were not. Findings are discussed with respect to narcissism's role in self-leadership, and future lines of research are proposed.

Gacono C. B. (Ed.) (2000). The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner's guide. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gacono, C. B., Nieberding, R. J., Owen, A., Rubel, J., & Bodholdt, R. (2001). Treating conduct disorder, antisocial, and psychopathic personalities. In J. B. Ashford, B. D. Sales, & W. H. Reid, (Eds.). Treating adult and juvenile offenders with special needs (pp. 99-129). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Gacono, C. B., & Meloy, J. R. (1994). Rorschach assessment of aggressive and psychopathic personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Gannon, T. A., & Rose M. R. (2008). Female child sexual offenders: Towards integrating theory and practice. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(6), 442-461. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.07.002 Female-perpetrated child sexual abuse is beginning to be recognized as a significant problem in Western society. Despite this, however, relatively few researchers and professionals have conducted research of direct relevance for treating female child sexual offenders (FCSOs). In this review, we synthesize and update the available literature examining FCSOs' socio-demographic features, available typological distinctions, and research investigating the potential treatment needs of FCSOs. Our evaluation of the latest research suggests that researchers have spent the majority of their attention examining either socio-demographic or typological features of FCSOs at the expense of developing research investigating FCSOs' treatment requirements. We suggest that future research in this area should concentrate on developing research and adapting methods established with male sexual offenders to enable adequate and informative investigation of FCSOs' treatment needs. We anticipate that future research directed towards investigating this area will promote more effective empirically-driven clinical practice with FCSOs.

Garcia-Mansilla, A., Rosenfeld, B., & Cruise, K. R. (2011). Violence risk assessment and women: predictive accuracy of the HCR-20 in a civil psychiatric sample. Behavioral sciences & the law, 29, 623-33. doi:10.1002/bsl.1005

Gaughan, E. T., Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2012). Examining the utility of general models of personality in the study of psychopathy: A comparison of the HEXACO-PI-R and NEO PI-R. Journal of Personality Disorders, 26(4), 513-23. http://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2012.26.4.513

Gaughan, E, T., Miller, J. D., Pryor, L. R., & Lynam, D. R. (2009). Comparing two alternative measures of general personality in the assessment of psychopathy: A test of the NEO PI-R and the MPQ. Journal of Personality, 77(4), 965-996. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00571.x ABSTRACT This study examined the interrelations between two measures of personality, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen & Waller, 2008), and their relations with psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates. Results revealed good convergence between conceptually related personality traits; however, the NEO PI-R facets accounted for more variance in the MPQ subscales (mean R2=.49) than did MPQ subscales in NEO PI-R facets (mean R2=.35). Both accounted for substantial proportions of variance in psychopathy scores, although the NEO PI-R accounted for larger proportions and manifested greater incremental validity when using the broader domains of each measure; the differences decreased when the narrower facets/subscales were used. The results suggest that, although both measures assess psychopathy-related traits, the NEO PI-R provides a more complete description because of its assessment of interpersonal antagonism and the central role of this construct in psychopathy.

Gelhorn, H. L., Stallings, M. C., Young, S. E., Corley, R. P., Rhee, S. H., Hewitt, J. K. (2008). Genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder: symptom, domain and full-scale analyses. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(6), 580-591. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00373.x Background: We used variable threshold models which accounted for age and gender differences to investigate the genetic and environmental influences on DSM-IV conduct disorder (CD) at the level of symptoms, aggressive versus non-aggressive domains, and full-scale. Method: A community sample of 1100 twin pairs (age 11-18) was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results: Behavior genetic model fitting suggested that genetic and environmental influences on individual symptoms varied by symptom. The best-fitting models for aggressive and non-aggressive domains, and full-scale CD included additive genetic effects and unique environmental effects only (AE models). These effects could be constrained across age cohorts and sex. The results suggest that using models that incorporate age- and gender-appropriate thresholds specific to each subject we can account for prevalence differences between cohorts. Heritability estimates were .49, .55 and .53 for the aggressive domain, non-aggressive domain, and full-scales, respectively. These results are in contrast to previous research on antisocial behavior measured with the CBCL reporting higher heritability for aggressive versus non-aggressive domains. Conclusions: Results suggest that individual symptoms of CD may be differentially heritable. Additionally, CD assessed using DSM-IV criteria may show differing patterns of heritability compared with estimates obtained for other measures of antisocial behavior such as the CBCL.

Ginsberg, A. (1956). Howl and other poems. The Pocket Poets Series. San Francisco, CA: City Lights Books.

Gladden, P. R., Figueredoa, A. J. & Jacobs, W. J. (2008). Life history strategy, psychopathic attitudes, personality, and general intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 270-275. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.010 This study attempted to replicate recent findings that Life History (LH) strategy predicts neither Psychopathic Attitudes (psychopathy, risk-taking, and mating effort) nor general intelligence (g). Further, we examined relations among LH strategy, Psychopathic Attitudes, and the Big Five to compare and contrast the personality correlates of these latent factors. Participants completed a measure of general intelligence (APM-18) and completed questionnaires measuring life history strategy, psychopathy, Risk-Taking Attitudes, mating effort, and Big-Five personality traits. An exploratory factor analysis detected two uncorrelated latent factors: The K-Factor and Psychopathic Attitudes. Neither the K-Factor nor Psychopathic Attitudes predicted general intelligence. In contrast, the K-Factor correlated positively with Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and negatively with Neuroticism. Psychopathic Attitudes correlated positively with Extraversion and negatively with Agreeableness. We discuss the implications of these data for LH theory and its relation to intelligence and antisocial traits.

Glannon, W. (2008). Moral responsibility and the psychopath. Neuroethics, 1(3), 158-166. [special issue] doi: 10.1007/s12152-008-9012-x Psychopathy involves impaired capacity for prudential and moral reasoning due to impaired capacity for empathy, remorse, and sensitivity to fear-inducing stimuli. Brain abnormalities and genetic polymorphisms associated with these traits appear to justify the claim that psychopaths cannot be morally responsible for their behavior. Yet psychopaths are capable of instrumental reasoning in achieving their goals, which suggests that they have some capacity to respond to moral reasons against performing harmful acts and refrain from performing them. The cognitive and affective impairment of the psychopath justifies mitigated responsibility, but not excuse. . . . Given what we currently know from neuroimaging, genetics, and behavioral criteria, the evidence of neurobiological and mental dysfunction in psychopaths is not compelling enough for excuse. Psychopathy likely involves enough cognitive and Moral responsibility and the psychopath affective impairment to rule out full responsibility, but not partial responsibility.

Glass, S. J., & Newman, J. P. (2009). Emotion processing in the criminal psychopath: The role of attention in emotion-facilitated memory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 229-234. doi: 10.1037/a0014866 The response modulation hypothesis specifies that low-anxious psychopathic individuals have difficulty processing information outside their primary attentional focus. To evaluate the applicability of this model to affective processing, the authors had 239 offenders, classified with the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003) and the Welsh Anxiety Scale (G. Welsh, 1956), perform 1 of 3 emotion memory tasks that examined the effects of emotion on memory for primary and contextual information. Regardless of anxiety level, psychopathic and control offenders demonstrated a significant and comparable memory bias for emotional over neutral words in the primary conditions. However, psychopathic individuals showed significantly less memory bias than did controls in the contextual conditions. Results indicate that the impact of emotion on memory is moderated by attentional factors. . . . The response modulation hypothesis (RMH), by contrast, holds that psychopathic individuals are capable of normal emotional responses but have difficulty processing affective information when it is peripheral to their primary attentional focus (Newman & Lorenz, 2003). . . . Although similar to Gray's (1982) model, the RMH (Newman, 1997, 1998) holds that psychopathic individuals are deficient specifically in the interrupt and attention components of BIS functioning. . . . The current research takes the important step of demonstrating that psychopathic individuals are not oblivious to emotion and that it does actually influence their behavior. Although emotion processing is frequently impaired in people with psychopathy, we propose that such deficits reflect their anomalous processing of contextual information. Further clarification of their emotion processing deficits may derive from research that characterizes the attentional factors that constrain emotion processing in psychopathic individuals.

Glenn, A. L., Iyer, R., Graham, J., Koleva, S., & Haidt, J. (2009). Are all types of morality compromised in psychopathy? Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(4), 384-398. doi:10.1521/pedi.2009.23.4.384 A long-standing puzzle for moral philosophers and psychologists alike is the concept of psychopathy, a personality disorder marked by tendencies to defy moral norms despite cognitive knowledge about right and wrong. Previously, discussions of the moral deficits of psychopathy have focused on willingness to harm and cheat others as well as reasoning about rule-based transgressions. Yet recent research in moral psychology has begun to more clearly define the domains of morality, encompassing issues of harm, fairness, loyalty, authority, and spiritual purity. Clinical descriptions and theories of psychopathy suggest that deficits may exist primarily in the areas of harm and fairness, although quantitative evidence is scarce. Within a broad sample of participants, we found that scores on a measure of psychopathy predicted sharply lower scores on the harm and fairness subscales of a measure of moral concern, but showed no relationship with authority, and very small relationships with ingroup and purity. On a measure of willingness to violate moral standards for money, psychopathy scores predicted greater willingness to violate moral concerns of any type. Results are further explored via potential mediators and analyses of the two factors of psychopathy.

Glenn, A. L., Kurzban, R., & Raine, A. (2011). Evolutionary theory and psychopathy. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(5), 371-380. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.03.009

Glenn, A. L., & Raine, A. (2008). The neurobiology of psychopathy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31(3), 463-475. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.03.004 Numerous studies have tackled the complex challenge of understanding the neural substrates of psychopathy, revealing that brain abnormalities exist on several levels and in several structures. As we discover more about complex neural networks, it becomes increasingly difficult to clarify how these systems interact with each other to produce the distinct pattern of behavioral and personality characteristics observed in psychopathy. The authors review the recent research on the neurobiology of psychopathy, beginning with molecular neuroscience work and progressing to the level of brain structures and their connectivity. Potential factors that may affect the development of brain impairments, as well as how some systems may be targeted for potential treatment, are discussed.

Glenn, A. L., & Raine, A. (2009). The immoral brain. In J. Verplaetse, J. de Schrijver, S. Vanneste, & J. Braeckman (Eds.). The moral brain: Essays on the evolutionary and neuroscientific aspects of morality (pp. 45-67). New York: Springer.

Glenn, A. L., Raine, A., & Schug, R. A. (2009). The neural correlates of moral decision-making in Psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry 14(1), 5-9. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.104 Letter to the editor. Neuroimaging studies have used classic moral dilemmas to identify the neural circuitry underlying moral decision-making in healthy individuals, but it is unknown how this circuit functions in immoral, psychopathic individuals. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we find that more psychopathic individuals show reduced activity in the amygdala during emotional moral decision-making, with particularly conning and manipulative individuals showing reduced activity in the entire moral neural circuit. These results provide initial evidence that psychopaths exhibit deficits in brain regions essential for moral judgment in normal individuals. . . . Overall, findings suggest that reduced functioning in brain regions involved in the complex social process of moral decision-making may partly explain a complex social problem—the psychopath.

Glenn, A. L., Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. (2009). Early temperamental and psychophysiological precursors of adult psychopathic personality. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, S(1), 46-60. doi:10.1037/1949-2715.S.1.46. This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2007, Vol. 116, (No. 3), 508–518. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2007-11737-008.) Emerging research on psychopathy in children and adolescents raises the question of whether indicators, such as temperament or psychophysiology, exist very early in life in those with a psychopathic-like personality in adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals who are more psychopathic in adulthood would be less fearful and inhibited and more stimulation seeking/sociable at age 3 and that they would also show reduced age 3 skin-conductance (SC) responsivity. In a community sample of 335 3-year-olds, behavioral measures of temperament were taken and electrodermal activity was recorded in response to both orienting and aversive tones. R. D. Hare's (1985) Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II) was administered at follow-up at age 28. Individuals scoring higher on the measure were significantly less fearful and inhibited, were more sociable, and displayed longer SC half-recovery times to aversive stimuli compared with controls at age 3. Contrary to predictions, they also showed increased autonomic arousal and SC orienting. Findings appear to be the first to suggest that a prospective link may exist between temperament and psychophysiology in very young children and psychopathic personality in adulthood.

Goetz, A. T., Shackelford, T. K., Romero, G. A., Kaighobadi, F., & Miner, E. J. (2008). Punishment, proprietariness, and paternity: Men's violence against women from an evolutionary perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(6), 481-489. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.07.004 In this article, we use an evolutionary perspective to examine intimate partner violence, focusing on men's violence against women. Previous examinations of intimate partner violence have typically used a proximate level of analysis, emphasizing the immediate, non-evolutionary causes of intimate partner violence. Complementing this approach, an evolutionary perspective offers an understanding of how such psychology and behavior could have arisen via natural selection. Here, we argue that (1) the recurring adaptive problem of paternity uncertainty plays a central role in intimate partner violence, (2) physical violence functions to punish and deter female sexual infidelity, and (3) sexual violence may function as an anti-cuckoldry tactic, with its occurrence related to suspicion of female sexual infidelity.

Grant, V. (1977). The menacing stranger. New York: Dover.

Gray, J. A. (1987). The psychology of fear and stress. 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gray, Nicola. S., MacCulloch, M. J., Smith, J., Morris, M., & Snowden, R. J. (2003). Forensic psychology: Violence viewed by psychopathic murderers. Nature, 423(6939), 497-498. doi:10.1038/423497a Psychopathic murderers are often portrayed as cold-blooded, emotionless and lacking in remorse, but they are also adept at lying and at feigning the emotions in which they are deficient. Here we adapt a test known as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which was previously used to assess concealed prejudices, to show that psychopathic murderers have abnormal cognitive associations regarding violence, which may underpin their actions. Such implicit measures may provide us with an important insight into the criminal mind.

Greene, J. D. (2011). Emotion and morality: A tasting menu. Emotion Review, 3(3), 227-229. http://doi.org/10.1177/1754073911409629

Greenspan, P. S. (2003). Responsible psychopaths. Philosophical Psychology, 16(3),417-429. doi: 10.1080/0951508032000121797 Psychopaths are agents who lack the normal capacity to feel moral emotions (e.g. guilt based on empathy with the victims of their actions). Evidence for attributing psychopathy at least in some cases to genetic or early childhood causes suggests that psychopaths lack free will. However, the paper defends a sense in which psychopaths still may be construed as responsible for their actions, even if their degree of responsibility is less than that of normal agents. Responsibility is understood in Strawsonian terms, as a question of our appropriate reactive attitudes toward an agent for what she does, and as distinct from the question of the agent's own motivating attitudes, which lead him to do what he does. The latter is the question more directly relevant to free will, though moral motivation normally depends on the capacity in early childhood to pick up motivating attitudes from others' reactive attitudes. Reactive attitudes based on hatred rather than anger (e.g. disgust or contempt) count as alternative forms of blame that may be appropriately directed toward agents manifesting bad qualities of will, even as a matter of motivational impairment. So psychopaths may still be said to deserve blame, even if they are incapable of modifying their behavior in response to blame.

Guay, J., Ruscio, J., Knight, R. A., & Hare, R. D. (2007). A taxometric analysis of the latent structure of psychopathy: Evidence for dimensionality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(4), 701-716. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.4.701 The taxonomic status of psychopathy is controversial. Whereas some studies have found evidence that psychopathy, at least its antisocial component, is distributed as a taxon, others have found that both major components of psychopathy-callousness/unemotionality and impulsivity/antisocial behavior-appear to distribute as dimensions and show little evidence of taxonicity. In the present study, recent advances in taxometric analysis were added to P. Meehl's (1995) multiple consistency tests strategy for assessing taxonicity, and they were applied to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003) ratings of 4,865 offenders sampled from multiple forensic settings. The results indicated that both the individual components of psychopathy and their interface are distributed dimensionally. Both the implications of these results for research in psychopathy and the integration of these findings with previous taxometric studies of psychopathy are discussed. . . . The analyses in the present article clearly indicate that the disorder defined by high scores on the PCL-R and the correlated factors that the PCL-R comprises are distributed dimensionally.

Gudjonsson, G., Sigurdsson, J. F., Skaptadottir, S. L., & Helgadottir, P. (2011). The relationship of violent attitudes with self-reported offending and antisocial personality traits. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(3), 371-380. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.562913Violent cognitive style is known to be associated with self-reported offending. The main purpose of the study was to investigate if violent attitudes add to the variance in self-reported offending after controlling for antisocial personality traits (e.g. poor self-control and pursuance of selfinterest). In the present study, 184 males and 166 females attending colleges of further education completed the Mak Self-reported Delinquency Scale, the Gough Socialisation Scale and the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (Machismo and Acceptance of violence).Multiple regressions (hierarchical) confirmed the unique variance of cognitive style in self-reported offending for both males and females. For males and females, the proportion of the variance in offending explained increased from 14 to 31% and from 23 to 38%, respectively, after Machismo and Acceptance of violence were entered in the second block. The findings add to the growing evidence of the importance of violent attitudes in explaining general offending.

Gunter, T. D., Vaughn, M. G., & Philibert, R. A. (2010). Behavioral genetics in antisocial spectrum disorders and psychopathy: A review of the recent literature. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 28(2), 148-73. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.923

Gurley, J R. (2009). A history of changes to the criminal personality in the DSM, History of Psychology, 12(4), 285-304. DOI: 10.1037/a0018101 There is much confusion surrounding the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and its counterparts, psychopathy, and sociopathy. Some individuals refer to the three as the same diagnosis but with different names (e.g., Blackburn, 1988; Rabin, 1986; Stout, 2005). Others differentiate between the three terms in various ways. For example, Lykken (1995, 1998) believes that psychopaths and sociopaths represent subcategories of ASPD. He goes on to state that although psychopaths and sociopaths have similar patterns of behavior, the two are distinct disorders. More specifically, Lykken believes that the personality and behavior of a psychopath is due to a congenital difference in temperament whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to unsocialized character caused by parental failures. In other words, the personality and behavior a psychopath is a result of genetics whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to the environment. Hare‚s conceptualization of the differences between psychopath and sociopathy is similar to Lykken's (Babiak & Hare, 2006; Hare, 2007). Hare (e.g., 1993, 1996, 2007) does differentiate between psychopathy and ASPD, stating that APSD is characterized by criminal behavior whereas psychopathy is a set of personality traits that can lead to criminal behavior. According to Hare (2008), the consensus in the field of psychology is that psychopathy and ASPD are distinct disorders. . . . [in] DSM-I, 1952, one of the disorders that experienced a name change was psychopathy, which referred to a personality disturbance consisting of traits that have been delineated by Cleckley (1964) including superficial charm, manipulativeness, and irresponsibility (see Cleckley, 1998, for a complete list of criteria). According to Jenkins (1960), the American Psychiatric Association reported that the term, "psychopath" was a poor term that needed to be changed. Their reasoning behind it may have been the confusion of the term psychopathy with psychotic - two similar sounding terms that represent very different disorders. Thus, in the initial edition of the DSM, the disorder formally known as psychopathy became Sociopathic Personality Disorder, Antisocial Reaction (American Psychiatric Association, 1952; Jenkins, 1960). . . . In addition to the Antisocial Reaction, the Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association included criteria for a similar disorder called "Dyssocial Reaction." . . . The distinction between Dyssocial Reaction and Antisocial Reaction is remarkably similar to the distinction some modern day researchers have made between sociopathy and psychopathy (e.g., Lykken, 1995, 1998, see above for description); the etiology of Antisocial Reaction was genetic whereas the etiology of the Dyssocial Reaction was environmental.

Guy, Laura S, Douglas, Kevin S, Hendry, Melissa C. (2010). The role of psychopathic personality disorder in violence risk assessments using the HCR-20. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(5) 551-80. 10.1521/pedi.2010.24.5.551 Antisocial and psychopathic traits are essential to evaluate when assessing risk for violence using the HCR-20. The role of the PCL-R on the HCR-20 was investigated using a series of meta-analytic tests. Across 34 samples in which both tools were rated, AUCs for violence were similar (∼.69), and exclusion of the psychopathy item (H7) did not reduce the HCR-20's accuracy. Quantitative synthesis of results from multivariate analyses conducted in 7 raw datasets that used both tools demonstrated that the average probability of observing violence for every point increase on the HCR-20 (without H7), while controlling for the PCL-R, was 23%, whereas for the PCL-R it was -1%. The HCR-20 (without H7) added incremental validity to the PCL-R, whereas the converse was not true, and only the HCR-20 (without H7) possessed unique predictive validity. Results suggest the HCR-20's predictive validity was not negatively impacted by excluding the PCL-R. Areas for future study are discussed, including research on various ways to assess and incorporate into risk assessment personality traits related to violence.

Hall, J. R., & Benning, S. D. (2006). The "successful" psychopath: Adaptive and subclinical manifestations of psychopathy in the general population. In C. J. Patrick, (Ed.). Handbook of the psychopathy (pp. 459-478). New York: Guilford Press.

Hamilton, C. E., Falshaw, L., & Browne, K. D. (2002). The link between recurrent maltreatment and offending behaviour. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 46(1), 75-94. doi: 10.1177/0306624X02461006 This article considers recurrent maltreatment and offending behaviour. The sample was 60 males and 19 females (11 to 18 years) resident within a secure institution in England and considered a risk to themselves and/or others. Overall, 20.8% had not experienced maltreatment, 6.5% had experienced a single incident, 11.7% were repeat victims (same perpetrator), 6.5% were revictimised (different perpetrators), and more than half (54.5%) had suffered both repeat and revictimisation. Of those who had committed a violent and/or sexual crime, 74% had experienced some form of revictimisation, compared to 33% of those who committed nonviolent offences. Those young people most likely to have committed violent and/or sexual crimes were those who had been victims of recurrent extrafamilial maltreatment (many of whom had also experienced recurrent intrafamilial maltreatment). Thus, in this sample, revictimisation was associated with serious crimes. However, these findings are preliminary, and prospective research with a larger sample is needed. . . . The findings from this study suggest that it is those who have suffered revictimisation by different perpetrators who are more likely to show violent and/or sexually offending behaviour.

Hamilton, G. (2008). Mythos and mental illness: Psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life. Journal of Medical Humanities, 29(4), 231-242. doi:10.1007/s10912-008-9066-0 Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles. . . . The recent cultural prominence of these definitions has, however, encouraged the application of the label to various "average" transgressors, from the rapacious CEO to the scheming politician to the callous Don Juan. Psychopaths have, apparently, always been with us, but the sense that they are somehow now in the ascendance, have moved threateningly closer and might do us harm if not identified and managed, is implied by the spate of popular studies of the concept published in the last decade or so. . . . A drift into the fantastical can also be detected, as I have suggested, in clinical accounts of psychopathy. Hare's Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us—a popular introduction to the concept as well as a sort of "how-to-spot-one" guide—furnishes some vivid examples of that tendency. . . . Hare repeatedly advises his readers to turn to the media for confirmation of his discoveries, promiscuously conflating three kinds of stories about the psychopath: the factual (what is supposed to have actually happened), the mediated factual (what some source represents as having actually happened), and the fictive (what is only imagined as happening):

Hanson, R. K. (2000, February). Risk assessment. Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers.

Hare, R. D. (1970). Psychopathy, Theory & Research. New York: Wiley.

Hare, R. D. (1980). A research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations. Personality and Individual Differences, 1(2), 111-119. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(80)90028-8 This paper describes an early phase in the development of new research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations. The scale is meant to be a sort of operational definition of the procedures that go into making global ratings of psychopathy. While the interrater reliability of these ratings is very high ( > 0.85) they are difficult to make, require a considerable amount of experience, and the procedures involved are not easily communicated to other investigators. Following a series of analyses, 22 items were chosen as representative of the type of information used in making global ratings. Two investigators then used interview and case-history data to complete the 22-item checklist for 143 male prison inmates. The correlation between the two sets of total checklist scores was 0.93 and coefficient alpha was 0.88, indicating a very high degree of scale reliability. The correlation between the total checklist scores and global ratings of psychopathy was 0.83. A series of multivariate analyses explored the factorial structure of the scale and demonstrated its ability to discriminate very accurately between inmates with high and low ratings of psychopathy. Preliminary indications are that the checklist will hold up well to crossvalidation. . . . The Cleckley criteria can be reduced to five factors: (1) an inability to develop warm, genuine relationships with others, a lack of empathy and a callous disregard for the rights and feelings of others; (2) an unstable, transient lifestyle, with an absence of long-term commitments or plans; (3) a general inability to accept responsibility for persistent antisocial behavior; (4) an absence of clinically significant intellectual and psychiatric problems; (5) and the presence of weak or unstable behavioral controls (Hare 1980). . . . Presents Hare's Original 22 item Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)

Hare, R. D. (1991). The Hare psychopathy checklist revised. Toronto: Multi Health Systems.

Hare, R. D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: Pocket Books.

Hare, R. D. (1995). Psychopaths: New trends in research. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 12(3), 4-6. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9509274604&site=ehost-liv Public concern about crime has never been greater. Perhaps most troubling are seemingly senseless and dispassionate acts of violence, particularly those committed by young people. In a frantic search for understanding, we readily blame upbringing, poverty, flawed environment, or an ineffective criminal justice system. All these may be important, but we tend to ignore another part of the picture: the enormous social, economic, and personal suffering inflicted by a few people whose antisocial attitudes and behavior result less from social forces than from an inherent sense of entitlement and an incapacity for emotional connection to the rest of humanity. For these individuals - psychopaths - social rules have no constraining force, and the idea of a common good is merely a puzzling and inconvenient abstraction.

Hare, R. D. (1996). Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Case of Diagnostic Confusion. Psychiatric Times, XIII(2). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/51816 [See pdf] Hare makes the case that psychopaths are a subgroup who display distinct personality characteristics and psychological problems. These problems are often related to affective and cognitive performance. Hare also says that psychopathy as measured by his tests is a valid and reliable predictor of violent reoffending following release from custody (and that the APD criteria do not predict these behaviours). Hare's test taps two factors: one measures the affective/personality aspects of psychopathy (factor one), the second reflects social deviance aspects (unstable lifestyle). APD is now defined in DSM largely by these second factor items. APD omits most of the personality (Factor one) type items. As Hare makes clear, most Psychopaths are found to be APD but many APD are not psychopaths. This creates essentially two groups, each with different properties (for example, psychopathy predicts recidivism, APD does not, psychopaths show cognitive and affective disorder, APD people do not).

Hare, R. D. (1996). Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23(1), 25-54. doi: 10.1177/0093854896023001004 Although the evolution of psychopathy as a formal clinical disorder began more than a century ago, it is only recently that scientifically sound psychometric procedures for its assessment have become available. The result has been a sharp increase in theoretically meaningful and replicable research findings, both in applied settings and in the laboratory. The construct of psychopathy is proving to be particularly useful in the criminal justice system, where it has important implications for sentencing, diversion, placement, and treatment options and for the assessment of risk for recidivism and violence. Although the etiology of the predatory, cold-blooded nature of psychopathy remains obscure, the theories and methods of cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics promise to greatly increase our understanding of this disorder.

Hare, R. D. (1998). Psychopathy, affect and behavior. In D. J. Cooke, R. D. Hare, & A. Forth (Eds.), Psychopathy: Theory, research and implications for society (pp. 105-137). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hare, R. D. (1998). Psychopaths and their nature: Implications for mental health and criminal justice systems. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis, (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 188-212). New York: Guilford Press.

Hare, R. D. (1999). Without conscience: the disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: The Guilford Press.

Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (2nd edition). Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

Hare, R. D. (2006). Psychopathy: a clinical and forensic overview. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 29(3),709-24. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2006.04.007 There is a substantial amount of empirical evidence that psychopathy, as measured by the PCL-R and its derivatives, is a predictor of recidivism and violence in prison, forensic psychiatric, and civil psychiatric populations. The PCL-R is one of the most generalizable of the risk factors identified thus far, and for this reason it is included in various actuarial and structured clinical risk assessment procedures. Although psychopathy is not the only risk factor for recidivism and violence, it is too important to ignore, particularly with respect to violence. Treatment and management are difficult, time-consuming, and expensive, but new initiatives based on current theory and research on psychopathy and the most effective correctional philosophies may help to reduce the harm done by psychopaths.

Hare, R. D., Clark, D., Grann, M., & Thornton, D. (2000). Psychopathy and the predictive validity of the PCL-R: an international perspective. Behavioral sciences & the law, 18(5), 623-45. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113965. Its controversial past notwithstanding, psychopathy has emerged as one of the most important clinical constructs in the criminal justice and mental health systems. One reason for the surge in theoretical and applied interest in the disorder is the development and widespread adoption of reliable and valid methods for its measurement. The Hare PCL-R provides researchers and clinicians with a common metric for the assessment of psychopathy, and has led to a surge in replicable and meaningful findings relevant to the issue of risk for recidivism and violence, among other things. Most of the research thus far has been based on North American samples of offenders and forensic psychiatric patients. We summarize this research and compare it with findings from several other countries, including England and Sweden. We conclude that the ability of the PCL-R to predict recidivism, violence, and treatment outcome has considerable cross-cultural generalizability, and that the PCL-R and its derivatives play a major role in the understanding and prediction of crime and violence.

Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathy and the DSM—IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 391-398. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.100.3.391 The Axis II Work Group of the Task Force on DSM—IV has expressed concern that antisocial personality disorder (APD) criteria are too long and cumbersome and that they focus on antisocial behaviors rather than personality traits central to traditional conceptions of psychopathy and to international criteria. We describe an alternative to the approach taken in the rev. 3rd ed. of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM—III—R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), namely, the revised Psychopathy Checklist. We also discuss the multisite APD field trials designed to evaluate and compare four criteria sets: the DSM—III—R criteria, a shortened list of these criteria, the criteria for dyssocial personality disorder from the 10th ed. of the International Classification of Diseases (World Health Organization, 1990), and a 10-item criteria set for psychopathic personality disorder derived from the revised Psychopathy Checklist.

Hare, R. D., & McPherson, L. M. (1984). Violent and aggressive behavior by criminal psychopaths. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7(1), 35-50. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6519865.

Hare, R. D., McPherson, L. M., & Forth, A. E. (1988). Male psychopaths and their criminal careers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 710-714. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.56.5.710 Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were used to examine the criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths. Dependent variables included time spent in prison and conviction rates during each 5-year period between the ages of 16-45 years. Both types of analysis indicated that the criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over the years, whereas those of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, after which they declined dramatically. Nevertheless, more than half of the subjects in each group still received at least one conviction after age 40. The results are consistent with clinical impressions that some psychopaths tend to "burn out" in middle age.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2004). The PCL-R assessment of psychopathy: Development, structural properties, and new directions. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.).Handbook of Psychopathy. New York: Guilford.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2006). The PCL-R assessment of psychopathy: Development, structural properties, and new directions. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of Psychopathy (pp. 58-88). New York: Guilford. This is a detailed overview of the development and structural properties of the PCL-R and its derivatives. The Psychopathy Checklist—Revised 1. Glibness/superficial charm 2. Grandiose sense of self worth 3. Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom 4. Pathological lying 5. Conning/manipulative 6. Lack of remorse or guilt 7. Shallow affect 8. Callous/lack of empathy 9. Parasitic lifestyle 10. Poor behavioural controls 11. Promiscuous sexual behavior 12. Early behaviour problems 13. Lack of realistic, long-term goals 14. Impulsivity 15. Irresponsibility 16. Failure to accept responsibility for own actions 17. Many short-term marital relationships 18. Juvenile delinquency 19. Revocation of conditional release 20. Criminal versatility

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2007). Structural models of psychopathy. Current Psychiatry Reports, 7(1), 57-64. doi: 10.1007/s11920-005-0026-3 Psychopathy traditionally is defined by a cluster of inferred personality traits and socially deviant behaviors. The accepted standard for the reliable and valid assessment of psychopathy is the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Because of its importance in basic and applied research, and in the mental health and criminal justice systems, the PCL-R has been subjected to intense scrutiny by researchers and clinicians. In this article we discuss issues surrounding its structural properties and those of its derivatives. Using factor analysis, item response theory, and multidimensional scaling, we propose that the PCL-R and its derivatives are underpinned by at least four correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. We argue that attempts to characterize antisocial behaviors as merely "downstream" manifestations of more central traits are inconsistent with the structural properties of the PCL-R and with evidence that the development of traits and actions are interactive and reciprocal. We also report new evidence that psychopathy and its factors are dimensional in nature, perhaps extreme variants of normal personality traits and behaviors. . . . Given that the modeling results to date indicate a moderate to strong covariation of four dimensions of psychopathy (Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral, and Antisocial), it would be prudent to assume that the longitudinal relations among these dimensions are interactive and reciprocal, and that the "real" core of psychopathy has yet to be uncovered.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann C. S. (2008). Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217-246. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091452 In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We also argue that the idea of construct "drift" is irrelevant to current conceptualizations of psychopathy, which are better informed by the extensive empirical research on the integration of structural, genetic, developmental, personality, and neurobiological research findings than by rigid adherence to early clinical formulations. We offer some suggestions for future research on psychopathy. . . . We now have an impressive body of replicable and meaningful empirical findings, due in large part to the widespread adoption of the PCL-R and its derivatives as a common working model of psychopathy.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2009). Psychopathy and its measurement. In P. J. Corr & G. Matthews (Eds.). The cambridge handbook of personality psychology (pp. 660-686). New York: Cambridge University.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2010). The role of antisociality in the psychopathy construct: Comment on Skeem & Cooke (2009). Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 446-54. J. Skeem and D. J. Cooke (2010) asserted that Hare and Neumann consider criminality to be an essential component of the psychopathy construct. The assertion, presented in the guise of a debate on the nature of psychopathy, is neither accurate nor consistent with the clinical and empirical literature on psychopathy to which Hare and Neumann have contributed. Broadly defined antisociality, not criminality per se, is considered to be part of the psychopathy construct. Skeem and Cooke also expressed concerns that the popularity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003) inhibits the development and use of other instruments, that it has become the construct it measures, that it deviates from its clinical roots, and that it conflates criminality with personality. These and related issues are addressed, and it is suggested that the arguments proffered by Skeem and Cooke are not convincing, nor do they provide clear directions for theory and research.

Harenski, C. L., Antonenko, O., Shane, M. S., Kiehl, K. A. (2008). Gender differences in neural mechanisms underlying moral sensitivity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(4), 313-21. doi:10.1093/scan/nsn026 Researchers have proposed that females and males differ in the structure of their moral attitudes, such that females tend to adopt care-based moral evaluations and males tend to adopt justice-based moral evaluations. The existence of these gender differences remains a controversial issue, as behavioral studies have reported mixed findings. The current study investigated the neural correlates of moral sensitivity in females and males, to test the hypothesis that females would show increased activity in brain regions associated with care-based processing (posterior and anterior cingulate, anterior insula) relative to males when evaluating moral stimuli, and males would show increased activity in regions associated with justice-based processing (superior temporal sulcus) relative to females. Twenty-eight participants (14 females) were scanned using fMRI while viewing unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations, and rated each picture on the degree of moral violation that they judged to be present. As predicted, females showed a stronger modulatory relationship between posterior cingulate and insula activity during picture viewing and subsequent moral ratings relative to males. Males showed a stronger modulatory relationship between inferior parietal activity and moral ratings relative to females. These results are suggestive of gender differences in strategies utilized in moral appraisals.

Harenski, C. L., Harenski, K., Shane, M. S., & Kiehl, K. (2010). Aberrant neural processing of moral violations in criminal psychopaths. Journal of abnormal psychology, 119(4), 863-74. doi:10.1037/a0020979. A defining characteristic of psychopathy is the willingness to intentionally commit moral transgressions against others without guilt or remorse. Despite this "moral insensitivity," the behavioral and neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy have not been well studied. To address this issue, the authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 72 incarcerated male adults, stratified into psychopathic (n = 16) and nonpsychopathic (n = 16) groups based on scores from the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003), while they made decisions regarding the severity of moral violations of pictures that did or did not depict moral situations. Consistent with hypotheses, an analysis of brain activity during the evaluation of pictures depicting moral violations in psychopaths versus nonpsychopaths showed atypical activity in several regions involved in moral decision-making. This included reduced moral/nonmoral picture distinctions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal cortex in psychopaths relative to nonpsychopaths. In a separate analysis, the association between severity of moral violation ratings and brain activity across participants was compared in psychopaths versus nonpsychopaths. Results revealed a positive association between amygdala activity and severity ratings that was greater in nonpsychopaths than psychopaths, and a negative association between posterior temporal activity and severity ratings that was greater in psychopaths than nonpsychopaths. These results reveal potential neural underpinnings of moral insensitivity in psychopathy and are discussed with reference to neurobiological models of morality and psychopathy.

Harpending, H. C., & Sobus, J. (1987). Sociopathy as an adaptation. Ethology and Sociobiology, 8(supp 1), s63-s72. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(87)90019-7 Sociopathy in males and hysteria (Briquet's syndrome) in females very closely fit predictions from a model of characteristics of cheaters or nonreciprocators in a complex social system. Such a model is discussed and characteristics of sociopaths and hysterics are described. Since a successful cheating adaptation should require, above all else, concealment of the trait, recognition and diagnosis of these traits in humans will always be difficult and ambiguous at the level of language and interpersonal interaction.

Harpur, T. J., Hare, R. D., & Hakstian, A. R. (1989). Two-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment implications. Psychological Assessment: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 6-17. Two correlated factors have been identified in the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL), a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of psychopathy in male prison populations. Factor 1 measures a selfish, remorseless, and exploitative use of others, and Factor 2 measures a chronically unstable and antisocial life-style. We examined the psychometric properties of the factor solutions and a variety of correlates of the two factors. Although the PCL can be considered a homogeneous scale on statistical grounds, the factors have distinct patterns of intercorrelations with other variables. Factor 1 is most closely correlated with the classic clinical description of the psychopathic personality. It is only marginally related to many self-report personality scales, to quality of family background, to criminal behavior, and to diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (APD). Factor 2 is strongly correlated with these latter variables and with scales related to socialization. We conclude that both factors measure important elements of psychopathy and that assessments based only on the presence of antisocial behavior or on scales related to socialization are inadequate.

Harpur, T. J., Hart, S. D., & Hare, R. D. (2002). Personality of the psychopath. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 299-324). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Harrington, A. (1971). The coming of the psychopath. Playboy. 18(12).

Harrington, A. (1972). Psychopaths. New York, Simon & Schuster. . . . In a book considerably predating Hare, Harrington makes the case that psychopaths are a significant force in modern culture. Mentions Norman Mailer's attempts to make psychopathy and accepted adaptation — the hip lifestyle. Harrington notes that what once was seen as an illness has now been turned into an ideal.

Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Hilton, N. Z., Lalumiere, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (2007). Coercive and precocious sexuality as a fundamental aspect of psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(1), 1-27. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.1.1 Sexual behavior is closely associated with delinquency and crime. Although psychopaths, by definition, have many short-term sexual relationships, it has not been shown that sexuality is a core aspect of psychopathy. A Darwinian view of psychopathy led to the hypothesis that psychopaths have a unique sexuality involving early, frequent, and coercive sex. Our subjects were 512 sex offenders assessed on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). Five variables reflecting early, frequent, and coercive sex loaded on the same principal component in exploratory factor analysis on a subset of the sample, whereas PCL-R items pertaining to adult sexual behavior did not. Confirmatory factor analysis of the remaining subjects yielded a measurement model containing three inter-correlated factors-the traditional two PCL-R factors, and coercive and precocious sexuality. Taxometric analyses gave evidence of a natural discontinuity underlying coercive and precocious sexuality. Coercive and precocious sexuality yielded statistically significant associations with other study variables predicted by the Darwinian hypothesis. The present findings are consistent with prior empirical findings and support the hypothesis that psychopathy has been a nonpathological, reproductively viable, alternate life history strategy.

Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E. & Barbaree, H. E. (2006). What treatments should psychopaths receive? CrossCurrents-The Journal of Addiction and Mental Health, 9(3), 19-21. So little well-controlled research exists that no conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of treatment for psychopathy. But the available work does offer some ideas about what is contra-indicated. Some readers might recall our research on an intensive therapeutic community designed for the treatment of psychopaths in the 1960s and 1970s, which appeared in a 1992 issue of Law and Human Behavior. It emphasized insight-oriented therapy, was emotionally evocative and placed patients in clinical leadership roles. The program was faithful to its operating principles and based on the best available information about psychopathy. Clinicians and outside experts felt the program was effective. Our follow-up research showed, however, that although the program reduced recidivism among non-psychopaths, it increased the violent recidivism of psychopaths (compared to prison). . . . Barbaree: The current empirical support for the "harm" hypothesis is weak and does not justify excluding psychopaths from treatment programs that target specific problem behaviours using cognitive-behavioural therapeutic techniques.

Harris, G. T, Rice, M. E., & Quinsey, V. L. (1994). Psychopathy as a taxon: Evidence that psychopaths are a discrete class. J Consult Clin Psychol, 62(2), 387-97. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.387 Taxometric analyses were applied to the construct of psychopathy (as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist) and to several variables reflecting antisocial childhood, adult criminality, and criminal recidivism. Subjects were 653 serious offenders assessed or treated in a maximum-security institution. Results supported the existence of a taxon underlying psychopathy. Childhood problem behaviors provided convergent evidence for the existence of the taxon. Adult criminal history variables were continuously distributed and were insufficient in themselves to detect the taxon.

Harris, G. T., Skilling, T. A., & Rice, M. E. (2001). The construct of psychopathy. Crime & Justice, 28, 197- 264. As a psychological construct, psychopathy has undergone recent change, and there is still disagreement as to its fundamental character. Nevertheless, it can be reliably and validly measured with such behaviors as callousness, impulsivity, sensation seeking, dishonesty, emotional detachment, extreme selfishness, antisociality, belligerence, juvenile delinquency, and sexual promiscuity. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist- Revised is the best available assessment. Psychopathy exists in women, men, children, and in all racial and ethnic groups examined. No one knows whether some psychopaths function successfully without committing serious offenses. Among institutionalized offender samples, psychopathy is the strongest predictor of violent recidivism and differential response to treatment yet discovered. Although psychopaths can exhibit subtle neurological, physiological, and cognitive differences compared with other people, it is unclear whether these differences constitute defective brain function or the execution of a viable life strategy.

Hart, S. D. (1998). The role of psychopathy in assessing risk for violence: Conceptual and methodological issues. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 3, 123-140.

Hart, S. D. (2001). Assessing and managing violence risk. In K. S. Douglas, C. D. Webster, S. D. Hart, D. Eaves, & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), HCR-20 violence risk management companion guide (pp. 13-25). Burnaby, British Columbia: Mental Health, Law, & Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University, and Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida. This chapter begins with a discussion of the nature and goals of violence risk assessment. It then moves on to a re-view of different approaches to risk assessment, focusing on structured professional judgment. It concludes with the presentation of basic principles for conducting and evaluating violence risk assessment procedures. The material presented here reflects collaborations with a group of people associated in one way or another with Simon Fraser University, including Christopher D. Webster, P. Randall Kropp, Derek Eaves, and Kevin S. Douglas. Much of it appears in previous articles (e.g., Hart, 1998, 2000); people familiar with them may wish to skim this chapter or even skip it altogether.

Hart, S. D. (2010). The Dark Side of Peer Review. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9(1), 1-2 doi: 10.1080/14999013.2010.484979 Peer review is a process often viewed as critical to the advancement of science. But, as Norman Poythress and John Petrila make clear in the lead article of this issue of the International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, it is a process that can go awry. They discuss a dispute that arose concerning publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal, the consequences of which included, certainly, a major delay in publication of the article; probably, an extra round of reviews and required revisions that were unwarranted; and, quite possibly, a chilling effect on research in the field. In this Editorial, I reflect on Poythress and Petrila's cautionary tale and its relevance for the journal's editorial policies and procedures.

Hart, S. D., Cox, D. N., & Hare, R. D. (1995) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Toronto: Multi Health Systems.

Hart, S. D., Hare, R. D., & Forth, A. E. (1993). Psychopathy as a risk marker for violence: Development of a screening version of the Revised Psychopathy Checklist. In: J. Monahan & H. Steadman (Eds.), Violence and mental disorder: Developments in risk assessment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hart, S. D., Hare, R. D., & Harpur, T. J. (1992). The Psychopathy Checklist: Overview for researchers and clinicians. In J. Rosen & P. McReynolds (Eds.), Advances in Psychological Assessment, 7 (pp. 103-130). New York: Plenum.

Hart, S. D., Kropp, P. R., & Hare, R. D. (1988). Performance of male psychopaths following conditional release from prison. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(2), 227-32. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372830. The Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) was administered to 231 White male criminals prior to their release from prison on parole or mandatory supervision. Official parole supervision files provided details of each criminal's behavior during his supervised release. The PCL made a significant contribution to the prediction of outcome beyond that made by several key criminal-history and demographic variables. The percentage of criminals with low, medium, and high PCL scores who violated the conditions of release was 23.5, 48.9, and 65.2, respectively. The probability of remaining out of prison for at least 1 year was .80, .54, and .38 for low, medium, and high groups, respectively. The high group members received more suspensions and presented more supervisory problems than did those in the other groups. The results provide support for the validity of the PCL and for the view that it is possible to make useful predictions about some aspects of the criminal psychopath's behavior.

Hart, S. D., Webster, C. D. & Douglas, K. S., (2001). Risk management using the HCR-20: A general overview focusing on historical factors. In K. S. Douglas, C. D. Webster, S. D. Hart, D. Eaves, & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), HCR-20 violence risk management companion guide (pp. 27-40). Burnaby, British Columbia: Mental Health, Law, & Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University, and Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida. Despite important developments in violence risk assessment over the past decade, relatively little attention has been paid to the process of violence risk management. In our view, this is unfortunate; we believe the goal of risk assessment is to prevent violence by guiding risk management activities (see Hart, 2001, this volume). Other commentators, however, have argued strongly that risk assessment and risk management are and should be separate and distinct processes (e.g., Heilbrun, 1997; Monahan et al., 2001). According to the latter view, risk assessment should focus mainly on static risk markers (correlates of future violence that change little and slowly, if at all, over time), whereas risk management should focus on dynamic risk factors (causes of future violence that can change over time, especially in response to intervention). Although we agree that dynamic factors play a special role in risk management — as is evident from the fact that this volume is devoted almost entirely to the topic — we think that historical factors are no less important and must be considered in the development of any sensible risk management plan.

Hecht, D. (2011). An inter-hemispheric imbalance in the psychopath's brain. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(1), 3-10. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.032 Psychopathy is associated with two extremities. On the one hand, psychopathic individuals lack any concern for social norms and they are severely poor in maintaining healthy social relationships. In addition, the ability of individuals with psychopathy to feel certain emotions such as empathy, guilt or fear is seriously compromised. In contrast to these deficits, some behaviors and tendencies are exaggerated in psychopathy. For instance, psychopathic individuals display higher than normal impulsivity, stimulationseeking, aggression and risk-taking. There are indications in the literature that pro-social behavior, as well as the feelings of empathy, guilt and fear are mediated predominantly by regions within the right hemisphere (RH), whereas impulsivity, stimulation-seeking, aggression and risk-taking are linked primarily with left hemisphere (LH) activity. From a neurobiological perspective, it seems that psychopathy may be associated with an altered and imbalanced inter-hemispheric dynamics; a relatively hyperfunctioning LH and/or a hypofunctioning RH. Furthermore, within the psychopathic population, the RH hypofunctioning is more characteristic of primary psychopathy with its affective and interpersonal deficits, while the LH hyperfunctioning is most typical of the secondary psychopathy which is marked by impulsivity and antisocial style.

Heinze, Peter, Allen, Rhianon, Magai, Carol, Ritzler, Barry. (2010). "Let's get down to business: a validation study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among a sample of MBA students." Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(4) 487-98 doi:10.1521/pedi.2010.24.4.487 While the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has gained increasing attention as a measure of noncriminal psychopathy, absent has been research involving samples including business people. This study investigated the validity of the PPI with such a population by examining the association between psychopathic traits and moral decision-making among MBA students. Sixty-six MBA students were assessed using the PPI, the MACH-IV (a measure of Machiavellianism), the Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ), and the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2). Only PPI Machiavellian Egocentricity was associated with level of post-conventional moral reasoning. MACH-IV Machiavellianism was a stronger predictor of the Subjectivist ethical position than were PPI subscales. However, a combination of MACH-IV Machiavellianism and four PPI scales accounted for 46% of the variance in Subjectivism. Results suggested that Machiavellian Egocentricity and Machiavellianism are distinct constructs. Benning, Patrick, Hicks, Blonigen, & Krueger (2003)'s two factor model of the PPI was also supported. In general, the findings provided further validation for the PPI as a tool for assessing psychopathic traits among "mainstream" individuals, including business people.

Hercz, R. (2001). Psychopaths among us: Dr Robert Hare claims there are 300,000 psychopaths in Canada, but that only a tiny fraction are violent offenders like Paul Bernado and Clifford Olson. Who are the rest? Saturday Night, 116(33), 22-8. http://ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca:2048/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=358583461&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=12303&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Herpertz, S. (2000). Emotional Deficiency and Psychopathy. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 18, 567-580. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2000-14386-001.

Herve H, & Yuille J, (Eds.) (2007). The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Heston. L. L. (1970). The genetics of schizophrenia and schizoid disease. Science, 167(3916), 249-256. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1729085 The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of schizophrenia has been confirmed decisively. Because the investigations that have led to this result have uncovered questions cutting across several fields of inquiry, a fresh look at some central aspects of the schizophrenia problem is warranted. These questions and the factual back-ground underlying them are the main concerns of this article. Because emphasis is placed on formulating testable hypotheses, the evidence is organized in support of a particular genetic theory. . . . Several problematical behaviors have been associated with the schizoid. Among males, antisocial behavior has been found commonly enough to warrant the older subdesignation "schizoid psychopath."

Hesse, M. (2009). Portrayal of psychopathy in the movies. International Review of Psychiatry, 21(3), 207-212. doi: 10.1080/09540260902747441 According to diagnostic criteria, psychopathy describes chronic immoral and anti-social behaviour, a lack of consciousness and an ability to lie and deceive without feeling guilt or discomfort. It is one of the most studied conditions and its relationship with criminal behaviour is well known. Using psychopathy as a model, the narrative of the human monster fits well in the context of watching films. The most common portrayal of a psychopath in films is that of a callous, calculating and aggressive individual, but such a character tends to only scratch the surface of the problems associated with psychopathy. Using illustrations both old and new, this paper focuses on interpersonal relationships and placing films in the context of further discussion.

Hicks, B. M., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C.J., Krueger, R. F., & Newman, J. P. (2004). Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure. Psychological Assessment, 16(3), 276-288. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.16.3.276 The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF; C. J. Patrick, J. J. Curtin, & A. Tellegen, 2002). The best-fitting model yielded two clusters. Emotionally stable psychopaths were characterized by low Stress Reaction and high Agency. Aggressive psychopaths were characterized by high Negative Emotionality, low Constraint, and low Communion. These results suggest that psychopaths as defined by the PCL-R includes distinct subtypes, distinguishable in terms of personality structure, that may reflect different etiologies. . . . In this regard, we hope that the current work will serve as a bridge between the experimental literature on psychopathy and the personality, criminology, and general psychopathology literatures and that we have successfully highlighted productive paths for continuing research.

Hicks, B. M., Vaidyanathan, U., & Patrick, C. J. (2010). Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health. Personality disorders, 1(1), 38-57. doi:10.1037/a0018135. Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to non-violent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

Hilton, N. Z., Harris, G. T., & Rice, M. E. (2006). Sixty-six years of research on the clinical versus actuarial prediction of violence. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(3), 400-409. doi: 10.1177/0011000005285877 In their meta-analysis of clinical versus statistical prediction models, Ægisdóttir et al. (this issue) extended previous findings of statistical-method superiority across such variables as clinicians' experience and familiarity with data. In this reaction, the authors are particularly interested in violence prediction, which yields the greatest support for actuarial models. In the past decade, actuarial prediction has continued to improve, but clinicians have not readily adopted these models, and new models have emerged that encourage reliance on unaided clinical judgment. Psychologists have made progress developing and disseminating actuarial risk assessments and should use the most accurate available measure suited to the task.

Hilton, N. Z., Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Houghton, R. E., & Eke, A. W. (2008). An indepth actuarial assessment for wife assault recidivism: The Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guide. Law and Human Behavior, 32(2), 150-163. doi: 10.1007/s10979-007-9088-6 An actuarial tool, the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), predicts recidivism using only variables readily obtained by frontline police officers. Correctional settings permit more comprehensive assessments. In a subset of ODARA construction and cross-validation cases, 303 men with a police record for wife assault and a correctional system file, the VRAG, SARA, Danger Assessment, and DVSI also predicted recidivism, but the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) best improved prediction of recidivism, occurrence, frequency, severity, injury, and charges. In 346 new cases, ODARA and PCL-R independently predicted recidivism. An algorithm was derived for a combined instrument, the Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (DVRAG), and an experience table is presented (N = 649). Results indicated the importance of antisociality in wife assault.

Hodson, G., Hogg, S. M., & MacInnis, C. C. (2009). The role of "dark personalities" (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 686-690. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.02.005 The so-called Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) represent correlated subclinical personality traits capturing "dark personalities". How might darker personalities contribute to prejudice? In the present study (n = 197), these dark personality variables correlated positively with outgroup threat perceptions and anti-immigrant prejudice. A proposed two-stage structural equation model, assuming indirect personality effects (Dark Personality, Big Five) on prejudice through ideology and group threat perceptions, fit the data well. Specifically, a latent Dark Personality factor predicted social dominance orientation, whereas (low) Openness to Experience predicted right-wing authoritarianism; these ideological variables each predicted prejudice directly and indirectly through heightened intergroup threat. The authors recommend that personality models of prejudice incorporate both normal-range and subclinical personality predictors, in addition to ideological and social psychological mediators.

Hoff, H., Beneventi, H., Galta, K., & Wik, G. (2009). Evidence of deviant emotional processing in psychopathy: A fMRI case study. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(6), 857-878. doi: 10.1080/00207450701590992 In this case-report we describe a prototypical criminal psychopath by clinical characteristics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To study emotional disability in psychopathy we compared fMRI-BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) responses to healthy controls. In a block-design subjects were exposed to drawings of facial expressions alternated with scrambled drawings. Exposure to facial expressions activated brain regions of older origin in the psychopath, whereas all activated regions in controls were neocortical. Our findings support the notion that the processing of emotional stimuli in psychopathy is atypical. . . . used a single case study of a male who appears to have been an inadequate psychopath.

Holmes, C. A. (1991). Psychopathic disorder: A category mistake? Journal of Medical Ethics, 17(2), 77-85. doi:10.1136/jme.17.2.77 Although the concept of psychopathy retains its currency in British psychiatry, apparently being meaningful as well as useful to practitioners (1), it is often taken to refer to a purely legal category with social control functions rather than a medical diagnosis with treatment implications. I wish, in this brief article, to suggest that it is essentially, and most usefully, an ethical category which stands outside the diagnostic framework of present-day psychiatry. . . . In conclusion, therefore, it would appear that psychiatry might usefully admit that it has made some kind of 'category mistake' as far as psychopathy is concerned, and consign the whole concept to the labyrinthine procrastinations of moral and legal philosophers.

Howard, M. O., Williams, J. H., Vaughn, M. G., & Edmond, T. (2004). Promises and perils of a psychopathology of crime: The troubling case of juvenile psychopathy. Washington University Journal of Law & Policy, 14, 441- 483. Contemporary clinical legal education and practice could benefit significantly from a greater appreciation of scientific findings pertaining to mental disorders. However, indiscriminant application of prevailing psychiatric paradigms could prove problematic for, and even pernicious to, the profession. Recent efforts to generalize the construct psychopathy to a select subpopulation of juvenile offenders, thought to be particularly persistent, active, versatile, and violent in their criminal offending, exemplify the potential promises and pitfalls of widespread adoption of mental disorder conceptualizations by legal practitioners. This review examines historical accounts and current conceptualizations of psychopathy, contemporary approaches to juvenile psychopathy assessment, scientific findings bearing on the validity of the designation, etiological theories, and future directions for research on juvenile psychopathy.

Howard, R. C. (1986). Psychopathy: A psychobiological perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 7(6), 795-806. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(86)90078-4 After critically examining the concept of psychopathy and reviewing the major existing theories of psychopathy in the light of a psychobiological conception of abnormal behaviour (ohman, 1981), this paper attempts to present an integrated, psychobiological model of psychopathy. Essentially this analyses psychopathy in terms of the predisposing influences, the triggering environmental events which initiate psychopathic behaviour, and the neurophsychological mechanisms which mediate it. It is suggested that individuals who show chronic antisocial behaviour, conforming to the North American term 'sociopath', may demonstrate a maturational deficit but do not necessarily show a psychopathic personality disorder. The latter is said to be characterised, at a personality trait level, by high Impulsiveness and Psychopathy (Blackburn, 1982 a, b), reflecting interactive deficits in goal direction and affect. At a dynamic (state) level, a psychopathic personality disorder is said to be characterised by a lack of coping, reflecting either, in the case of the secondary psychopath, a deficit in primary appraisal, (over-perception of threat), or in the case of the primary psychopath, a deficit in secondary appraisal (low perceived control over aversive environmental events). It is further suggested that a genetic predisposition to social withdrawal and exposure to an uncontrollably aversive early environment may interact to predispose an individual to develop a psychopathic personality disorder in adulthood. . . . There will be yet others within the broad class of so-called 'sociopathic' individuals who are neither primary nor secondary psychopaths. These individuals will not be particularly susceptible to stress either in the form of boredom or threat, and so episodes of 'psychopathic' behaviour will not readily be triggered. In general, therefore, although often recidivistically criminal, they should not be regarded as psychopathic in the sense of being personality disordered and would therefore more properly be detained in prison than in an institution for mentally abnormal offenders. Others again may tread a tightrope between legality and illegality and correspond to the 'non-institutionalised psychopath' (Widom, 1977), who while sharing some of the personality characteristics of the criminal psychopath, does not generally engage in antisocial behaviour.

Huchzermeier, C., Geiger, F., Brub, E., Godt, N., Kohler, D., Hinrichs, G., et al. (2007). The relationship between DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders and psychopathy according to Hare's criteria: clarification and resolution of previous contradictions. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 25(6), 901-911. Retrieved March 7, 2009, doi:10.1002/bsl.722 This study examines the relationship between DSM-cluster B personality disorders (PDs) and psychopaths according to Hare's criteria as detected by the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV) in 299 violent offenders. To clarify some contradictions among several previous studies on this issue, individual cluster B PDs were looked at alone, excluding any cases of comorbidity with other PDs of this cluster. We found highly significant relationships between antisocial and borderline PD and Factor II of the PCL and a highly significant correlation between narcissistic PD and Factor I of the PCL. These results were to be expected from the theoretical basis of the development of the PCL and provide a contribution to the construct validity of the PCL, which until now has not been validated on such a large sample in Germany.

Huss, M. T., Covell, C. N., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2006). Clinical implications for the assessment and treatment of antisocial and psychopathic domestic violence perpetrators. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 13(1), 59-85. doi:10.1300/J146v13n01_04 This article examines the evidence regarding the presence of a subgroup of antisocial and potentially psychopathic batterers, and encourages clinicians to routinely assess for these traits. Antisocial/ psychopathic characteristics are potentially problematic in the ongoing evaluation of risk and demand special attention in cases of domestic violence. Furthermore, there are a number of treatment implications because of the characterlogical deficits associated with the group. Suggestions are provided for improving treatment effectiveness and risk management with these batterers. . . . As a whole, the reviewed data clearly suggest there are increased difficulties associated with treating psychopathic and antisocial batterers.

Hyatt, C. S. (2003). The psychopath's bible for the extreme individual. Tempe, AZ: The Original Falcon Press. We believe that the most significant quality which makes many of these works so appealing is that the hero-psychopath is, at least to a large extent, conscious of his values and deliberate in his actions. . . . More than anything else, the Manipulator is free. He is free from the hallucinations that homo normalis insists we adopt and which men have so treasured all their lives: his eyes see only what is. He is free from the myths of safety and security: he knows that death awaits him. He is free from the delusion of the supremacy of the species: at his best, man is still pathetic and weak. He is free from the illusions of language, especially "cause and effect" and "randomness": he can use words as tools when and where he chooses. He is free from the mirage of relationships: he knows where he is on the food chain. He is free from the pragmatic burdens the world insists on placing in the way of enjoyment: he laughs at the sheep and those in power alike and plots their downfall.

Iria, C., & Barbosa, F. (2009). Perception of facial expressions of fear: Comparative research with criminal and non-criminal psychopaths. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 20(1), 66-73. doi: 10.1080/14789940802214218 A group of criminal psychopaths (n = 22) was compared against three control groups - non-criminal psychopaths (n = 16), criminal non-psychopaths (n = 11), and non-criminal non-psychopaths (n = 13) - on a go/no-go paradigm to test whether criminal psychopaths' poor ability to recognise facial expressions of fear can be generalised to non-criminal psychopaths and to other non-psychopathic criminals. Both criminal and non-criminal psychopaths showed significantly worse performance than non-psychopaths in the detection and discrimination of fear in facial expressions. These results suggest that psychopathy, independently of its manifestation in criminal behaviour, seems to be related to poor ability to identify and discriminate facial expressions of fear. Additionally, inhibition deficits or, at least, an impulsivity response pattern seem to be common to all criminal groups that were investigated. . . . In conclusion, this research suggests that fear recognition deficits are psychopath-specific and independent of criminal conduct. Thus psychopathy, not criminality per se, seems to be related to a deficit in identification of fear in facial expressions. . . . To be more precise, since psychopaths were less able than other groups to detect and distinguish expressions of fear, this ability appears to be a functional difference between psychopaths and other criminal individuals (non-psychopaths), whereas impulsivity or response inhibition deficits look likely to be present in more criminal groups (therefore, less psychopathy-specific).

Ishikawa, S., & Raine, A. (2002). Psychophysiological correlates of antisocial behavior: A central control hypothesis. In J. Glicksohn (Ed.) The Neurobiology of Criminal Behavior (pp.187-229). Norwell: Kluwer Academic.

Jackson, R., Richards, H. (2007). Psychopathy in women: A valid construct with clear implications. In Hugues Herve & John Yuille (Eds.). The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 389-410). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Jaffe, S. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2003). Life with (or without) father: the benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father's antisocial behavior. Child Development, 74(1), 109-126. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00524 The salutary effects of being raised by two married, biological parents depend on the quality of care parents can provide. Using data from an epidemiological sample of 1,116 5-year-old twin pairs and their parents, this study found that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. In contrast, when fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more time they lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had. Behavioral genetic analyses showed that children who resided with antisocial fathers received a "double whammy" of genetic and environmental risk for conduct problems. Marriage may not be the answer to the problems faced by some children living in single-parent families unless their fathers can become reliable sources of emotional and economic support. . . . First, at least in early childhood, when fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, their presence was linked to children's conduct problems in the clinical range. . . . Second, despite the fact that fathers who engage in high levels of antisocial behavior make up a small proportion of fathers overall, they are responsible for a disproportionate number of births. . . . Third, our findings do not suggest that most children's antisocial behavior would be reduced if they were raised by two biological parents.

Jalava, J. (2006). Nineteenth-century degeneration theory and modern psychopathy research. Theory & Psychology, 16(3), 416-432. doi: 10.1177/0959354306064286 This paper illustrates the tendency of intuitively appealing psychological theories to survive through mutation their official discreditation. This is done by way of a case study, involving the theoretical continuum between the late 19th- and early 20th-century sociological/biological/psychological/literary theory of degeneration (illustrated by, for example, Lombroso's theory of the born-criminal type) and modern psychopathy research and theory. It will be argued that although the theory of degeneration became obsolete by the end of World War II, its basic tenets have survived into mainstream scientific work regarding what is known as the psychopath. Reasons for the endurance of degeneration theory are briefly examined. . . . The forces of degeneration opposed those of evolution, and those afflicted with degeneration were thought to represent a return to an earlier evolutionary stage. . . . the overarching notion of degeneration theory was that of a deep and all-encompassing biological process that could manifest itself in any number of ways. The theory of degeneration and the emergence of criminology as a new human science are closely linked. . . . The theory of the born-criminal type was hence entirely deterministic, arguing that the type was innately driven to act as apes and savages did, whose innate aggressiveness and criminality Lombroso also claimed to have proven. . . . modern conceptions of psychopathy may be considered a modified form of the theory of degeneration.

Jeffery, R. (2008). Evil and international relations: Human suffering in an age of terror. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jensen, O. N. (1978). The mask of psychopathy. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 1(2), 153-166. doi:10.1016/0160-2527(78)90013-4 During its almost 200 year history, psychopathy has been of much concern to the public. The concept of psychopathy has caused much trouble and frustration to scientists, and the so-called psychopath has given an exhausting amount of work to those dealing with the treatment of psychopathy. Psychiatrists seemingly have not been able to convey their conception of psychopathy to the public. We are all familiar with the misuse of the word psychopath for a dislikable person. Furthermore, in recent years we have experienced a strong interest in the so-called political dissidents and their relation to psychiatry. From a platform of practical experience, being responsible for the institutional treatment and correction of persons suffering from psychopathy, it is my firm opinion that the ghost of psychopathy is to be found in the midst of the problem of the so-called political misuse of psychiatry. However, it seems to me that it is public opinion and its spokesmen, the politicians, that are misusing psychiatry. We are witnessing a curiously political and unholy alliance between the reactionary right wing and the bewildered part of the left wing uniting in their furious attack on psychiatry.

Johansson, A., Santtila, P., Harlaar, N., von der Pahlen, B., Witting, K., Algars, M., et al. (2008). Genetic effects on male sexual coercion. Aggressive Behavior, 34(2), 190-202. doi:10.1002/ab.20230 The genetic and environmental influences on sexual coercion, and to what extent its associations with alcohol use and psychopathy depend on shared genetic and environmental effects, were explored in a Finnish population-based sample of 938 men, aged 33-43 years, using the classical twin study design. All three phenotypes were associated positively and affected by genes (sexual coercion 28%, alcohol use 60%, psychopathy 54%), with 46% of the correlation between sexual coercion and psychopathy, 89% of the correlation between alcohol use and psychopathy and 100% of the correlation between sexual coercion and alcohol use being explained by shared genetic effects. Further, the results showed that a proportion of the variance in sexual coercion was derived from a highly genetic source that was common with alcohol use and psychopathy. This latent factor was hypothesized to reflect a general tendency for antisocial behavior that is pervasive across different situations. Relevant theories on sexual coercion were discussed in light of the results.

Johansson, P., & Kerr, M. (2005). Psychopathy and intelligence: A second look. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(4), 357-369. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.4.357 Empirical studies using the PCL-R (Hare, 2003) have shown no intelligence differences between psychopaths and nonpsychopaths. However, Cleckley (1976) argued that psychopaths often show superior intelligence. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the correlation between intelligence and severity of criminal development is the opposite in psychopaths than in nonpsychopathic criminals using a sample of 370 men sentenced for violent (nonsexual) crimes. That pattern would provide a way of explaining the discrepancy between Cleckley's view and later empirical work. The results showed that for nonpsychopaths, higher total IQ and particularly verbal intelligence meant a later start in violent crime. For those diagnosed as psychopaths, however, this association was reversed.

Johansson, P., Kerr, M., & Andershed, H. (2005). Linking adult psychopathy with childhood hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention problems and conduct problems through retrospective self-reports. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(1), 94-101. doi: 10.1521/pedi.19.1.94.62183 The purpose of the present study was to test whether adult criminals with psychopathy diagnoses, more than those without, have histories of hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention problems (HIA) and conduct problems (CP). We compared psychopathic and nonpsychopathic violent criminal offenders on retrospective reports of conduct problems before the age of 15 and hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention problems before the age of 10. We used a sample of 186 adult men sentenced to prison in Sweden for 4 years or more for violent, nonsexual crimes. The mean age was 30.7(SD = 9.4). The results showed that a combination of childhood HIA problems and CP was typical for adult psychopathic offenders. They were four times more likely than chance to have had a combination of HIA problems and CP during childhood and only one-fifth as likely than chance to have had neither problem. Nonpsychopathic offenders, on the other hand, were five times more likely than chance to have had neither problem and only one-quarter as likely than chance to have had both problems.

Johns, J. H., & Quay, H.C. (1962). The effect of social reward on verbal conditioning in psychopathic military offenders. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26(3), 217-220. doi:10.1037/h0048399 Psychopathic military service offenders do not show a greater increase in verbal conditioning, where the reinforcing stimulus is the word "good," than unreinforced controls. Neurotic offenders show a greater increase than controls.

Jonason, P. K., Luevano, V. X., & Adams, H. M. (2012). How the Dark Triad traits predict relationship choices. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 180-184. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.03.007

Jonason, P. K., & Webster, G. D. (2010). The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. Psychological assessment, 22(2), 420-32. doi:10.1037/a0019265. There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural reliability, convergent and discriminant validity (Studies 1, 2, and 4), and test-retest reliability (Study 3). Their measure retained the flexibility needed to measure these 3 independent-yet-related constructs while improving its efficiency by reducing its item count by 87% (from 91 to 12 items). The measure retained its core of disagreeableness, short-term mating, and aggressiveness. They call this measure the Dirty Dozen, but it cleanly measures the Dark Triad.

Jonason, P., Li, N., Webster, G., & Schmitt, D. (2009). The dark triad: Facilitating a short-term mating strategy in men. European Journal of Personality, 23(1), 5-18. doi:10.1002/per.698 This survey (N=224) found that characteristics collectively known as the Dark Triad (i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) were correlated with various dimensions of short-term mating but not long-term mating. The link between the Dark Triad and short term mating was stronger for men than for women. The Dark Triad partially mediated the sex difference in short-term mating behaviour. Findings are consistent with a view that the Dark Triad facilitates an exploitative, short-term mating strategy in men. Possible implications, including that Dark Triad traits represent a bundle of individual differences that promote a reproductively adaptive strategy are discussed. Findings are discussed in the broad context of how an evolutionary approach to personality psychology can enhance our understanding of individual differences. . . . Our study indicates a connection between the Dark Triad and more positive attitudes towards casual sex and more casual sex behaviours. To the extent that lifetime number of sexual partners is a modern-day marker of reproductive success (Kanazawa, 2003; Nettle, 2005), and given that the Dark Triad traits are heritable (Vernon, Villani, Vickers, & Harris, 2008) and exist in different cultures (e.g. Foster et al., 2003), we speculate that these traits may represent one end of a set of individual differences that reflects an evolutionarily stable solution to the adaptive problem of reproduction.

Jones, Meredith, Westen, Drew. (2010). Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(2) 217-43 10.1521/pedi.2010.24.2.217 The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

Kahn, E. (1931). Psychopathic personalities. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kandel, E., Mednick, S. a, Kirkegaard-Sorensen, L., Hutchings, B., Knop, J., Rosenberg, R., et al. (1988). IQ as a protective factor for subjects at high risk for antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(2), 224-6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372829. The current project compared the characteristics of four groups of men from a Danish birth cohort: (a) those at high risk for serious criminal involvement (with severely criminal fathers) who nevertheless succeeded in avoiding criminal behavior; (b) those at high risk who evidenced serious criminal behavior; (c) those at low risk (with noncriminal fathers) who did not evidence criminal behavior; and (d) those at low risk who nevertheless evidenced serious criminal behavior. We examined the possible role of high IQ (as tested by an abbreviated version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) in protecting high-risk men from criminal involvement. As hypothesized, the first group evidenced a mean IQ score that was significantly higher than that of the other risk groups. The results are interpreted in terms of the reinforcing effect of success in the school system.

Kantor, M. (2006). The psychopathy of everyday life: How antisocial personality disorder affects all of us. New York: Praeger Publishers. Psychopathy is both a serious psychological disorder that threatens our individual happiness and a widespread social problem that threatens our entire civilization. Yet to date the sensed diagnostic unity that we call psychopathy remains a diffuse and poorly drawn entity that comes close to defeating our attempts to precisely describe it, thoroughly understand it, and effectively treat it. One of the biggest problems in understanding psychopathy is the literature's tendency to lump serious but rare psychopaths like John Wayne Gacy and Ted Bundy with the less serious but common psychopaths, the many in our midst who suffer from a milder and less obtrusive form of what the DSM-IV (The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) officially calls "Antisocial Personality Disorder." Martha Stout calls these less serious, more common psychopaths "the sociopaths next door."2 I call them "the psychopaths of everyday life."

Kazdin, A. E., & Whitley, M. K. (2003). Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 71(3), 504-515. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.504 This study evaluated a parent problem-solving (PPS) intervention designed to augment the effects of evidence-based therapy for children referred to treatment for aggressive and antisocial behavior. All children (N=127, ages 6-14 years) and their families received problem-solving skills training (PSST), and parents received parent management training (PMT). Families were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive an additional component (PPS) that addressed parental stress over the course of treatment. Children improved with treatment; the PPS intervention enhanced therapeutic change for children and parents and reduced the barriers that parents experienced during treatment. The implications of the findings for improving evidence-based treatment as well as the limitations of adding components to treatment are detailed. . . . The present study focused on stress of the parent over the course of treatment and the effects of this focus on several outcomes. As predicted, addressing parent stress during treatment improved treatment outcome for children and parents and reduced the burden of treatment that parents experience while attending therapy.

Kerouac, J. (1957). On the road. New York: Viking.

Kerr, M., Van Zalk, M., & Stattin, H. (2012). Psychopathic traits moderate peer influence on adolescent delinquency. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53, 826-35. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02492.x

Kiehl, K. A. (2006). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: Evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Research, 142(2/3), 107-128. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2005.09.013 Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder that includes interpersonal and affective traits such as glibness, lack of empathy, guilt or remorse, shallow affect, and irresponsibility, and behavioral characteristics such as impulsivity, poor behavioral control, and promiscuity. Much is known about the assessment of psychopathy; however, relatively little is understood about the relevant brain disturbances. The present review integrates data from studies of behavioral and cognitive changes associated with focal brain lesions or insults and results from psychophysiology, cognitive psychology and cognitive and affective neuroscience in health and psychopathy. The review illustrates that the brain regions implicated in psychopathy include the orbital frontal cortex, insula, anterior and posterior cingulate, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior superior temporal gyrus. The relevant functional neuroanatomy of psychopathy thus includes limbic and paralimbic structures that may be collectively termed 'the paralimbic system'. The paralimbic system dysfunction model of psychopathy is discussed as it relates to the extant literature on psychopathy.

Kiehl, K. A., Bates, A. T., Laurens, K. R.; Hare, R. D., & Liddle, P. F. (2006). Brain potentials implicate temporal lobe abnormalities in criminal psychopaths. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(3), 443-453. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.3.443 Psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in attention and orienting. However, few studies have examined the neural systems underlying these processes. To address this issue, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while 80 incarcerated men, classified as psychopathic or nonpsychopathic via the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003), completed an auditory oddball task. Consistent with hypotheses, processing of targets elicited larger frontocentral negativities (N550) in psychopaths than in nonpsychopaths. Psychopaths also showed an enlarged N2 and reduced P3 during target detection. Similar ERP modulations have been reported in patients with amygdala and temporal lobe damage. The data are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that psychopathy may be related to dysfunction of the paralimbic system—a system that includes parts of the temporal and frontal lobes.

Kiehl, K. A. & Buckholtz, J. W. (2010, September/October). Inside the Mind of the Psychopath. Scientific American Mind, 22-29.

Kiehl, K. A., Smith, A. M., Hare, R. D., Mendrek, A., Forster, B. B., Brink, J., & Liddle, P. F. (2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 50(9), 677-684. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01222-7 Background: Psychopathy is a complex person disorder of unknown etiology. Central to the disorder areanomalies or difficulties in affective processing. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of these anomalies in criminal psychopaths during performance of an affective memory task. Results: Compared with criminal nonpsychopaths and noncriminal control participants, criminal psychopaths showed significantly less affect-related activity in the amygdala/hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus, ventral striatum, and in the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri. Psychopathic criminals also showed evidence of overactivation in the bilateral fronto-tempora cortex for processing affective stimuli. Conclusions: These data suggest that the affective abnormalities so often observed in psychopathic offenders may be linked to deficient or weakened input from limbic structures. . . . In summary, we have shown that processing of affective stimuli is associated with less limbic activation in criminal psychopaths than in criminal nonpsychopaths and noncriminal control participants. We have also shown that psychopathic offenders appear to use alternative neural systems to process affective stimuli. These findings support and extend previous lesion-based observations in psychopaths and provide in vivo visualization of the neural processes that may underlie the affective anomalies that clinicians have described in criminal psychopaths.

Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Cauffman, E., Goldweber, A., & Skeem, J. L. (2012). Primary and secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy differ in emotional processing. Development and psychopathology, 24, 1091-103. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000557

Kirkman, C. A. (2002). Non-incarcerated psychopaths: Why we need to know more about the psychopaths who live amongst us. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 9(2), 155-160. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2850.2002.00462.x Non-incarcerated psychopaths: why we need to know more about the psychopaths who live amongst us.

Kirkman, C. A. (2005). From soap opera to science: Towards gaining access to the psychopaths who live amongst us. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78(3), 379-396. This idiographic and essentially exploratory study examined the unique experiences of 20 women who had been victimized within the context of heterosexual relationships with a male partner who was rated as having the characteristics associated with psychopathy.

Knight, R. A. (2010). Is a diagnostic category for paraphilic coercive disorder defensible? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(2), 419-426. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9571-x There is a proposal to establish a paraphilic coercive disorder as a new paraphilia in the DSM-V. The empirical data do not, however, support the hypothesis that a distinct syndrome exists that comprises males who are sexually aroused by the coercive elements of rape per se. Purported evidence for this syndrome has centered on the results of phallometric studies. Higher plethysmographic responses of rapists to coercive rape scenarios may, however, be better explained by the failure of coercive elements to inhibit arousal to sexual aspects of the stimuli rather than by arousal specifically to the coercive elements. In addition, sexual fantasies about forcing sex and about struggling victims are highly correlated with sadistic fantasies and have not been shown to identify a syndrome that can be discriminated from sadism. Finally, taxometric evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that the underlying components of rape are distributed as dimensions and do not constitute a separate taxon. Consequently, the criteria purported to categorize rapists into the proposed syndrome would have to be arbitrarily determined. Not only does there seem to be little empirical justification for the creation of this new syndrome, the inclusion of this disorder among the paraphilias would have serious potential for misuse. It would imply endorsement of Paraphilia, NOS, nonconsent, which is currently inappropriately employed in civil commitment proceedings to justify commitment.

Knoll, J. L., & Hazelwood, R. R. (2009). Becoming the victim: Beyond sadism in serial sexual murderers. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(2), 106-114. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.12.003 The behavior and characteristics of sexually sadistic serial murderers have been described primarily in relation to their paraphilic arousal to the control and torture of their victims. Sadistic sexual murderers who demonstrate both sadism and masochism have been described, but less is known about this type of offender. This article will review a number of hypotheses proposed to explain these behaviors. Next, the authors describe two cases demonstrating a separate phenomenon in which the offender assumes the identity of the victim that has been tortured to enhance his sexual gratification. It is proposed that these cases represent a grandiose form of sadism in which the offender extends his control of the victim beyond life and death. This form of sadism will be distinguished from sadomasochism, and its possible implications will be discussed. . . . A high incidence of psychopathy (90%) has been found among sexual sadists (Kirsch & Becker, 2007). When sexual sadism is comorbid with psychopathy, the offender's crimes may be particularly egregious.

Koenig, L. B., McGue, M., Krueger, R. F. & Bouchard, T. J. Jr. (2007). Religiousness, antisocial behavior, and altruism: Genetic and environmental mediation. Journal of Personality, 75(2), 265-290. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00439.x Although religiousness is considered a protective factor against antisocial behaviors and a positive influence on prosocial behaviors, it remains unclear whether these associations are primarily genetically or environmentally mediated. In order to investigate this question, religiousness, antisocial behavior, and altruistic behavior were assessed by self-report in a sample of adult male twins (165 MZ and 100 DZ full pairs, mean age of 33 years). Religiousness, both retrospective and current, was shown to be modestly negatively correlated with antisocial behavior and modestly positively correlated with altruistic behavior. Joint biometric analyses of religiousness and antisocial behavior or altruistic behavior were completed. The relationship between religiousness and antisocial behavior was due to both genetic and shared environmental effects. Altruistic behavior also shared most all of its genetic influence, but only half of its shared environmental influence, with religiousness.

Kosson, D. S., Cyterski, T. D., Steuerwald, B. L., Neumann, C. S., & Walker-Matthews, S. (2002). The reliability and validity of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in nonincarcerated adolescent males. Psychological Assessment, 14(1), 97-109. doi: 10.1037//1040-3590.14.1.97. Current knowledge about the validity of the psychopathy syndrome in youth is limited largely to studies relying on parent-teacher rating scales or slight modifications of adult measures. Recently, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was designed for use with adolescents. However, most studies that have used this measure examined incarcerated males and addressed only validity criteria related to antisocial behavior. We investigated the generality and construct validity of the psychopathy syndrome in an adolescent sample by assessing 115 adolescent males on probation with the PCL:YV. Reliability of measurement was high. PCL:YV ratings predicted not only antisocial behavior but also other indices of childhood psychopathology, interpersonal behaviors associated with adult psychopathy, and a lack of attachment to parents. These findings suggest that the PCL:YV identifies a syndrome in adolescence consistent with theory and research on adult males.

Kosson, D. S., Steuerwald, B. L., Newman, J. P., & Widom, C. S. (1994). The relation between socialization and antisocial behavior, substance abuse, and family conflict in college students. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63(3), 473-488. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6303_6 Gough's (1960) Socialization (So) scale has been widely used as a measure of the extent to which societal values are internalized. It is well documented that antisocial individuals evidence low So scores but less clear that low So scores predict antisocial behavior in nonclinical samples Two studies conducted at different universities in different geographical regions and different decades provided evidence consistent with this hypothesis. Results from Study 1 revealed that self-reports of several types of antisocial behavior and substance use were significantly more common among Low-So than High-So undergraduate men and women. Study 2 replicated principal findings for both men and women using correlational analyses. In addition, Study 2 yielded a significant relation between low So scores and greater family conflict as well as several gender differences reflecting stronger correlations in men than in women. These findings indicate substantial generality for the relations between socialization and antisocial behavior, especially in men, and are consistent with the use of the So scale to identify subjects who share important characteristics with criminal or psychopathic groups.

Krapelin, E. (1913). Clinical psychiatry: A textbook for physicians. New York: Macmillan.

Kreis, M. K. F., & Cooke, D. J. (2011). Capturing the psychopathic female: A prototypicality analysis of the comprehensive assessment of psychopathic personality (CAPP) across gender. Behavioral sciences & the law, 29 , 634-48. doi:10.1002/bsl.1003

Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M. & McGue M. (2001). Altruism and antisocial behavior: Independent tendencies, unique personality correlates, distinct etiologies. Psychological Science, 12(5), 397-402. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00373 The relationship between altruism an antisocial behavior has received limited attention because altruism and antisocial behavior tend to be studied and discussed in distinct literatures. Our research bridges these literatures by focusing on three fundamental questions. First, are altruism and antisocial behavior opposite ends of a single dimension, or can they coexist in the same individual? Second, do altruism and antisocial behavior have the same or distinct etiologies? Third, do they stem from the same or from distinct aspects of a person's personality? Our findings indicate that altruism and antisocial behavior are uncorrelated tendencies stemming from different sources. Whereas altruism was linked primarily to shared (i.e., familial) environments, unique (i.e., nonfamilial) environments, and personality traits reflecting positive emotionality, antisocial behavior was linked primarily to genes, unique environments, and personality traits reflecting negative emotionality and a lack of constraint.

Kruh, I. P., Whittemore, K., Arnaut, G. L. Y., Manley, J., Gage, B., & Gagliardi, G. J. (2005). The concurrent validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory and its relative association with past violence in a sample of insanity acquittees. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 4(2), 135-145. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) is a reliable and valid self-report measure of psychopathy that may be useful in conducting violence risk assessments with insanity acquittees. We examined the relations among the PPI, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995), and measures of violence (officially recorded and self-reported). PPI Total and several Subscale Scores were significantly correlated with PCL:SV Total, Factor 1, and Factor 2 Scores, demonstrating concurrent validity of the PPI with insanity acquittees. PPI Total Scores predicted past violence about as well as PCL:SV Factor 2 Scores and the PPI and PCL:SV performed similarly in hierarchical multiple regression analyses predicting past violence. Implications for the relation between the PPI and PCL and implications for violence risk assessments with insanity acquittees are discussed.

LaBrode, R. T. (2007). Etiology of the psychopathic serial killer: An analysis of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and serial killer personality and crime scene characteristics. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 7(2), 151-160. doi:10.1093/brief-treatment/mhm004 The purpose of this article is to make the distinction between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, discuss possible etiologies of psychopathy, and analyze the crimes, personality characteristics, and historical aspects of psychopathic serial killers. The research indicates that both environmental and biological factors affect the development of psychopathy. Several different serial killers were compared to assess the similarities and differences between their histories, crimes, and personalities. Though there were marked differences between their crimes, startling historical and personality similarities were clearly identified. Based on these findings, the validity and reliability of offender profiling is also discussed.

Lalumiere, M. L., Mishra, S., & Harris, G. T. (2008). In cold blood: The evolution of psychopathy. In J. D. Duntley, & T. K. Shackelford, (Eds.), Evolutionary forensic psychology: Darwinian foundations of crime and law (pp. 176-197). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lamers, S. M., Westerhof, G. J., Kovacs, V., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2012). Differential relationships in the association of the Big Five personality traits with positive mental health and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(5), 517-524. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2012.05.012

Langevin, R., & Curnoe, S. (2011). Psychopathy, ADHD, and Brain Dysfunction as Predictors of Lifetime Recidivism Among Sex Offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(1), 5-26. doi:10.1177/0306624X09360968 This study examines the best predictor of lifetime recidivism among Hare's psychopathy scores (PCL-R), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, and brain dysfunction measures in a sample of 1,695 adult male sexual, violent, and nonviolent offenders. Results indicated that most variables were associated with significantly more frequent recidivism. The best predictor of overall recidivism was the PCL-R, but more specifically, it was its items on criminal history that were associated with recidivism. Sexual offense recidivism was predicted by the presence of learning disorders; however, all measures were poor predictors. General recidivism was primarily associated with past criminal history and secondarily with learning disorders and ADHD. Results suggest that ADHD and brain dysfunction with criminal history measures are the best predictors for addressing the problem of criminal recidivism.

Larsson, H. (2012). Commentary: Psychopathic traits enhance adolescents' influence on others and make them less easily influenced by others? - Reflections on Kerr et al. (2012). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53, 836-7. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02554.x

Larsson, H., Andershed, H., & Lichtenstein, P. (2006). A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(2), 221-230. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.221 The psychopathic personality can be conceptualized as three interrelated dimensions, (a) an interpersonal style of glibness, grandiosity, and manipulation; (b) an affective disposition of callousness, lack of empathy, and unemotionality; and (c) a behavioral/lifestyle dimension of impulsivity, need for stimulation, and irresponsibility, underpinning a higher order construct, psychopathic personality. The authors used a self-report questionnaire (The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory) to study the importance of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality traits in a sample of 1,090 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, aged 16-17 years. Results showed a strong genetic influence behind the higher order "psychopathic personality" factor, underpinned by the three psychopathic personality dimensions. Over and above the effects to the higher order factor, significant unique genetic influences were also found in the callous/unemotional and in the impulsive/irresponsible dimension, but not in the grandiose/manipulative dimension. The authors propose that this latent psychopathic personality factor is a meaningful target for future etiological research. . . . In summary, by using a hierarchical common pathway model, this study offers insights into the etiology of the psychopathic personality constellation in adolescence. We showed that genetic effects accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, which makes it a promising target for future research.

Larsson, H., Tuvblad, C., Rijsdijk, F. V., Andershed, H., Grann, M., & Lichtenstein, P. (2007). A common genetic factor explains the association between psychopathic personality and antisocial behavior. Psychological Medicine, 37(1), 15-26. doi:10.1017/S003329170600907X Background. Both psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. However, little is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the associations between the psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior. Method. Data were drawn from a longitudinal population-based twin sample including all 1480 twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. The twins responded to mailed self-report questionnaires at two occasions: 1999 (twins 13-14 years old), and 2002 (twins 16-17 years old). Results. A common genetic factor loaded substantially on both psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior, whereas a common shared environmental factor loaded exclusively on antisocial behavior. Conclusions. The genetic overlap between psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior may reflect a genetic vulnerability to externalizing psychopathology. The finding of shared environmental influences only in antisocial behavior suggests an etiological distinction between psychopathic personality dimensions and antisocial behavior. Knowledge about temperamental correlates to antisocial behavior is important for identification of susceptibility genes, as well as for possible prevention through identification of at-risk children early in life

Lawrence P. R. (2010). Driven to Lead: Good, Bad, and Misguided Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [The author applies the four drive theory of human behavior (to acquire, to defend, to comprehend, to bond) to the leadership realm, and explains the history of leadership in political, economic, and symbolic institutions as a result of one of three types of leadership: good leadership, misguided leadership; and evil leadership. This innovative book outlines a framework of human behavior that can be used to cultivate stellar leadership/leaders which balances the four drives while avoiding negative leadership and leaders who are missing the drive to bond.] I believe that the Renewed Darwinian theories presented in this book are stronger theories of human behavior and of leadership than any of the current alternatives. They are theories that are universal, testable, and actionable. Now it is up to you, the reader, to decide whether or not this outrageously bold claim is justified. . . . I believe that the Renewed Darwinian Theory enables us to reclassify these "inexplicable" people [psychopaths] as human beings genetically lacking the innate, independent drive to bond—rare but entirely understandable products of the history of the human gene pool. . . . . This book strongly reinforces the existence of psychopaths in top power positions, documents the case that Mao was an especially deadly head-of-state person-w/o-conscience, and comes to the same conclusions I have regarding Rome, Hitler, and Enron. But its title is seriously confusing since it proposes, in a rather figurative way only, that there are "evil" genes behind psychopathy. I, of course, hypothesize that the absence of the genes for bonding is the explanation of psychopathy. I worry that it will be impossible to find the genes causing psychopathy if the search is for "evil" genes.

Lee, J. H. (2008). The treatment of psychopathic and antisocial personality disorders: A review. http://www.ramas.co.uk/documents.htm There is a considerable amount of controversy surrounding the treatment of psychopathic and antisocial personality disorders. Different methods of treatment have been tried with those diagnosed with the condition, but the lack of controlled follow-up research in this area has made it difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. What has emerged, however, is that the core elements of psychopathy make it one of the most difficult disorders to treat. This has not been helped by the fact that there is still considerable debate surrounding the aetiology of the syndrome and that it is defined by incompatible legal and clinical systems. As a consequence, the 'treatability' of psychopathic disorder has been questioned by a number of psychiatrists and psychologists and alternative methods of managing the disorder have been put forward.

Lee, Z., & Salekin, R. T. (2010). Psychopathy in a noninstitutional sample: Differences in primary and secondary subtypes. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1(3), 153-169. doi:10.1037/a0019269. Early theoretical conceptualizations suggest psychopathy is a heterogeneous construct whereby psychopathic individuals are found in diverse populations. The current study examined male and female psychopathy subtypes in a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1229). Model-based cluster analysis of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF) revealed two clusters in both male and female students. In males, the primary subtype evidenced greater psychopathic personality traits (i.e., Social Potency, Fearlessness, and Impulsive Nonconformity) and lower anxiety (i.e., higher Stress Immunity), whereas the secondary subtype displayed fewer psychopathic personality traits (i.e., Machiavellian Egocentricity and Blame Externalization) and higher anxiety (i.e., lower Stress Immunity). In females, the primary subtype exhibited higher scores across all PPI-SF subscales and lower anxiety whereas the secondary subtype reported lower PPI-SF subscale scores and higher anxiety. Across a diverse array of personality, affective, and behavioral external correlates, differences between the subtypes and with nonpsychopaths emerged. Implications for psychopathy in noninstitutional populations with respect to theory, research, and gender are discussed.

Leibing, E., Jamrozinski, K., Vormfelde, S. V., Stahl, J., & Doering, S. (2008). Dimensions of personality—relationship between DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms, the five-factor model, and the biosocial model of personality. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(1), 101-108. doi:10.1521/pedi.2008.22.1.101 Dimensional approaches regard personality disorders as extreme or maladaptive variants of traits that are commonly used to describe normal personality. Previous clinical and nonclinical studies identified four factors interpreted as Antisocial, Asocial, Asthenic, and Anankastic. To investigate the validity of this four-factor structure in healthy volunteers, 97 male and 98 female students completed versions of the NEO-PI-R and TPQ. Symptoms of personality disorders were assessed using the ADP-IV questionnaire. A factor analysis of the personality and symptom scales revealed a four-factor solution accounting for 71.55% of the total variance. These factors resembling the "four A's" were labelled Asthenic, Sociable vs. Asocial, Antisocial, and Disorderly vs. Anankastic. The results of this study support the presence of four factors in the description of adaptive as well as maladaptive personality traits.

Leistico, A. R., Salekin, R. T., DeCoster, J., & Rogers, R. (2008). A large-scale meta-analysis relating the Hare measures of psychopathy to antisocial conduct. Law and Human Behavior, 32(1), 28-45. doi: 10.1007/s10979-007-9096-6 The present meta-analysis integrated effect sizes from 95 non-overlapping studies (N = 15,826) to summarize the relation between Hare Psychopathy Checklists and antisocial conduct. Whereas prior meta-analyses focused on specific subdomains of the literature, we used broad inclusion criteria, incorporating a diversity of samples, settings, methodologies, and outcomes in our analysis. Our broad perspective allowed us to identify general trends consistent across the entire literature and improved the power of our analyses. Results indicated that higher PCL Total, Factor 1 (F1), and Factor 2 (F2) scores were moderately associated with increased antisocial conduct. Study effect sizes were significantly moderated by the country in which the study was conducted, racial composition, gender composition, institutional setting, the type of information used to score psychopathy, and the independence of psychopathy and transgression assessments. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that the information used to assess psychopathy did not have a unique influence on effect sizes after accounting for the influence of other moderator variables. Furthermore, racial composition of the sample was related to the country in which the study was conducted, making it unclear whether one or both of these moderators influenced effect sizes. We provide potential explanations for the significant findings and discuss implications of the results for future research. . . . The clinical and empirical popularity of psychopathy is evident from the number as well as the diversity of studies included in this meta-analysis. Researchers have carefully investigated the basic relations between psychopathy and antisocial conduct, but the complexities of this relation are less understood. Future research exploring how situational factors and individual characteristics influence the relation between psychopathy and antisocial conduct will greatly enhance the psychological theories on and clinical uses of psychopathy.

Levenson, M. R. (1992). Rethinking psychopathy. Theory and Psychology, 2(1), 51-71. doi: 10.1177/0959354392021003 Leading conceptions of psychopathy originated from a clinical perspective, which assumed abnormality and sought to explain it. This perspective has led to three related potential explanations of psychopathy: the sociological (i.e. the psychopath as nonconformist); the physiological (i.e. the psychopath as characterized by a deficiency in the behavioral inhibition system); and the developmental (i.e. the psychopath as a product of poor early socialization). These three models are examined in this paper, and all are found to be deficient in explanatory power, even when combined. An alternative approach to psychopathy is suggested, which begins with the assumption that psychopathy is not a mental disorder, but rather reflects a philosophy of life centering around the trivialization of others. It is further suggested that such a philosophy of life may be far more pervasive than is generally recognized.

Levenson, M. R., Kiehl, K. A., & Fitzpatrick, C. M. (1995). Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(1), 151-158. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.68.1.151 Examined antisocial dispositions in 487 university students. Primary and secondary psychopathy scales were developed to assess a protopsychopathic interpersonal philosophy. An antisocial action scale also was developed for purposes of validation. The primary, secondary, and antisocial action scales were correlated with each other and with boredom susceptibility and disinhibition but not with experience seeking and thrill and adventure seeking. Secondary psychopathy was associated with trait anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictors of antisocial action were disinhibition, primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, and sex, whereas thrill and adventure seeking was a negative predictor. This argues against a singular behavioral inhibition system mediating both antisocial and risk-taking behavior. These findings are also consistent with the view that psychopathy is a continuous dimension. . . . That 23% of the men in the study endorsed 8 or more of the 16 primary psychopathy items suggests the possibility of a significant risk factor for behavior that may entail considerable social cost. We hope that these apparent attitudes would be rejected by most on closer inspection or would "mature out" as these young adults have more direct experience with consequences of antisocial behavior.

Levy, N. (2007a). Norms, Conventions, and Psychopaths. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 14(2), 163-170.

Levy, N. (2007b). The Responsibility of the Psychopath Revisited. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 14(2), 129-138. doi: 10.1353/ppp.0.0003. The question of the psychopath's responsibility for his or her wrongdoing has received considerable attention. Much of this attention has been directed toward whether psychopaths are a counterexample to motivational internalism (MI): Do they possess normal moral beliefs, which fail to motivate them? In this paper, I argue that this is a question that remains conceptually and empirically intractable, and that we ought to settle the psychopath's responsibility in some other way. I argue that recent empirical work on the moral judgments of psychopaths provides us with good reason to think that they are not fully responsible agents, because their actions cannot express the kinds of ill-will toward others that grounds attributions of distinctively moral responsibility. I defend this view against objections, especially those due to an influential account of moral responsibility that holds that moral knowledge is not necessary for responsibility.

Levy, N. (Ed.). (2008). New work on psychopathy and moral responsibility. [Special issue] Neuroethics, 1(3). 149-215.

Liabø, K. & Richardson, J. (2007). Conduct disorder and offending behaviour in young people: Findings from research. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. This book focuses on conduct problems in adolescence. While by no means all young people with conduct disorders are in trouble with the law (or vice versa), there is an overlap with the youth offending population.

Liddle, P. F., & Wilson, P. (2001). Disordered mind and brain: The neural basis of mental symptoms. London: RCPsych Publications. Modern neuroscience has provided us with a foundation for understanding mental disorders in terms of brain dysfunction. Imaging techniques, such as PET and fMRI, have demonstrated graphically the correspondence between patterns of brain activity and patterns of mental activity. This book draws on evidence from neuroimaging studies, together with evidence from the fields of neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, electrophysiology, neurochemistry and pharmacology, to generate a coherent and plausible account of cerebral processes by which mental symptoms are generated. It is intended for psychiatrists and psychologists with an interest in the origins of the symptoms they observe and treat, as well as for neuroscience students and researchers interested in the relationship between findings from the laboratory and the mental disorders that occur in clinical practice. Indeed it is intended for anyone with a serious interest in how the mind works, and in how mental disorders arise.

Liddy, G. G. (1991). Will: The Autobiography of G. Gordon Liddy. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Lilienfeld, S. O. (1998). Methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(1), 99-125. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(97)10021-3 The last decade has witnessed a number of significant methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist—Revised and the two-factor model of psychopathy have facilitated the assessment of psychopathy and clarified the differential correlates of the personality- and behavior-based operationalizations of this syndrome. Although preliminary evidence suggests that certain features of psychopathy may be underpinned by a latent taxon, the categorical versus dimensional status of psychopathy requires clarification. Researchers have accorded increasing attention to the assessment of psychopathy in non-criminal samples, although the construct of subclinical psychopathy remains controversial. Other recent methodological developments include: (a) the extension of the Five-Factor Model and other higher-order personality taxonomies to psychopathy; (b) development of a Q-sort methodology to permit the assessment of psychopathy by observers; (c) standardized assessment of psychopaths' interpersonal behaviors; (d) assessment of psychopathy in children; and (e) examination of gender, ethnic, and cross-cultural differences in psychopathy.

Lilienfeld, S. O., & Andrews. B. P. (1996). Development and preliminary validation of a self report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(3), 488-524. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6603_3 Research on psychopathy has been hindered by persisting difficulties and controversies regarding its assessment. The primary goals of this set of studies were to (a) develop, and initiate the construct validation of, a self-report measure that assesses the major personality traits of psychopathy in noncriminal populations and (b) clarify the nature of these traits via an exploratory approach to test construction. This measure, the Psychopathic Personality inventory (PPI), was developed by writing items to assess a large number of personality domains relevant to psychopathy and performing successive item-level factor analyses and revisions on three undergraduate samples. The PPI total score and its eight subscales were found to possess satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In four studies with undergraduates, the PPI and its subscales exhibited a promising pattern of convergent and discriminant validity with self-report, psychiatric interview, observer rating, and family history data. In addition, the PPI total score demonstrated incremental validity relative to several commonly used self-report psychopathy-related measures. Future construct validational studies, unresolved conceptual issues regarding the assessment of psychopathy, and potential research uses of the PPI are outlined.-Vien: The PPI (Lilienfeld Andrews, 1996) is a self-report measure of psychopathy that contains 163 items, split into eight subscales measuring specific personality traits associated with psychopathy; however, it does not measure the antisocial behaviors related to psychopathy. Furthermore, as a self-report measure of psychopathy, the scores must be viewed with caution, as pathological lying is one of the main personality characteristics of psychopathy; and hence the reliability of PPI scores comes into question.

Lilienfeld, S. O., & Arkowitz, H. (2007). What Psychopath Means. Scientific American Mind, 18(6), 80-81. Retrieved March 7, 2009, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.

Lilienfeld, S. O., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., Berg, J., Sellbom, M., & Edens, J. F. (2012). The role of fearless dominance in psychopathy: Confusions, controversies, and clarifications. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3(3), 327-340. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0026987

Lindner, R. M. (1944). Rebel without a Cause: The hypnoanalysis of a criminal psychopath. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Lippens, R. & Crewe, D. (Eds.). (2009). Existentialist criminology. New York: Routledge-Cavendish. No systematic attempt has hitherto been made, within the broader criminological community, to apply existential thought to problems of crime and crime control, or to put it to use in the expansion or further development of criminological theory.

Lishner, D. A., Swim, E. R., Hong, P. Y., & Vitacco, M. J. (2011). Psychopathy and ability emotional intelligence: Widespread or limited association among facets? Personality & Individual Differences, 50(7), 1029-1033. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.018 Recent research is mixed with regard to the nature of the association between facets of psychopathy and ability emotional intelligence (AEI). Some studies find evidence of widespread association between facets, whereas other studies find limited association between facets. The present research sought to provide clarification regarding this empirical discrepancy by measuring both constructs in a demographically homogenous sample of participants (N =144). Analyses revealed that a number of associations between facets of psychopathy and facets of AEI were eliminated after controlling for participant gender and age. Specifically, primary psychopathy remained inversely associated with the ability to perceive emotion regardless of participant gender. Primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy both remained inversely associated with managing emotion, but only in men. The findings demonstrate that when demographic variability is minimized non-spurious relations between psychopathy and AEI facets are relatively few in number.

Livesley, W. J. (2001). Conceptual and taxonomic issues. In W. J. Livesley (Ed.). Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment (pp. 3-38). New York: Guilford Press. Retrieved March 17, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111650808

Livesley, W. J. (2007). A framework for integrating dimensional and categorical classifications of personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(2), 199-224. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.2.199 Although empirical evidence strongly supports a dimensional representation of personality disorder, there is strong resistance to dimensional classification due in part to concerns about clinical utility. Acceptance of an evidence-based dimensional classification would be facilitated by information on how such a system would map onto existing diagnoses. With this objective in mind, an integrated framework is proposed that combines categorical and dimensional diagnoses. A two-component classification is adopted that distinguishes between the diagnosis of general personality disorder and the assessment of individual differences in the form the disorder takes. Then, the DSM definition of personality disorders is extended by defining individual disorders as categories of trait dimensions. This makes it possible to develop an integrated classification organized around a set of empirically derived primary traits. Assessments of these traits may then be combined to generate categorical and dimensional diagnoses. It is argued that this approach would introduce an etiological perspective into the classification of personality disorder and improve categorical classification by providing an explicit definition of each diagnosis. The clinical utility of incorporating a dimensional classification is discussed in terms of convenience and acceptability, value in predicting outcomes and treatment planning, and usefulness in organizing and selecting interventions.

Livesley, W. J. (2007b). The relevance of an integrated approach to the treatment of personality disordered offenders. Psychology, Crime & Law, 13(1), 27-46 doi: 10.1080/10683160600869734 This article argues that the treatment of high-risk offenders with severe personality disorder, requires an active focus on the management and treatment of personality pathology. An eclectic and integrated approach is proposed tailored to the patient's needs, learning style, and personality. Interventions are selected where possible on evidence of what works. However, because empirical evidence on treatment efficacy for personality disorder is limited, interventions often need to be selected on the basis of a rational analysis of the most effective way to treat a given problem. It is also argued that the core or defining features of personality disorder involve the failure to develop an integrated self structure and coherent personality functioning. Hence an important treatment goal is to foster more integrated personality functioning. With severe personality disorder, attention needs to be given to delivering an eclectic array of interventions in a systematic and coordinated way to achieve integration. This is achieved first by organizing treatment around the generic or non-specific component of therapy. These general strategies form the general framework of treatment with more specific interventions added to this structure as needed to treat specific problems. Secondly, coordinated delivery of interventions is achieved using a phases of therapy model that recognizes that the problems that are the focus of attention and changes systematically during treatment. This model provides a framework for selecting and delivering interventions in a systematic way.

Livesley, W. J. & Schroeder, M. (1991). Dimensions of personality disorder: The DSM-III-R Cluster B diagnoses. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179(6), 320-328. doi:10.1097/00005053-199106000-00004 This study describes a psychometric approach to refining descriptions of antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders in an attempt to achieve greater distinctiveness. We developed descriptions of each diagnosis from content analysis of the literature. Psychiatrists' ratings were used to organize the features of each diagnosis into a set of carefully defined behavioral dimensions. Self-report scales were developed to assess each dimension. Scales were administered to a general population sample (N = 274) and a sample of patients with a primary diagnosis of personality disorder (N = 133). Scales demonstrated satisfactory levels of internal consistency. Some dimensions showed a low correlation with other dimensions defining the same diagnosis. These dimensions could be eliminated without affecting reliability. The structure underlying the dimensions delineating each diagnosis was evaluated using factor analysis. For each diagnosis, the structure was highly similar in the two samples. Based on these results, specific proposals are made for redefining diagnoses.

Lobaczewski, A. M. (2006). Political ponerology: A science on the nature of evil adjusted for political purposes. (2nd ed.). (A. Chciuk-Celt, Trans.). (Edited and with notes and commentary by Laura Knight-Jadczyk and Henry See). Grande Prairie, AB: Red Pill Press. (Original work published 1984).

Loeber, R., Burke, J., & Pardini, D. A. (2009). Perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathic features. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(1-2), 133-142. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02011.x This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions for each of the three conditions and makes recommendations for future research. . . . We argue that ODD, CD, and psychopathic features each have unique information that is relevant for developmental models of disruptive behavior and for the formulation of DSM-V.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Lynam, D. (2001). Male mental health problems, psychopathy, and personality traits: key findings from the first 14 years of the Pittsburgh youth study. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(4), 273-297. doi:10.1023/A:1013574903810 This paper reviews key findings on juvenile mental health problems in boys, psychopathy, and personality traits, obtained in the first 14 years of studies using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. This is a study of 3 samples, each of about 500 boys initially randomly drawn from boys in the 1st, 4th, and 7th grades of public schools in Pittsburgh. The boys have been followed regularly, initially each half year, and later at yearly intervals. Currently, the oldest boys are about 25 years old, whereas the youngest boys are about 19. Findings are presented on the prevalence and interrelation of disruptive behaviors, ADHD, and depressed mood. Results concerning risk factors for these outcomes are reviewed. Psychological factors such as psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality are described. The paper closes with findings on service delivery of boys with mental health problems. . . . Only a minority (9%) had persistent mental health problems. However, 15-16% of boys in the three samples had a disruptive behavior disorder. If problem behaviors from other domains were included, we found that 20-25% of the boys were multiple problem boys (defined as those with four or more out of eight problem areas). . . . This study documented the fact that many risk factors known from the literature on antisocial and delinquent behavior also predicted mental health problems (Loeber et al., 1998a). . . . Another line of research focused on measuring precursors in childhood to full-fledged psychopathy in adulthood. There is no doubt that some of the symptoms of psychopathy are already present in some youth early in life. However, the predictive utility of the symptoms in forecasting psychopathy remains to be established.

Loftus, E. F. (2011). Catching Liars. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11(3), 87-88. doi:10.1177/1529100610390863

Logan, C., Rypdal, K., & Hoff, H. A. (2012). Understanding, treating and managing psychopathy: Moving on. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11(4), 239-241. http://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2012.747574

Louth, S. M., Williamson, S., Alpert, M., Pouget, E. R.,& Hare, R. D. (1998). Acoustic distinctions in the speech of male psychopaths. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 27(3), 375-384. doi:10.1023/A:1023207821867 A key feature of psychopathy is the ability to deceive, manipulate, and con the unwary, while seeming to be perfectly sincere. Is this impression of sincerity achieved solely through body gestures and facial expression, or is there also something different about the voice quality of psychopaths? We analyzed the acoustic characteristics of speech in 20 male offenders (10 psychopaths and 10 nonpsychopaths), assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (Hare, 1991). We used a computer program developed by Alpert, Merewether, Homel, Martz, and Lomask (1986) to measure variations in amplitude and prosody. Results indicated that psychopaths spoke more quietly than controls and did not differentiate, in voice emphasis, between neutral and affective words. These findings are consistent with the developing view that psychopaths are insensitive to the emotional connotations of language. In addition, their vocal characteristics may be part of a self-presentation mode designed to manipulate and control interpersonal interactions. . . . The voice analyses in the present study are consistent with a growing body of evidence that psychopaths fail to process emotional material in a normal way—evidence which may begin to clarify their failure to develop empathy and conscience. Since we are now able to detect psychopathy in subjects as young as 13 years (Forth, Hart, & Hare, 1990), it would be of interest to conduct similar studies with children and youths. The current study, in finding that psychopaths speak more quietly than nonpsychopaths, may provide the first empirical confirmation of clinical and anecdotal impressions of the smooth-talking conman.

Luengo, M. A., Carrillo de la Pena, M. T., Otero, J. M., Romero, E. (1994). A short term longitudinal study of impulsivity and antisocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(3), 542-548. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.3.542 Analyzes the relationships between impulsivity and antisocial behavior in a noninstitutionalized sample, taking into account the multidimensional nature of impulsivity and the diversity of types of antisocial behavior. Data were obtained in 1989 and 1990 from 1,226 adolescents aged 12-18 yrs as part of a longitudinal study of risk factors for drug abuse and delinquency. The patterns of stability or change of the various dimensions of antisocial behavior (rule breaking, vandalism, theft, aggression, and drug taking) in relation to impulsivity were investigated. The results support that self-report measures of impulsivity are closely correlated with antisocial behavior among adolescents. The longitudinally-oriented analysis of this work also shows that impulsivity is associated with a future increase in antisocial behavior.

Lykken, D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55(1), 6-10. doi: 10.1037/h0047232 As compared with 15 normal controls, " 'primary' sociopaths showed significantly less 'anxiety' on a questionnaire device, less GSR reactivity to a 'conditioned' stimulus associated with shock, and less avoidance of punished responses on a test of avoidance learning. The 'neurotic' sociopaths scored significantly higher on the Taylor Anxiety Scale and on the Welsh Anxiety Index." Cleckley's descriptive criteria were used.

Lykken, D. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lykken, D. (1996). Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime. Society, 34(1), 29-38. doi:10.1007/BF02696999 . . . Because there is no cure for adult sociopathy, the only useful option is prevention. Gerald Patterson, at the Oregon Social Learning Center, has shown that at least some high-risk parents can be trained to competently socialize their children, but the process is laborious and only a few of those who need such training can be expected to participate.

Lykken, D. (1997). The American Crime Factory. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 261-270. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0803_17 Responds to several comments made on the author's book The Antisocial Personalities. Different types of psychopath; Difference between fearfulness and anxiety; Peer-influence hypothesis.

Lykken, D. (1998). The case for parental licensure. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 122-143). New York: Guilford. The violent crime-rate in the United States increased nearly 500% from 1960 to 1992. Subsequent small decreases can be attributed to the 500% increase since 1980 in the number of men locked up in American prisons. The most plausible explanation for this increase in crime and other social pathology is the sharp increase since the 1960s in the proportion of young men who were reared without the participation of their biological fathers. In the U.S., boys reared without fathers are approximately seven times more likely to become delinquent, then criminal. Girls reared without fathers are more likely, in consquence, to produce babies out-of-wedlock, to become teen-age runaways, and to drop out of school. Millions of American children are now being reared by (or domiciled with) parents who are incompetent, over-burdened, immature, or unsocialized themselves and many of these children will be thereby cheated of their birthright to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is argued that society has a responsibility to these children to require that persons who plan to acquire a child biologically must meet the same minimal standards expected of persons hoping to adopt a baby, namely, that they be mature, married, self-supporting, and neither criminal nor crazy.

Lykken, D. (2000). The causes and costs of crime and a controversial cure. Journal of Personality, 68(3), 591-638. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00107 In spite of recent modest decreases, the epidemic of crime that began in the United States in the early 1960s has left us with a rate of violent crime that is still some 300% higher than it was 40 years ago. The usual suspects—poverty, the easy availability of street drugs and handguns, violent television programs—cannot account for this ominous trend. The fact that African Americans are responsible for nearly half of this violence, although they constitute only about one-eighth of the U.S. population, is the principal reason why the great improvement in race relations made over the past half-century has reached an asymptote. White fears, and Black resentment of these fears, are a grave threat to further progress. It is argued here that the main reason for this epidemic of crime and violence is the rapid recent increase in the proportion of the young people aged 15 to 24 who have grown up unsocialized. It is argued further that most of these feral youngsters are sociopaths, defined as genetically normal children whose failure of socialization was due to their being domiciled with an immature, overburdened, unsocialized, or otherwise incompetent parent or parents.

Lynam, D. R. (1998). Early identification of the fledgling psychopath: Locating the psychopathic child in the current nomenclature. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(4), 566-575. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.107.4.566 This research attempted to test D. R. Lynam's (1996) hypothesis regarding the developmental relation between adult psychopathy and children with symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems (HIA) and concurrent conduct problems (CP). In a large sample of adolescent boys, 4 groups (non-HIA-CP, HIA only, CP only, and HIA-CP) were compared on measures found to discriminate between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. In line with predictions, the HIACP boys most closely resembled psychopathic adults. HIA-CP boys scored higher than HIA-only and non-HIA-CP boys on a measure of psychopathic personality. As with their adult counterparts, HIA-CP boys were the most antisocial, were the most disinhibited, and tended to be the most neuropsychologically impaired of all the groups. Implications for trealment, research, and the study of comorbidity are discussed.

Lynam, D. R. (2002). Psychopathy from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 325-348). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Lynam, D. R. (2002). Fledgling psychopathy: A view from personality theory. Law and Human Behavior, 26(2), 255-9. doi: 0147-7307/02/0400-0255/1 Although the author agrees with Seagrave and Grisso that the research base does not yet support the use of extant measures of juvenile psychopathy in forensic settings, he disagrees with the general pessimism of Seagrave and Grisso regarding the assessment of juvenile psychopathy. The author argues that data drawn from basic research in personality argues against the concern that normative development changes will cloud the assessment of psychopathy. Additionally, the present author argues that fledgling psychopathy holds the key to successful intervention.

Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A. Moffitt, T. E. Raine, A., Loeber, R, & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2005). Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4), 431-443. doi: 10.1007/s10648-005-5724-0 The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness, whereas the aspect of psychopathy representing impulsivity, instability, and social deviance (Factor 2) is associated with low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, and high Neuroticism. Data from 13- and 16-year-old boys and their mothers from two samples of the Pittsburgh Youth Study are used to test these hypotheses. Results were consistent across age and rating source in supporting the initial hypotheses, providing support for the construct of juvenile psychopathy and the interpretation of psychopathy as a constellation of traits drawn from a general model of personality functioning.

Lynam, D. R., Gaughan, E. T., Miller, J. D., Miller, D. J., Mullins-Sweatt, S., & Widiger, T. A. (2011). Assessing the basic traits associated with psychopathy: Development and validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment. Psychological Assessment, 23(1), 108-124. doi:10.1037/a0021146 A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert ratings, and translations of extant assessments. Across 3 independent undergraduate samples (N = 210-354), the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) scales proved to be internally consistent and unidimensional, and were strongly related to the original FFM scales from which they were derived (mean convergent r = .66). The EPA scales also demonstrated substantial incremental validity in the prediction of existing psychopathy measures over their FFM counterparts. When summed to form a psychopathy total score, the EPA was substantially correlated with 3 commonly used psychopathy measures (mean r = .81). Finally, in a small male forensic sample (N = 70), the EPA was significantly correlated with scores on a widely used self-report psychopathy measure, disciplinary infractions, alcohol use, and antisocial behavior. The EPA provides an opportunity to examine psychopathy and its nomological network through smaller, more basic units of personality rather than by scales or factors that blend these elements.

Lynam, D. R., & Gudonis, L. (2005). The development of psychopathy. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol., 1, 381-407. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144019 In this review, we explore two aspects of the development of psychopathy. First, we examine what psychopathy looks like across time. Second, we ask where psychopathy comes from. Much recent empirical work supports the idea that psychopathy in childhood and adolescence looks much like psychopathy in adulthood. Research utilizing recently created juvenile psychopathy indices demonstrates that juvenile psychopathy can be assessed reliably and that the nomological network surrounding the construct is quite similar to the one around adult psychopathy. Juvenile psychopathy is robustly related to offending, other externalizing problems, low levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and deficits in emotional processing and inhibition. Juvenile psychopathy is also relatively stable across adolescence. Much less research has examined from whence psychopathy comes, although several theories are reviewed. We close with a discussion of recent objections to the downward development extension of psychopathy to juveniles and some suggestions for additional research. . . . Juvenile psychopathy, assessed using the Childhood Psychopathy Scale, shows the same relations to the Big Five as seen in adults using both self-reports of psychopathy (Lynam, 2002; Lynam, Whiteside, & Jones, 1999) and PCL-R ratings (Harpur, Hart, & Hare, 2002). . . . For psychopathy more generally, these results provide support for the FFM model of psychopathy which asserts that psychopathy can be understood as a collection of traits from the FFM, a general model of personality functioning.

Lynam, D. R., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2008). The Stability of Psychopathy From Adolescence Into Adulthood: The Search for Moderators. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(2), 228-243. doi: 10.1177/0093854807310153 This study examines moderators of the relation between psychopathy assessed at age 13 using the mother-reported Childhood Psychopathy Scale and psychopathy assessed at age 24 using the interviewer-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Data from more than 250 participants of the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study were used. Thirteen potential moderators were examined, including demographics (i.e., race, family structure, family socioeconomic status [SES], and neighborhood SES), parenting factors (physical punishment, inconsistent discipline, lax supervision, and positive parenting), peer delinquency, own delinquency, and other individual differences (i.e., verbal IQ, behavioral impulsivity, and cognitive impulsivity). Moderators were examined for the total psychopathy score at age 24 as well as for each of the four PCL:SV facets. After relaxing the criterion for statistical significance, 8 out of a possible 65 interactions were statistically significant. Implications of the present findings and future directions are discussed.

Lynam, D. R., & Miller, J. D. (2012). Fearless dominance and psychopathy: A response to Lilienfeld et al. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3(3), 341-353. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0028296

Lynam, D. R., Whiteside, S., Jones, S. (1999). Self-report psychopathy: A validation study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 73(1), 110-132. doi:10.1207/S15327752JPA730108 Two studies are reported examining the reliability and validity of Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) in a noninstitutionalized population. The first study used 1,958 undergraduates to examine the factor structure of the LSRP and its relation to serious antisocial behavior and common dimensions of personality. The second study (n = 70) included performance tasks known to discriminate psychopathic from nonpsychopathic prisoners. Results of the studies support the reliability and validity of the LSRP. The 2-factor structure of the inventory was strongly replicated in a series of confirmatory factor analyses. Predicted relations were observed between the LSRP and other self-report instruments of delinquency. In addition, the factors of the LSRP demonstrated the predicted divergent relations to traditional personality traits. Finally, psychopathic undergraduates showed deficits in response modulation similar to those observed in incarcerated psychopaths. Implications for psychopathy in general are also discussed. . . . The two studies reported here provide excellent evidence for the validity of the LSRP as a self-report measure of psychopathy. . . . the current results have implications for our understanding of psychopathy more generally. First, results from the confirmatory factor analyses and the differential relations between the LSRP scales and common dimensions of personality support the distinction drawn previously in institutional samples using the PCL-R between the two components of psychopathy (Hare et al., 1990; Harpur et al., 1989). Our results, however, do not support the previous interpretation given to that structure in which the first factor is said to refer to a constellation of personality traits dealing with the selfish, callous, and remorseless use of others, whereas the second factor refers to an antisocial and socially deviant lifestyle. Rather, the current results support Widiger and Lynam's (1998) reinterpretation of the two factors as representing distinct constellations of personality traits, rather than one personality component and one behavioral component. . . . Second, the results reported here support the hypothesis that deficits in response modulation may be part of the core deficit in psychopathy. . . . Third, these results contribute to the accumulating but still small literature on female psychopathy. . . In general, these results suggest that psychopathy may be as important among women as it is among men. . . . Finally, the results of this study, along with those reported previously (Levenson et al., 1995; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996), suggest that the traditional distrust of self-report inventories of psychopathy may not be warranted, especially when it comes to studying noninstitutionalized psychopaths.

Lynam, D. R., & Widiger, T. A. (2007). Using a general model of personality to identify the basic elements of psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(2), 160-178. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.2.160 In the present paper, we outline why we believe that factor analyses of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (Hare, 2003) are unlikely to yield the basic elements of psychopathy. As an alternative approach, we suggest embedding psychopathy within a broad model of general personality functioning, namely the five factor model (McCrae & Costa, 1990). Drawing on our previous work in the area using expert ratings, correlational approaches, and a "translation" of the PCL-R, we provide a consensus description of the core elements of psychopathy: extremely high interpersonal antagonism, pan-impulsivity, the absence of negative self-directed affect, the presence of angry hostility, and interpersonal assertiveness. We end with a discussion of the implications of this analysis for understanding, researching, and measuring psychopathy.

MacCoon, D. G., Wallace, J. F., & Newman, J. P. (2004). Self-regulation: the context-appropriate allocation of attentional capacity to dominant and non-dominant cues. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs, (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 422-446). New York: Guilford.

Maden, A. (2007). Dangerous and severe personality disorder: Antecedents and origins. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(suppl. 49), s8- s11. doi: 10.1192/bjp.190.5.s8 The origins of the Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) Programme can be traced to developments in structured assessment and services for the cognitive-behavioural treatment of sexual and violent offenders in other countries. A comparison with these other services highlights the strengths and weaknesses of DSPD. The decision to use a medical model raises ethical and financial questions that may jeopardise the Programme's future.

Magid, K. & McKelvey, C. (1989). High risk children without a conscience. New York: Bantam, Doubleday, Dell.

Mahmut, M. K., Homewood, J., & Stevenson, R. J. (2008). The characteristics of non-criminals with high psychopathy traits: Are they similar to criminal psychopaths? Journal of Research in Personality, 42(3), 679-692. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2007.09.002 This study compared the findings from a sample of non-criminals with high and low psychopathy levels to published findings with criminal psychopaths and non-psychopaths. Congruent to findings with criminal psychopaths, participants with high psychopathy traits (High-P) compared to those with low psychopathy traits (Low-P) performed significantly worse on the Iowa Gambling Task, a task sensitive to orbital frontal cortex dysfunction. Moreover, the High-P group also evidenced a lack of empathy, a hallmark feature of psychopathy. These findings could not be explained by differences in estimated IQ or performance on a task sensitive to an executive functioning deficit. The discussion focuses on possible differences between non-criminal and criminal psychopaths, concluding criminal psychopaths manifest more extreme degrees of the interpersonal-affective and antisocial features of psychopathy. . . . this study provides evidence that non-criminal and criminal psychopaths are not qualitatively distinct populations but share similar psychophysiological and neuropsychological characteristics. These data indicate that noncriminal and criminal psychopaths most likely differ in terms of degree: specifically, the extent to which criminal and/or antisocial behaviors are engaged and the manifestation of the interpersonal-affective features of the psychopathy.

Maibom, H. L. (2005). Moral Unreason: The Case of Psychopathy. Mind & Language, 20(2), 237-257. Retrieved from http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.0268-1064.2005.00284.x Psychopaths are renowned for their immoral behavior. They are ideal candidates for testing the empirical plausibility of moral theories. Many think the source of their immorality is their emotional deficits. Psychopaths experience no guilt or remorse, feel no empathy, and appear to be perfectly rational. If this is true, sentiment- alism is supported over rationalism. Here, I examine the nature of psychopathic practical reason and argue that it is impaired. The relevance to morality is discussed. I conclude that rationalists can explain the moral deficits of psychopaths as well as sentimentalists. In the process, I identify psychological structures that underpin practical rationality.

Maibom, M. L. (2008). The mad, the bad, and the psychopath. Neuroethics, 1(3), 167-184. [special issue] doi: 10.1007/s12152-008-9013-9 It is common for philosophers to argue that psychopaths are not morally responsible because theylack some of the essential capacities for morality. In legal terms, they are criminally insane. Typically, however, the insanity defense is not available to psychopaths. The primary reason is that they appear to have the knowledge and understanding required under theM'Naghten Rules. However, it has been argued that what is required for moral and legal responsibility is 'deep' moral understanding, something that psychopaths do not have either due to their lacking empathy or practical reason. In the first part of the paper, I argue that psychopaths do not lack the abilities required for deep moral understanding, although they have deficits in those areas. According the M'Naghten Rules, therefore, psychopaths are not insane. . . . I have argued that the psychopath neither lacks the abilities required to acquire deep moral understanding nor suffers from a substantial impairment in that regard. . . . Consequently, being a psychopath does not count as an excuse since it would contravene the entire point of our legal system to exculpate the bad.

Mailer, N. (1957). The white negro. Dissent, 4(3), 276-293.

Mailer, N. (1979). The executioner's song. Boston: Little, Brown.

Mailer, N. (1981). Introduction. In J. H. Abbott, In the Belly of the Beast. (p. xiv). New York: Vintage Books.

Malatesti, L. (2006). Psychopathy in psychiatry and philosophy: An annotated bibliography Part of a research project supported by The Wellcome Trust

Malterer, M.B., Glass, S.J., & Newman, J.P. (2008). Psychopathy and trait emotional intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences, 44(3), 735-745. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.007 Psychopathic individuals are infamous for their chronic and diverse failures of social adjustment despite their adequate intellectual abilities. Non-cognitive factors, in particular trait emotional intelligence (EI), offer one possible explanation for their lack of success. This study explored the association between psychopathy and EI, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS, Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995). Consistent with the Response Modulation (RM) model of psychopathy (Newman & Lorenz, 2003), low-anxious psychopathic individuals had significantly lower scores on TMMS Repair and Attention compared to controls. Consistent with proposals by Patrick and Lang (1999) regarding PCL-R factors, these EI deficits related to different aspects of the psychopathy construct. Correlations revealed significant inverse associations between PCL-R factor 1 and Attention and PCL-R factor 2 and Repair. We propose that the multi-dimensional EI framework affords a complementary perspective on laboratory-based explanations of psychopathy.

Marcus, D. K., John, S. L., & Edens, J. F. (2004). A taxometric analysis of psychopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(4), 626-635. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.4.626 Although a common assumption throughout much of the professional and popular literature is that psychopaths are qualitatively different from others, very few studies have examined the latent structure of psychopathy. Whether psychopathy is a discrete category or a continuous dimension may have implications for research on the assessment, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. This study examined the latent structure of psychopathy in a sample of 309 jail and prison inmates. Three taxometric procedures were used to analyze indicators drawn from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996), a self-report instrument. Consistent with prior studies that used other measures of psychopathy, none of the analyses was consistent with a taxonic solution, suggesting that psychopathic personality may be best understood as existing on a continuum.

Marcus, D. K., Sanford, G. M., Edens, J. F., Knight, R. A., & Walters, G. D. (2011). Taxometrics and evolutionary theory: The case of the psychopathic sexuality taxon. Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 8(1), 6-16. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Harris et al. (2007) claim that they have identified a psychopathic sexuality taxon and that individuals with a history of precocious and coercive sexual behavior and certain psychopathic traits are members of a qualitatively distinct class. According to Harris et al. this taxon represents a naturally selected trait. Because this "selectionist hypothesis" would have profound implications for our understanding of psychopathy, a careful review of the supporting evidence is warranted. A review of Harris et al.'s study raised several questions about their statistical analyses, sample selection, and underlying assumptions. We then address the question of whether latent structure (categorical or dimensional) is related to natural selection: Would knowing that a trait is taxonic provide information about its evolutionary origins? Finally, we address the question of whether and how knowledge of latent structure can inform the more general question of etiology.

Marion, B., & Sellbom, M. (2011). An Examination of Gender-Moderated Test Bias on the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(3), 235-243. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.558873 In this investigation, we examined the validity of Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 403). Utilizing a step-down hierarchical multiple regression procedure (e.g., Arbisi, Ben-Porath, & McNulty, 2002), we used LSRP scores to predict psychopathic personality traits to determine the presence of gender-moderated test bias. Results indicate similar correlational magnitudes for men and women. However, systematic over- and underprediction of scores (i.e., differential intercepts) was found for external criteria measuring key affective (i.e., low empathy) and behavioral (i.e., aggression, antisocial behavior) components of the psychopathic personality, although these effects were generally small.

Marsh A. A., Finger EC, Mitchell DGV, Reid ME, Sims C, Kosson DS, Towbin KE, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, Blair RJR (2008). Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. Am J Psychiatry, 165, 712-720 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07071145 This is the first study to demonstrate reduced amygdala responsiveness in youths with callous-unemotional traits. These findings support the contention that callous and unemotional personality traits are associated with reduced amygdala response to distress-based social cues.

Marshall, L. E., & Marshall, W. L. (2011). Empathy and antisocial behaviour. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22, 742-759. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.617544 Empathy has been linked to prosocial behaviour and a lack of empathy to a tendency to be aggressive, making research and theory on empathy in offenders a high priority. In this article, we briefly review the empathy concept and present the evolution of our view of empathy from a stage model to newer models examining issues related to breakdown of the empathy process. Empathy is presented as progressing through four stages: emotion recognition, perspective taking, emotional response, and reparative action. Research showing some support for this model of empathy and critiques are presented suggesting a need for a revised model which is then presented and discussed. Finally, a new model of a breakdown of the empathic process based on the early childhood experiences is presented and its implications for treatment are discussed.

Marshall, W. L., & Barbaree, H. E. (1984). A behavioral view of rape. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7(1), 51-77. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6519867.

Mason, T. (Ed.). (2006). Forensic psychiatry: Influences of evil. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc.

Matravers, M. (2008). Holding Psychopaths Responsible. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 14(2), 139-142. doi: 10.1353/ppp.0.0005.

Maxwell, B. (2009). Are psychopaths morally sensitive? Journal of Moral Education, 38(1), 75-91. doi: 10.1080/03057240802601680 Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of response, then moral insensitivity should be characteristic of psychopathy, a diagnostic category associated with pathologically low affectivity. The paper considers three bodies of empirical evidence on the moral functioning of psychopaths: (1) psychopathy and the moral/conventional distinction; (2) psychopathy and social perspective taking competency; and (3) psychopathy and social information processing models of aggressive behaviour. On the basis of this evidence, the conclusion is reached that psychopaths are morally sensitive in the operative sense. Thus, conceptions of moral perception that include affect in their definitions are questionable, as are educational interventions that claim to develop an affective aspect of moral functioning by improving skills in situational moral perception. . . . We hypothesised that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of response, then moral insensitivity should be characteristic of psychopathy, a diagnostic category in abnormal psychology associated with pathologically low emotional responsiveness. . . . On our reading, this evidence dis-confirms this study's hypothesis. Psychopaths show no special impairment in executing the primary psychological functions that the Restian conception of moral sensitivity describes: psychopathy is associated with neither imperception of morally salient situational features nor a lack of foresight regarding the potential effects of alternative actions on human welfare. If the root cause of psychopathic moral dysfunction does not lie in impaired moral sensitivity, the paper then asked, can it be plausibly linked with dysfunction on another component of Rest's four-component model of moral functioning? In this connection, we argued that the psychopath's absence of otherdirected concern (i.e. affective empathy) is best considered as having a detrimental effect on Component 3 in Rest's schema, 'moral motivation'. . . . moral sensitivity is more accurately described as a predominantly cognitive (rather than as necessarily affective) moral-psychological process

McCann, J. T. (2002). Unmasking Psychopathy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(2), 371-374. doi: 10.1207/S15327752JPA7902_16 book review The Clinical and Forensic Assessment of Psychopathy: A Practitioner's Guide, Carl B. Gacono (Ed.),

McCord, J. (2001). Psychosocial contributions to psychopathy and violence. In A. Raine & J. Sanmartín (Eds.). Violence and Psychopathy (pp.141-169). New York: Kluwer Academic.

McHoskey, J. W. (1999). Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: a self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23(4), 267-283. doi: 10.1023/A:1021338809469 We employ Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory of motivation in three studies to examine the goals and motivational orientation associated with Machiavellianism (MACH). Goals were classified as either extrinsic (e.g., financial success) or intrinsic (e.g., community feeling). The two types of goals are generally associated with different motivational experiences. Extrinsic goals are typically experienced as externally controlled, whereas intrinsic goals are experienced as self-determined. We predicted that MACH would be associated with an emphasis on the extrinsic goal of financial success specifically, and on a control motivational orientation in general. These predictions received support. Additional findings indicate that MACH is positively associated with alienation and antisocial behavior, but inversely associated with social interest (i.e., Adler, 1964/1938) and prosocial behavior. . . . Our findings delineate some of the motivational foundations that underlie the cold, domineering, and manipulative MACH interpersonal style (Gurtman, 1991, 1992; McHoskey, 1995; McHoskey et al., 1998; Wiggins & Broughton, 1985). Our high-scoring MACH participants reported a control-oriented motivational orientation that is manifested in aspirations for financial success and a relative deemphasis on community, family, and self-love related goals. Moreover, they report a high degree of alienation and antisocial behavior, but little social interest or prosocial behavior.

McHoskey, J. W., Worzel, W., & Szyarto, C. (1998). Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 192-210. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.192 An integration of the Machiavellianism (MACH) and psychopathy constructs based on a dimensional view of personality and personality disorders and a recognition of B. Karpman's (1941, 1948) conceptual distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy is presented. Positive associations between MACH and both primary and secondary psychopathy were found. It is concluded that the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy in noninstitutionalized populations (i.e., one that assesses but confounds both primary and secondary psychopathy) and that the primary differences between MACH and psychopathy are not traceable to substantive theoretical issues but to the different professional affiliations they are associated with: personality and social psychology and clinical psychology, respectively. . . . The results provide strong support for our hypothesis and indicate that MACH is associated with psychopathy in general and with both primary and secondary psychopathy specifically. Thus, the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy that assesses but confounds both the unique and common sources of variance associated with primary and secondary psychopathy.

McKee, G. R. (2006). Why mothers kill: A forensic psychologist's casebook. New York: Oxford. Through the use of extended narratives the author brings to life the thoughts and emotions experienced by women in each of the five categories of mothers he has identified from his years of practice.

McMurran, M. & Christopher, G. (2008). Dysfunctional beliefs and antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 19(4), 533-542. doi: 10.1080/14789940801947800 Beck identified dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality disorders and these form the basis of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ). The PBQ has not yet been empirically examined in relation to antisocial personality disorder (ASPD); here, we examined the associations between PBQ antisocial beliefs and ASPD diagnosis, identified using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Adult male prisoners were grouped as ASPD only (n = 17), ASPD plus another personality disorder (n = 14), and no personality disorder (n = 18). Our hypotheses were: the ASPD only group would score higher on the PBQ antisocial scale than other scales; the ASPD only group would score higher on the PBQ antisocial scale than would those with no personality disorder; and the PBQ antisocial scale would best predict group membership. Men with ASPD only did not score highest on the PBQ antisocial scale, and, although they held more antisocial beliefs than men with no personality disorder, they also held significantly more dysfunctional beliefs on most other scales. Hence, antisocial beliefs are not a distinguishing feature. The PBQ antisocial scale did not discriminate groups, but the avoidant and paranoid scales did. The PBQ antisocial scale does not relate to antisocial personality disorder, although it may relate to primary psychopathy. . . . The beliefs of this group of men with antisocial personality disorder may be interpreted according to Blackburn's (1996) classification. In a group of legally detained mentally disordered offenders, Blackburn (1996) identified two types of 'psychopath': the primary psychopath with narcissistic and antisocial traits, and the secondary psychopath, a passive-aggressive avoidant-paranoid type. . . . Primary psychopaths respond aggressively when their perceived high status is threatened, whereas secondary psychopaths, who are typified by very low levels of self-esteem, respond aggressively to threat because of anxiety and emotional vulnerability. These variations have relevance for cognitive theory and therapy with different subtypes of psychopath.

McMurran, M. (2009). Personality, personality disorder and violence: An introduction. In M. McMurran, & R. C. Howard (Eds.). Personality, Personality Disorder and Violence (pp. 3-18). New York: JohnWiley.

McPhedran, S. (2009). A review of the evidence for associations between empathy, violence, and animal cruelty. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(1), 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.07.005There is clear evidence that cruelty to animals may co-occur with other violent behaviors, such as assault. Animal cruelty, particularly towards domestic pets, tends to occur disproportionately within the wider context of intimate partner violence. A factor that may contribute to the associations between interpersonal violence and animal cruelty is a compromised ability to experience feelings of empathy. The current paper sought to provide an overview of empathy and its relationship to violence, with particular emphasis on attitudes towards animals. . . . The implication from this study is that animal cruelty, broadly defined and independent of context, interferes with empathy development in children, a process that may affect subsequent attitudes and behaviors including the likelihood of committing acts of violence in adulthood. . . . Empathy appears to be just one factor among a host of contributors towards generalized violent and antisocial behavior patterns. Based on existing research, it appears that childhood exposure to violence (with or without the presence of animal cruelty), coupled with a lack of pro-social parental behavior, may contribute to the development of a spectrum of violent behaviors (which may or may not include animal cruelty). Although an impaired capacity for empathy may be part of this process, other antisocial personality factors such as manipulativeness and egocentricity appear to play an important role in sustaining violent behavior.

Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523-599. [I have not been able to obtain a pdf of this article, I have an unedited preprint html version (not a quotable final draft)]

Mealey, L. (1995a). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 523-540.

Mealey, L. (1995b). Primary sociopathy (psychopathy) is a type, secondary is not. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 579-599. Abstract Sociopaths are "outstanding" members of society in two senses: politically, they command attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they elicit fascination because most of us cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro-environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to chronic antisocial behavior. Recent evolutionary and game theoretic models have tried to present an ultimate explanation of sociopathy as the expression of a frequency-dependent life history strategy which is selected, in dynamic equilibrium, in response to certain varying environmental circumstances. This target article tries to integrate the proximate, developmental models with the ultimate, evolutionary ones. Two developmentally different etiologies of sociopathy emerge from two different evolutionary mechanisms. Social strategies for minimizing the incidence of sociopathic behavior in modern society should consider the two different etiologies and the factors which contribute to them. . . . Casts secondary psychopathy as an evolutionary adaptation rather than as an emotional impairment or disorder. Mealey (p. 536) suggested that primary psychopaths are genetically endowed with a temperament and arousal pattern that predisposes them to "be selectively unresponsive to the cues necessary for normal socialization and moral development." According to Mealey, primary psychopathy represents one mechanism for maintaining the strategy of "cheating" in speciation and extinction contests between individuals (i.e., using a deceptive strategy and defecting after signaling cooperation). Because they lack social emotions, [i]n determining how to 'play' in the social encounters of everyday life, [primary psychopaths] will use a pure cost-benefit approach based on immediate personal outcomes, with no 'accounting' for the emotional reactions of the others with whom they are dealing. Without love to 'commit' them to cooperation, anxiety to prevent 'defection,' or guilt to inspire repentance, they will remain free to continually play for the short-term benefit. . .. (Mealey, 1995a, p. 536) According to Mealey (1995a), because primary psychopaths reflect a genetic mechanism for maintaining the strategy of cheating, they are a small group of unchanging frequency. Secondary psychopaths reflect a second, less genetically and more environmentally influenced mechanism for maintaining this strategy, and therefore represent a variable proportion of psychopaths. For Mealey (p. 530), secondary psychopaths become psychopathic "'phenocopies' when the carrying capacity of the 'cheater' niche grows." Secondary psychopaths experience social emotions, but pursue a life strategy that involves frequent (but not emotionless) antisocial behavior, based largely on their life experiences and environmental contingencies. Secondary psychopaths who are competitively disadvantaged with respect to their ability to obtain resources and mating opportunities are believed most likely to adopt this cheating strategy. Unlike primary psychopaths, secondary psychopaths "will almost always come from lower class backgrounds and their numbers could vary substantially across cultures and time, tracking environmental conditions that favor or disfavor the use of cheating strategies" (p. 537). Mealey argued that psychopaths from higher socioeconomic classes were highly likely to be primary psychopaths. [from Skeem 03]

Meier, B. P., Sellbom, M., & Wygant, D. B. (2007). Failing to take the moral high ground: Psychopathy and the vertical representation of morality. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(4), 757-767. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.02.001 Morality is explained in metaphors that use descriptions of verticality (e.g., "an upstanding citizen"). It is unknown, however, if these metaphors simply aid communication or indicate a deeper mode of knowledge representation. In two experiments, we sought to determine the extent to which verticality is used when encoding moral concepts. Furthermore, because psychopaths are characterized by a lack of moral concern, we believed this personality dimension could act as an important moderator. Experiment 1 established that people have implicit associations between morality and vertical space. Experiment 2 extended this finding by revealing that people low in psychopathy encoded moral-related (vs. immoral-related) concepts faster if they were presented in a high (vs. low) vertical position. This effect did not occur for participants high in psychopathy. Our results indicate that morality is partially represented on the vertical dimension, but not for individuals with little concern for morality.

Meloy, J. R. (1988). The psychopathic mind: Origins, dynamics, and treatment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Meloy, J. R. (2000). The nature and dynamics of sexual homicide: An integrative review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5(1), 1-22. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(99)00006-3 The author reviews the definitions, epidemiology, evolving research, offender, and offense characteristics of sexual homicide, a form of intentional killing that occurs in less than 1% of homicides in the United States. Although the extant research is limited by very few comparative studies, repetitive use of small, nonrandom samples, retrospective data, no prospective studies, and the absence of any predictive statistical analyses, the yield over the past 100 years is impressive. The author advances a clinical typology of sexual murderers. The first group of compulsive sexual murderers leaves behind organized crime scenes and are usually diagnosed with sexual sadism and antisocial/narcissistic personality disorders. They are chronically emotionally detached, often primary psychopaths, are autonomically hyporeactive, and the majority experience no early trauma. The second group of catathymic sexual murderers leave behind disorganized crime scenes and are usually diagnosed with a mood disorder and various personality disorders that may include schizoid and avoidant traits. They are hungry for attachment, only moderately psychopathic, are autonomically hyperreactive, and have a history of physical and/or sexual trauma. . . . This review has focused on the definitions, epidemiology, evolving research, and offender characteristics of sexual homicide, a rare but very disturbing form of intentional killing.

Melvin, M. D. (2005). Emotional word recognition and female psychopathy. This paper is posted at the Florida State University D-Scholarship Repository. http://dscholarship.lib.fsu.edu/undergrad/87 The present study used a computer-base emotional word recognition task to assess the emotional processing of females with psychopathic traits. Consistent with a low fearfulness model of psychopathy, the study proposed that females elevated in psychopathic traits would lack facilitated word recognition to negative word stimuli relative to comparison groups. Prior research has focused rather exclusively on male research participants. However, some recent research suggests that male and female psychopathic traits are rooted in a similar underlying processing impairment for negative emotional stimuli. Sixty female college students were recruited based on responses to a screening measure of psychopathy (i.e., Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale). A roughly equal number of participants were recruited across three groups: (1) a control group low on self-reported antisocial tendencies and psychopathic personality traits, (2) an antisocial group endorsing high antisocial tendencies and low psychopathic personality traits, and (3) a psychopathy group characterized by elevated antisocial tendencies and psychopathic personality traits. Contrary to prediction, no group differences were documented on the lexical decision task. Future directions are discussed within the context of potential methodological and theoretical limitations.

Miller, G. (2008). Investigating the Psychopathic Mind. Science, 321(5894), 1284-1286. doi: 10.1126/science.321.5894.1284 The article focuses on the study conducted by University of New Mexico associate professor Kent Kiehl regarding the minds of the psychopathic criminals in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He decided to study the criminal minds of the psychopaths to reveal and understand the neural basis of psychopathy. He and his team conducted several interviews and made functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. His pursuance to continue his project has encouraged some psychologist to see his grounds about brain activity.

Miller, J. D., Gaughan, E. T., Maples, J., Gentile, B., Lynam, D. R., & Widiger, T. A. (2011). Examining the construct validity of the elemental psychopathy assessment. Assessment, 18(1), 106-114. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193492. Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as self-reported ratings of personality disorders, social cognition, and love styles. The EPA psychopathy scores manifested expected correlations with both self and stranger ratings of the Five-Factor Model, particularly with the domains of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and were significantly related to various forms of personality pathology such as narcissism and antisocial personality disorders. The EPA also manifested expected relations with aggressive social cognitions. Finally, the EPA psychopathy scores were correlated with romantic love styles indicative of game playing and infidelity. The current results provide further evidence of the construct validity of the EPA as it manifests relations consistent with the nomological network of psychopathy.

Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2012). An examination of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory's nomological network: A meta-analytic review. Personality Disorders, 3(3), 305-26. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0024567

Millie, A. (2009). Anti-social behavior. Berkshire, England: Open University Press. Over the last decade 'anti-social behaviour' has become a hugely important topic in political, media and public debates, particularly in Britain where it has become something of an obsession. For Prime Minister Gordon Brown, the government is 'committed to doing everything in our power to tackle anti-social behaviour'. This book provides an overview of anti-social behaviour, including consideration of theory, concepts and alternative approaches to tackling the problem. It includes case study material from my own research as well as drawing on other academic and policy sources.

Millon, T. (2012). On the history and future study of personality and its disorders. Annual review of clinical psychology, 8, 1-19. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143113

Millon, T., Simonsen, E., & Birket-Smith, M. (1998). Historical conceptions of psychopathy in the Unites States and Europe. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 3-31). New York: Guilford.

Millon, T., Simonsen, E., Birket-Smith, M., & Davis, R. D. (Eds.) (1998). Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

Miric D., Hallet-Mathieu, A., & Amar, G. (2005).Etiology of antisocial personality disorder: Benefits for society from an evolutionary standpoint. Medical Hypotheses, 65(4), 665-670. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2005.05.027 As human society is mainly cooperative, it is not clear how antisocial personality disorder (APD) persists. The current explanation is that sociopaths are cheaters who maximize their fitness by taking advantages from others. Although this argument is valid, we show here that society also benefits from APD. We propose that the old phylogeny of punishment, the fact of being a full member of society, the frequency of the disorder, genetics, linkage between two "contradictory" DSM IV criteria for the disorder, and the necessity for society to fight against antisocial behavior, play positive roles for society and/or human groups, especially in the ancestral environment.

Mitchell, D. G. V., Richell, R. A., Leonard, A., & Blair, R. J. R. (2006). Emotion at the expense of cognition: Psychopathic individuals outperform controls on an operant response task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(3), 559-566. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.3.559 The impact of emotional stimuli on a simple motor response task in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals was investigated. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised ( Hare, 1991). Participants were presented with the Emotional Interrupt Task, in which they responded with left and right button presses to shapes that were temporally bracketed by positive, negative, and neutral visual images taken from the International Affective Picture System. The comparison group showed increased response latencies if the shape was temporally bracketed by either a positive or negative emotional stimulus relative to a neutral stimulus. Individuals with psychopathy did not show this modulation of reaction time for either positive or negative emotional stimuli. Results are discussed with reference to current models regarding the modulation of attention by emotion and the emotional impairment seen in individuals with psychopathy.

Moffitt, T. E. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behaviour: Conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the Dunedin longitudinal study Cambridge studies in criminology. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., Houts, R., et al. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(7), 2693-2698. doi:10.1073/pnas.1010076108 Policy-makers are considering large-scale programs aimed at self-control to improve citizens' health and wealth and reduce crime. Experimental and economic studies suggest such programs could reap benefits. Yet, is self-control important for the health, wealth, and public safety of the population? Following a cohort of 1,000 children from birth to the age of 32 y, we show that childhood self-control predicts physical health, substance dependence, personal finances, and criminal offending outcomes, following a gradient of self-control. Effects of children's self-control could be disentangled from their intelligence and social class as well as from mistakes they made as adolescents. In another cohort of 500 sibling-pairs, the sibling with lower self-control had poorer outcomes, despite shared family background. Interventions addressing self-control might reduce a panoply of societal costs, save taxpayers money, and promote prosperity.

Mol, B., Van Den Bos, P., Derks, Y., & Egger, J. (2009). Executive functioning and the two-factor model of psychopathy: No differential relation? International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(1), 124-140. doi: 10.1080/00207450802324861 There are indications that the interpersonal affective factor and the social deviation factor, both of which are underlying dimensions of psychopathy, have a positive and a negative relationship, respectively, with executive functioning. However, this is seldom taken into consideration in the research on the relationship between executive functioning and psychopathy, which may be an explanation for the many inconsistent results in this area as reported in the literature (e.g., Rogers, 2006). In the present study, executive functioning was studied using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 53 inpatients of a Dutch forensic psychiatric clinic who were classified by means of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Special attention was given to the relationship between the two separate factors and executive functioning. Age, educational level, and substance abuse were controlled for in the analysis. No difference was found between psychopathic (N = 17) and nonpsychopathic (N = 36) patients in the WCST scoring categories, nor was there a significant difference in the four diagnostic subgroups defined by the two factors. However, the trends observed do justify further study in this direction. . . . Although we must conclude that the present study does not directly support the existence of a differential relationship between the two facets of psychopathy and executive functioning, there are indications that emphasize the value of further research in this direction.

Morey, L., Waugh, M., & Blashfield, R. (1985). MMPI scales for DSM-III personality disorders: Their derivation and correlates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(3), 245-251. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4903_5 Scales tapping the dimensions of personality disorder as represented in the DSM-III were derived using a combined rational/empirical strategy. The final version of the scales demonstrated both content validity as well as internal consistency. Correlations between the derived scales and between these scales and the original MMPI clinical scales were generally found to be in the expected direction providing preliminary evidence of criterion related validity. It is suggested that the derived scales may represent an advance toward the reliable assessment of DSM-III personality constructs.

Morgan, A. B., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behaviour and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(1), 113-136. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00096-8 Previous narrative reviews of the relation between antisocial behavior (ASB) and neuropsychological tests of executive functioning (EF) have raised numerous methodological concerns and produced equivocal conclusions. By using meta-analytic procedures, this study attempts to remedy many of these concerns and quantifies the relation between ASB and performance on six reasonably well validated measures of EF. Thirty-nine studies yielding a total of 4,589 participants were included in the analysis. Overall, antisocial groups performed .62 standard deviations worse on EF tests than comparison groups; this effect size is in the medium to large range. Significant variation within this effect size estimate was found, some of which was accounted for by differences in the operationalizations of ASB (e.g., psychopathy vs. criminality) and measures of EF. Evidence for the specificity of EF deficits relative to deficits on other neuropsychological tasks was inconsistent. Unresolved conceptual problems regarding the association between ASB and EF tests, including the problem of localizing EF tests to specific brain regions, are discussed. . . . executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term that refers to the cognitive processes that allow for future, goal oriented behavior. It is broadly defined as comprising the abilities needed to achieve and maintain a problem-solving set, and includes such processes as planning, organizational skills, selective attention and inhibitory control, and optimal cognitive-set maintenance. . . . The results of this meta-analysis indicate that there is a robust and statistically significant relation between ASB and EF deficits. . . . This meta-analysis yielded inconsistent findings regarding the specificity of ASB to EF deficits per se as opposed to generalized neuropsychological deficits.

Morgan, J. E., Gray, N. S., & Snowden, R. J. (2011). The relationship between psychopathy and impulsivity: A multi-impulsivity measurement approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(4), 429-434. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.043 Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder of which impulsivity is a key component. However, impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, with multiple approaches to measurement, and different measures may be differentially implicated in psychopathy. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathy as assessed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005), a personality measure of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11), and four behavioural measures of impulsivity (GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm, Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm, Delay Discounting Task, Iowa Gambling Task). A nonclinical sample (N = 80) was recruited from the local community to advance understanding of psychopathy in non-incarcerated samples. The results indicated that the personality measure of impulsivity was strongly correlated with the PPI-R, while the behavioural measures were either not correlated or only weakly correlated with the PPI-R. The results are discussed in terms of the multifaceted nature of impulsivity and the need for the further development of behavioural measures of impulsivity, given their importance in clinical assessment and intervention.

Morse, S. J. (2008). Psychopathy and criminal responsibility. Neuroethics, 1(3), 205-212. [special issue] doi: 10.1007/s12152-008-9021-9 This article considers whether psychopaths should be held criminally responsible. After describing the positive law of criminal responsibility in general and as it applies to psychopaths, it suggests that psychopaths lack moral rationality and that severe psychopaths should be excused from crimes that violate the moral rights of others. Alternative forms of social control for dangerous psychopaths, such as involuntary civil commitment, are considered, and the potential legal implications of future scientific understanding of psychopathy are addressed. . . . Psychopaths are not morally responsible and do not deserve blame and punishment. . . . At present, psychopathy is not a treatable condition, so all psychopaths who commit non-trivial crimes would be subject to potentially life-long involuntary civil commitment if they are excused by reason of legal insanity.

Motiuk, L. L. & Porporino, F. J. (1991). The Prevalence, Nature and Severity of Mental Health Problems among Federal Male Inmates in Canadian Penitentiaries. (Research Report Number 24, 1992), Research and Statistics Branch, Correctional Service Canada.

Motzkin, J. C., Newman, J. P., Kiehl, K., & Koenigs, M. (2011). Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy. The Journal of neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(48), 17348-57. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4215-11.2011 Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy.

Mullen, P. E. (2008). On building arguments on shifting sands. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 14(2), 143-147. http://doi.org/10.1353/ppp.0.0007

Mullins-Nelson, J. L., Salekin, R. T., & Leistico, A. R. (2006). Psychopathy, empathy, and perspective-taking ability in a community sample: Implications for the successful psychopathy concept. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 5(2), 133-149. This study examined the relationship between psychopathy and two components of empathy including a cognitive component (e.g., perspective-taking ability) and an affective component (e.g., compassion) in a community sample. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory Short Form was used to assess psychopathy and several psychological measures were used to test empathy including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2, and the Test of Self Conscious Affect -3. Across instruments, psychopathy (as a unitary construct) appeared to be negligibly correlated with perspective-taking scales and negatively correlated with the affective components of empathy. Findings indicated that the emotional deficits were noted most prominently for the behavioral component of psychopathy. Results also showed that higher psychopathy scores in community participants were linked to higher levels of antisocial conduct. . . . The findings from the current study roughly fit the clinical theory of psychopathy provided by Cleckley (1941) suggesting that psychopathic individuals may be able to use their emotions to guide their own behavior and to read the emotions in others. However, the deficits in affective empathy depend on the type of psychopathy evaluated (e.g., factor scores) and the gender of the individual. . . . The current study suggests that those individuals who may very well be considered "successful psychopaths" also act out in deviant and unlawful ways. Understanding the way in which psychopathic individuals function on an interpersonal level can provide numerous avenues for prevention and intervention programs that can serve to aid both the individual and the field of psychology. Early intervention might help reduce the likelihood that individuals with psychopathic characteristics will break the law and as a result, prevent such individuals from ending up in forensic mental health settings.

Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N, Glover, Natalie G, Derefinko, Karen J, Miller, Joshua D, Widiger, Thomas A. (2010). The search for the successful psychopath. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(4), 554-558. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2010.05.010 There has long been interest in identifying and studying "successful psychopaths." This study sampled psychologists with an interest in law, attorneys, and clinical psychology professors to obtain descriptions of individuals considered to be psychopaths who were also successful in their endeavors. The results showed a consistent description across professions and convergence with descriptions of traditional psychopathy, though the successful psychopathy profile had higher scores on conscientiousness, as measured within the five-factor model (FFM). These results are useful in documenting the existence of successful psychopathy, demonstrating the potential benefit of informant methodology, and providing an FFM description that distinguishes successful psychopaths from unsuccessful psychopaths studied more routinely within prison settings.

Munoz, L. C., Khan, R., & Cordwell, L. (2011). Sexually coercive tactics used by university students: a clear role for primary psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(1), 28-40. doi:10.1521/pedi.2011.25.1.28 Current research suggests that people with psychopathic traits engage in sexual coercion as an alternative mating strategy. Research overlooks the relation between psychopathic traits and coercive behavior in male and female samples that engage in dating quite frequently. Male and female university students reported on their current relationship styles and their use of minor and severe sexually coercive tactics. Results indicate that primary psychopathy (using the Levenson's SRPS), but not secondary psychopathy, predicts the use of all measures of sexual coercion for both females and males, although males were more likely to exploit an intoxicated partner than females. Additionally, females with high levels of primary psychopathy were more likely to use physical forms of coercion. The findings show that the primary psychopathy features (callousness, charm, and selfishness) predict a shortterm mating strategy that focuses on gaining sex through minor forms of coercion and manipulation.

Murphy, S. (2011, February 19). Portrait of the psychopathic brain. New Scientist, 209(2800), 32-33. Kent Kiehl, professor of psychology and neuroscience, speaks about his research into the neuroscience of criminal psychopaths and the symptoms and brain distinctions which can lead to their identification. He believes that psychopathy can be cured, and that psychopathic offenders should be treated appropriately instead of just incarcerating them.

Murray, A., Wood, J. M., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2012). Psychopathic personality traits and cognitive dissonance: Individual differences in attitude change. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(5), 525-536. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2012.05.011

Murrie, D., Marcus, D., Douglas, K., Lee, Z., Salekin, R., & Vincent, G. (2007). Youth with psychopathy features are not a discrete class: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(7), 714-723. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01734.x Background: Recently, researchers have sought to measure psychopathy-like features among youth in hopes of identifying children who may be progressing toward a particularly destructive form of adult pathology. However, it remains unclear whether psychopathy-like personality features among youth are best conceptualized as dimensional (distributed along a continuum) or taxonic (such that youth with psychopathic personality characteristics are qualitatively distinct from non-psychopathic youth). Methods: This study applied taxometric analyses (MAMBAC, MAXEIG, and L-Mode) to scores from two primary measures of youth psychopathy features: the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version ( N = 757) and the self-report Antisocial Process Screening Device ( N = 489) among delinquent boys. Results: All analyses supported a dimensional structure, indicating that psychopathy features among youth are best understood as existing along a continuum. Conclusions: Although youth clearly vary in the degree to which they manifest psychopathy-like personality traits, there is no natural, discrete class of young 'psychopaths.' This finding has implications for developmental theory, treatment, assessment strategies, research, and clinical/forensic practice. . . . Although the assessment of psychopathy among youth is controversial, there is substantial evidence to suggest that the features characteristic of psychopathic adults can also be identified in some youth (although their expression may understandably differ). However, this study provides evidence that psychopathic features occur along a continuum; they are not distributed in a manner that creates a unique or qualitatively distinct class of youth.

Neal, T. M. S., & Sellbom, M. (2012). Examining the factor structure of the Hare self-report psychopathy scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 244-53. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.648294

Nelson, R. J. (Ed.). (2006). Biology of Aggression. New York: Oxford.

Nestor, P. G., Kimble, M., Berman, I., & Haycock, J. (2002). Psychosis, psychopathy, and homicide: A preliminary neuropsychological inquiry. Am J Psychiatry, 159(1), 138-140. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.1.138 OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to statistically distinguish subgroups of murderers with mental disorders from among 26 hospitalized men (mean age=34 years) who were committed to a maximum security forensic hospital. METHOD: Measures consisted of objective ratings of psychosis and psychopathy and neuropsychological tests of intelligence, memory and attention, executive functions, and academic abilities. RESULTS: Cluster analysis produced two distinct subgroups: one defined by high incidence of psychosis and low level of psychopathy and one by low incidence of psychosis and high level of psychopathy, each corresponding to distinct neuropsychological differences in intellectual abilities, learning disabilities, and social intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: In light of this relatively small, highly select group, these novel findings must be viewed as preliminary. Studies of larger cohorts are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn as to the reliability of these two distinct symptom clusters, each independently validated by neuropsychological measures of intelligence, sociality, and academic abilities.

Neumann, C. S., & Hare, R. D. (2008). Psychopathic traits in a large community sample: Links to violence, alcohol use, and intelligence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 893-899. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.5.893 Numerous studies conducted with offender or forensic psychiatric samples have revealed that individuals with psychopathic traits are at risk for violence and other externalizing psychopathology. These traits appear to be continuously distributed in these samples, leading investigators to speculate on the presence of such traits in the general population. Nonetheless, few studies of psychopathy have been conducted with large random samples of individuals from the community. The community sample from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study provides an opportunity to examine the prevalence and structural nature of psychopathic traits, as well as their association with external correlates in an urban community. The community data (N = 514) represent a stratified random sample of persons between the ages of 18 and 40 who were assessed on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) and also for violent behavior, alcohol use, and intellectual functioning. Structural equation model analyses revealed that a 4-factor model found in offender and forensic psychiatric samples fit the community data well and was invariant across sex and ethnicity. Also, a superordinate factor comprehensively accounted for the 4 psychopathy first-order factors and significantly predicted the external correlates. The findings offer insight into the dimensional nature of the psychopathy construct. . . . The distribution of PCL: SV scores in this sample is consistent with the findings of other large community studies (Coid et al., in press; Farrington, 2006). In each study, most participants had very low PCL: SV scores (<3), suggesting that clinically significant levels of psychopathy are rare for individuals within the general population.

Neumann, C. S., Hare, R. D., & Newman, J. P. (2007). The super-ordinate nature of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(2), 102-117. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.2.102 Psychopathy, while perhaps the earliest and most recognized personality disorder, is the subject of intense debate about its nature and measurement. The most recent proposal on its structural nature suggests that it is a multifaceted construct, made up of at least four dimensions reflecting Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial anomalies (Hare & Neumann, 2005, 2006). These dimensions are significantly interrelated, suggesting that they are indicators for a super-ordinate factor. The nature of this higher-order factor may reflect the unifying feature which comprehensively defines the disorder. To examine this super-factor, the current study used several very large data sets of male (N = 4865) and female (N = 1099) offenders, and forensic psychiatric patients (N = 965), who were assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four first-order factor dimensions could be explained by a single second-order cohesive super-factor.

Neumann, C. S., Schmitt, D. S., Carter, R., Embley, I., & Hare, R. D. (2012). Psychopathic traits in females and males across the globe. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 30(5), 557-74. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2038

Neumann, C. S., Vitacco, M. J., Hare, R. D., & Wupperman, P. (2005). Reconstruing the "reconstruction" of psychopathy: A comment on Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(6), 624-640. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.6.624 In this comment on Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark (2004) we highlight critical problems in the estimation of parameters for their hierarchical three-factor model of psychopathy, as assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003), and their interpretation of these factors as causally related to socially deviant behavior. We argue that there is nothing "causal" about a model in which cross-sectional data are used to assert that antisocial tendencies are consequences of other more fundamental psychopathic traits. We present an equally viable model, based on the PCL-R four-factor solution (Hare, 2003), in which antisocial tendencies play a fundamental role in the construct of psychopathy, consistent with previous research and clinical tradition.

Neumann, C., Wampler, M., Taylor, J., Blonigen, D. M., & Iacono, W. G. (2011). Stability and invariance of psychopathic traits from late adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(2), 145-152. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.12.003 The current study examined the longitudinal stability and invariance of psychopathic traits in a large community sample of male twins from ages 17 to 23. Participants were assessed across 6 years to gauge the stability and measurement invariance of the Minnesota Temperament Inventory (MTI), a Cleckley-based measure of psychopathic personality traits, and how family functioning and externalizing behavior were linked to these traits. A latent variable approach was used to model the structure of the MTI and provide a statistical test of measurement invariance across time. The results revealed support for invariance and moderate to strong stability of the MTI factors, which showed significant associations with the external correlates in late adolescence but not early adulthood.

Newcomb, M. D., & McGee, L. (1991). Influence of sensation seeking on general deviance and specific problem behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(4), 614-628. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.61.4.614 Indicators of a Sensation Seeking latent construct were assessed during adolescence and used to predict changes in repeatedly gathered measures of a latent construct of General Deviance. A community sample of 595 male and female Ss was assessed 3 times over a 5-yr period from late adolescence to young adulthood. Most Ss reported use of licit drugs, about one half had tried illicit drugs, and a substantial minority had engaged in other delinquent or criminal activities. The General Deviance construct was stable over time, although specific cross-effects were found. Sensation Seeking was moderately correlated with General Deviance at all 3 levels but did not predict directly the General Deviance construct over time; the effects of Sensation Seeking on later deviant behavior and attitudes were specific rather than general.

Newman, J. P. (1997). Conceptual models of the nervous system: Implications for antisocial behavior. In D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.). Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 324-335). New York: John Wiley.

Newman, J. P. (1998). Psychopathic behavior: An information processing perspective. In D. J. Cooke, R. D. Hare, & A. Forth (Eds.), Psychopathy: Theory, research and implications for society (pp. 81-104). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Newman, J. P., & Brinkley, C. (1997). Reconsidering the Low-Fear Explanation for Primary Psychopathy. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 236-44. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0803_14 Comments on the book The Antisocial Personalities, by David T. Lykken. Related syndromes of sociopathy and secondary psychopathy; Diathesis-development model; Distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy; Low-fear hypothesis.

Newman, J. P., & Brinkley, C. A. (1998). Psychopathy: Rediscovering Cleckley's construct. Psychopathology Research, 9(1), 1-8.

Newman, J. P., Brinkley, C. A., Lorenz, A. R., Hiatt, K. D., & MacCoon, D. G. (2007). Psychopathy as psychopathology: Beyond the clinical utility of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. In H. Herve & J.C. Yuille (Eds.). The Psychopath: Theory, Research, and Practice (pp. 173-206). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Newman, J. P., Curtin, J. J., Bertsch, J. D., & Baskin-Sommers, A. R. (2010). Attention moderates the fearlessness of psychopathic offenders. Biological Psychiatry, 67(1), 66-70. Society of Biological Psychiatry. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19793581 Psychopathic behavior is generally attributed to a fundamental, amygdala-mediated deficit in fearlessness that undermines social conformity. An alternative view is that psychopathy involves an attention-related deficit that undermines the processing of peripheral information, including fear stimuli.

Newman, J. P., & Lorenz, A. R. (2003). Response modulation and emotion processing: Implications for psychopathy and other dysregulatory psychopathology. In R. J. Davidson, K. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 904-929). New York: Oxford University Press.

Newman, J. P., MacCoon, D. G., Vaughn, L. J., & Sadeh, N. (2005).Validating a distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy with measures of gray's BIS and BAS constructs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(2), 319-323. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.2.319 Investigators commonly distinguish between primary and secondary psychopathy (H. Cleckley, 1976; D.T. Lykken, 1995), though there is a lack of consensus regarding the best means to achieve this distinction. To address the validity of using R. D. Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist and the G. Welsh (1956) Anxiety Scale for this purpose, the authors used 2 measures of J. A. Gray's (1987) behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS). Following D. T. Lykken (1995) and D. C. Fowles (1980), the authors hypothesized that primary psychopathy would be associated with a weak BIS and a normal BAS, whereas secondary psychopathy would be associated with a strong BAS and a normal BIS. Results for primary psychopathy were as predicted. Results for secondary psychopathy clearly supported the strong BAS prediction but provided mixed support for the normal BIS prediction. . . . Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that primary psychopathy, as identified by high-PCL-R and low-WAS scores, is characterized by a weak BIS and a normal BAS.

Newman, J. P., & Malterer, M. B. (2009). Problems with the BIS/BAS scales or Lykken's model of primary psychopathy? A reply to Poythress et al. (2008). Personality and Individual Differences, 46(7), 673-677. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.037 Citing a dearth of research on the Carver and White (1994) BIS scale in offender samples, its limited coverage of the psychological functions attributed to the BIS construct, and the fact that the BIS scale has a stronger association with measures of negative emotionality than with fear sensitivity, Poythress et al. (2008) "recommend a moratorium on the use of the BIS scale to test Lykken's theory of primary psychopathy" (p. 269). In this response, we: (1) present evidence that supports the reliability and validity of the BIS scale in a large offender sample involving multiple prison sites, (2) challenge unfounded assertions regarding the inadequate coverage of the BIS, (3) propose that the problems cited by Poythress et al. are as much a function of Lykken's model as Carver and White's measure, and (4) conclude that further research is needed to clarify the distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy and that the BIS/BAS scales may play a valuable role in this regard.

Nichols, S. (2002). How psychopaths threaten moral rationalism: Is it irrational to be amoral? The Monist, 85(2), 285-303.

Nicholls, T. L., Ogloff, J. R. P., Brink, J., & Spidel, A. (2005). Psychopathy in women: A review of its clinical usefulness for assessing risk for aggression and criminality. Behavioral sciences & the law, 23, 779-802. doi:10.1002/bsl.678

Ogloff, J. R. P. (2006). Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(6/7), 519-528. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01834.x Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those with antisocial or dissocial personality disorder. . . . As the information reviewed in this article shows, there is likely an over-diagnosis of Antisocial PD in our prisons and mental-health systems because of the largely behaviourally based nature of the diagnostic criteria of Antisocial PD. . . . Importantly, the findings that have been found to pertain to 'psychopathy'-particularly as operationalized by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-may not be extended to those diagnosed with Antisocial PD or Dissocial PD. In fact, relatively little is known about the nature and outcome of those who meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for a diagnosis of Antisocial PD and Dissocial PD. . . . Dissocial Personality Disorder (Dissocial PD; the tenth edition of International Classification of Diseases [ICD-10]).

Olver, M. E. & Wong, S. C. P. (2009). Therapeutic responses of psychopathic sexual offenders: Treatment attrition, therapeutic change, and long-term recidivism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(2), 328-336. doi: 10.1037/a0015001The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (>=25 Psychopathy Checklist—Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient sex offender program. Psychopathy and sex offender risk/treatment change were assessed using the PCL-R and the Violence Risk Scale—Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO), respectively. Although psychopathic participants were more likely than their nonpsychopathic counterparts (<25 PCL-R) to drop out, almost 75% of the former completed treatment. Psychopathic offenders who failed to complete sex offender treatment were more likely to violently but not sexually recidivate than completers. Positive treatment changes were associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism after psychopathy and sexual recidivism risk were controlled. Overall, the results suggest that given appropriate treatment interventions, sex offenders with significant psychopathic traits can be retained in an institutional treatment program and those showing therapeutic improvement can reduce their risk for both sexual and violent recidivism.

Palermo, G. B. (2011). Psychopathy: Early and Recent Clinical Observations and the Law. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(1), 3-4. doi:10.1177/0306624X10395365 The topic of psychopathy continues to intrigue mental health and legal scholars. In this issue of the IJOTCC, Langevin and Cunroe discuss psychopathic behavior, the high recidivism rates of psychopaths, their brain dysfunction, and the importance of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in detecting recidivistic behavior. Their discussion is complex and enlightening.

Palermo, G. B. (2012). Psychopaths and posttraumatic stress. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56, 503-4. doi:10.1177/0306624X12449006

Pardini, Dustin, Obradovic, Jelena, Loeber, Rolf (2006). Interpersonal Callousness, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Conduct Problems as Precursors to Delinquency Persistence in Boys: A Comparison of Three Grade-Based Cohorts. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35(1), 46-59. 10.1207/s15374424jccp3501_5 Boys who exhibit interpersonal callousness (IC), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IN), and conduct problems (CP) may be at risk for exhibiting persistent delinquent behavior. However, few studies have established the distinctiveness of these constructs or examined their relative contributions to the prediction of delinquent behavior across different developmental periods. This study explores these issues using boys from the youngest (1st grade, N = 849), middle (4th grade, N = 868), and oldest (7th grade, N = 856) cohorts of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicates that the 4 constructs are related, yet independent, from childhood to adolescence. After controlling for the overlap among the constructs, CP significantly predicted delinquency persistence in the youngest cohort, whereas CP and IN predicted delinquency persistence in the middle cohort. IC uniquely predicted delinquency persistence for the oldest cohort. The results suggest that the saliency of specific predictors of delinquent behavior may change from childhood to adolescence.

Paris, J. (1998). A biosocial model of psychopathy. In T. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis, (Eds.), Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 277-287). New York: Guilford Press.

Patrick, C. J. (1997). Deconstructing Psychopathy. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 244-251. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0803_15 Comments on the book The Antisocial Personalities, by David T. Lykken. Psychological conceptualizations of psychopathy and criminality; Role of parenting; Nature of fear; Harm avoidance and trait anxiety.

Patrick, C. J. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of psychopathy. New York: Guilford.

Patrick, C. J. (2007). Affective Processes in Psychopathy. In J. Rottenberg, & S. Johnson, L. (Eds.). Emotion and psychopathology: Bridging affective and clinical science (pp. 215-239). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Patrick, C. J. (2007). Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. In W. T. O'Donohue, K. A. Fowler, & S.O. Lilienfeld, (Eds.). Personality disorders: Toward the DSM-V (pp. 109-166.) Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. Provides a comprehensive review of the concept in DSM. DSM-I was modeled loosely after the sixth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD: World Health Organization, 1948), which for the first time included a section devoted to the classification of mental disorders. The initial edition of the DSM contains a category of mental disorders termed "sociopathic personality disturbance;" following earlier conceptualizations of psychopathy, this designation included a broad range of syndromes encompassing sexual deviation of various kinds, addictions, and delinquency. Included among the disorders in this category was a syndrome referred to as "sociopathic personality disturbance: antisocial reaction," intended to capture the aggressive, criminally deviant individual who repeatedly violates the norms and laws of society. (The use of the term "reactions" throughout DSM one is attributable to the lingering influence of Adolph Meyer, who viewed mental disorders as reactions of the personality to biological, social, and psychological factors.) The second edition of the DSM was developed to line even more closely with the version of the ICD in place at the time, ICD — 8. In DSM-II, the term "reaction" was eliminated as a descriptor for disorders. Sexual deviation, addictions, and delinquent personality types were grouped under a category entitled "personality disorders and certain other non-psychotic mental disorders." Within this category, the term antisocial personality was used for a syndrome corresponding to psychopathy. The diagnostic features of the syndrome closely resembled those proposed by Cleckley and included weak socialization, incapacity for loyalty, selfishness, callousness, irresponsibility, and absence of guilt. A serious limitation of DSM-II was that the basis for diagnostic classification consisted of prototypical descriptions of each disorder rather than specific, behavior-oriented diagnostic criteria. As a result, the reliability of clinical and research diagnostic classifications used in DSM-II was generally poor. . . . . the criteria for antisocial personality disorder in the DSM-III was strongly influenced by the works of Robins (1966), who conducted groundbreaking research on the development of "sociopathy" by following up a large sample of individuals (N = 524) seen as children in a treatment clinic for juvenile delinquents. Following Cleckley, Robins's initial criteria for sociopathy included items relating to lack of guilt, remorse, and shame, but (due in part to problems in assessing them reliably) these criteria failed to differentiate significantly between sociopaths and non-sociopaths in her study, and thus were discarded as indicators in the criterion sets developed subsequently by Feighner et al. and Spitzer et al. Consequently, the criteria for APD adopted within DSM-III focused exclusively on behavioral indicants of deviance in childhood and adulthood, including such things as truancy, delinquency, stealing, vandalism, irresponsibility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, recklessness, and lying. As a function of this change, the DSM-III diagnosis of antisocial personality proved to be highly reliable. Nevertheless, influential investigators in the area (e.g., Francis, 1980; Hare, 1983; Millon, 1981) were quick to challenge the diagnostic validity of the DSM-III criteria for APD on the grounds that they excluded many of the features Cleckley determined central to psychopathy, including superficial charm, absence of anxiety, lack of remorse or empathy, and general poverty of affect. Some effort was made to respond to these criticisms in the revised third edition of the DSM by the addition of lack of remorse (i.e. "feels justified in having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another," p. 346) as an adult criterion for APD.

Patrick, C. J., (2007). Getting to the heart of psychopathy. In H. Herve & J. C. Yuille (Eds.). The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 207-252). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Krueger, R. F., & Lang, A. R. (2005). Relations between psychopathy facets and externalizing in a criminal offender sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(4), 339-356. doi:10.1521/pedi.2005.19.4.339 The construct of psychopathy is viewed as comprising distinctive but correlated affective-interpersonal and social deviance facets. Here, we examined these facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in terms of their associations with the externalizing dimension of adult psychopathology, defined as the common factor underlying symptoms of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol use/abuse, and drug abuse, along with disinhibitory personality traits. Correlational analyses revealed a strong relationship between this externalizing dimension and the social deviance facet of psychopathy (r = .84), and a lesser relationship with the emotional-interpersonal component (r = .44). Structural models controlling for the moderate overlap between the PCL-R factors revealed that externalizing was substantially related to the unique variance in the social deviance features of psychopathy, but unrelated to the unique variance of the emotional and interpersonal features whether modeled together or as separate factors. These results indicate that the social deviance factor of the PCL-R reflects the externalizing dimension of psychopathology, whereas the emotional-interpersonal component taps something distinct aside from externalizing. In addition, based on our finding of an association between PCL-R social deviance and externalizing, we were able to predict new relations between this facet of psychopathy and criterion variables, including nicotine use and gambling, that have previously been linked to externalizing. Implications for future research on the causes and correlates of psychopathy are discussed. . . . The current study revealed a close association between the social deviance facet of psychopathy and the externalizing factor that underlies a broad spectrum of impulse control disorders.

Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Nichol, P. E., & Krueger, R. F. (2007). A bifactor approach to modeling the structure of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(2), 118-141. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.2.118 To date, models of the structure of psychopathy as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) have taken a higher-order approach in which the factors of the PCL-R are modeled as correlated elements of a higher-order psychopathy construct. Here, we propose an alternative structural model of the PCL-R, the bifactor model, which accounts for the covariance among PCL-R items in terms of a general factor reflecting the overlap across all items, and independent subfactors reflecting the unique coherency among particular groups of items. We present examples of how this alternative structural model can account for diverging associations between different subsets of PCL-R items and external criteria in the domains of personality and psychopathology, and we discuss implications of the bifactor model for future research on the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy.

Patrick, C. J., & Zempolich, K. A. (1998). Emotion and aggression in the psychopathic personality. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 303-338. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(97)00003-7 This paper presents an integrative conceptual framework for understanding relationships between psychopathy and aggression, and reviews the extant relevant literature in relation to this framework. Issues pertaining to conceptualization and subtyping of aggression are reviewed with reference to contemporary emotion theory, and recent research on the emotional and temperamental underpinnings of criminal psychopathy is described. It is argued that different forms of aggression may be related to disparate facets of psychopathy, and that these relationships may be mediated by common dispositional factors. Methodological limitations of existing studies are identified, and suggestions for future research are offered.

Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556-563. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6

Pedersen, L., Kunz, C., Rasmussen, K. & Elsass, P. (2010). Psychopathy as a Risk Factor for Violent Recidivism: Investigating the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) in a Forensic Psychiatric Setting. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9(4), 308-315. DOI: 10.1080/14999013.2010.526681 A robust relationship has been established between psychopathy and violence, and psychopathy is considered essential in the process of violence risk assessment. This study presents data on a patient sample from a forensic psychiatric unit in Denmark. All patients were assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP). After a follow-up period of 5.7 years, recidivism outcomes were obtained from the Danish National Crime Register. Both psychopathy measures were related to a more severe and versatile criminal career as well as to violent recidivism. Overall, the predictive accuracy of violent recidivism of the two measures was good, and no significant difference was found in terms of predictability. The newly developed CAPP could be a promising clinical risk management tool in terms of its comprehensiveness. Its validity needs to be further explored, but at least its ability to predict violence similar to the PCL:SV is supported by the present study.

Pennington, L. A. (1966). Psychopathic and criminal behavior. In L. A. Pennington & I. A. Berg (Eds.). An introduction to clinical psychology. New York: Ronald Press.

Pereira, N., Huband, N., & Duggan, C. (2008). Psychopathy and personality. An investigation of the relationship between the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a hospitalized sample of male offenders with personality disorder. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18(4), 216-223. doi: 10.1002/cbm.699 Background The concept of psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), has good reliability and validity and there is a small amount of literature relating it to more general personality traits. Such relationships have not, however, been demonstrated across a variety of populations. Aim To examine the relationship between the PCL-R and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a sample of men detained in a secure hospital unit because of personality disorder and having been convicted of at least one criminal offence. Method PCL-R and NEO-FFI measures were obtained for 100 men as part of a pre-admission assessment to a specialist personality disorder treatment unit. Results After controlling for Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and scores on the other four NEO-FFI domains, PCL-R total scores were significantly negatively correlated with agreeableness (r = -0.36) and neuroticism (r = -0.22). No other correlations with total scores were significant. PCL-R Factor 1 scores were significantly negatively correlated with agreeableness (r = -0.31) and with neuroticism (r = -0.26) whereas Factor 2 scores were significantly positively correlated with extraversion (r = 0.22) and negatively with agreeableness (r = -0.21).Conclusions Results were in line with findings from previous studies and were explained in part by considering how facets of the NEO-FFI map onto the concept of psychopathy. Further research is needed to ascertain whether similar relationships also apply among women, and to examine the relationship between psychopathy and specific facets of the five factor model.

Perez, P. R. (2012). The etiology of psychopathy: A neuropsychological perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(6), 519-522. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.07.006

Perri, F. S. (2011). The Flawed Interview of a Psychopathic Killer: What Went Wrong? Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 8(November 2010), 41-57. doi:10.1002/jip. The flawed interview of convicted killer Christopher Porco illustrates what occurs when a suspect's psychopathic traits are not considered in formulating an interview strategy. Specific areas of the dialogue between Christopher Porco and law enforcement demonstrates that traditional methods of interviewing may not produce a confession or valuable information when it comes to psychopathic suspects. Although the traditional goal of an interview is to obtain a confession or valuable information, law enforcement will have to display flexibility in the interview process by implementing alternative interview strategies and redefining what a successful interview is composed of when these suspects are unwilling to confess to their crimes. Failure to remain flexible, as displayed in the Christopher Porco case, which yielded neither a confession nor valuable information, can jeopardise the strength of a homicide case that ultimately may go to trial.

Petrides, K. V., Vernon, P. a, Schermer, J. A., & Veselka, L. (2011). Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality. Twin research and human genetics. International Society for Twin Studies, 14(1), 35-41. doi:10.1375/twin.14.1.35. This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value.

Petrila, J., & Skeem, J. L. (2003). An introduction to the special issues on juvenile psychopathy and some reflections on the current debate. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 21(6), 689-694. doi: 10.1002/bsl.569

Pham, T. H. (2012). Psychopathy and traumatic stress. Journal of Personality Disorders, 26(2), 213-25. http://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2012.26.2.213

Pickersgill, M. D. (2009). Clinical ethics: NICE guidelines, clinical practice and antisocial personality disorder: the ethical implications of ontological uncertainty. J Med Ethics 35, 668-671. doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030171 The British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently (28 January 2009) released new guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the psychiatric category antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Evident in these recommendations is a broader ambiguity regarding the ontology of ASPD. Although, perhaps, a mundane feature of much of medicine, in this case, ontological uncertainty has significant ethical implications as a product of the profound consequences for an individual categorised with this disorder. This paper argues that in refraining from emphasising uncertainty, NICE risks reifying a controversial category. This is particularly problematical given that the guidelines recommend the identification of individuals "at risk" of raising antisocial children. Although this paper does not argue that NICE is "wrong" in any of its recommendations, more emphasis should have been placed on discussions of the ethical implications of diagnosis and treatment, especially given the multiple uncertainties associated with ASPD. It is proposed that these important issues be examined in more detail in revisions of existing NICE recommendations, and be included in upcoming guidance. This paper thus raises key questions regarding the place and role of ethics within the current and future remit of NICE.

Pickersgill, M. D. (2010). From psyche to soma? Changing accounts of antisocial personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry History of Psychiatry 21, 294-311, doi:10.1177/0957154X09102800

Pickersgill, M. D. (2011). "Promising" therapies: neuroscience, clinical practice, and the treatment of psychopathy. Sociology of Health & Illness, 33(3), 448-464. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2010.01286.x Neuroscientific research into mental health commands generous funding, suggesting neuroscience is understood by a variety of actors and institutions as having significant potential to enhance the therapeutic practices of psychiatrists. This article interrogates this 'therapeutic promise' of neuroscience through the case study of the psychiatric condition personality disorder. Specifically, the focus is on the promissory discourse of clinicians specialising in the management of two variants of personality disorder - antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy - and researchers investigating the neurobiology of these constructs. The article discusses the respondents' ambivalent expectations regarding the therapeutic promise of brain research, and shows how these are structured by understandings of the ontology of personality disorder. In turn, these ambivalences direct our attention to practical issues surrounding the potential of neuroscience to translate into and enhance clinical practice, as well as theoretical concerns revolving around the place and role of the biological within contemporary neuroscience, psychiatry and psychology. In sum, the necessity of large material and symbolic investments in neuroscience should, perhaps, be reflected upon more critically, and analytic encounters with this discipline must keep in mind it's at times surprising commitment to the realms of the social and the psychological.

Pitchford, I. (2001). The origins of violence: Is psychopathy an adaptation? Human Nature Review, 1, 28-36. Retrieved from http://human-nature.com/nibbs/01/psychopathy.html

Porter, S. (1996). Without conscience or without active conscience? The etiology of psychopathy revisited. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1(2), 179-189. doi:10.1016/1359-1789(95)00010-0 Despite an impressive body of research spanning seven decades, the causes of psychopathy and psychopathic violence remain enigmatic for mental health professionals and society as a whole. A keystone of the disorder is the absence of normal human emotional experience. In recent years, a predominant view has been that a genetic predisposition is essential to its formation while environmental factors determine the course of the disorder. The present paper proposes an alternate, less common pathway to psychopathy in which environmental factors are critical ("secondary psychopathy"). Clinical and empirical evidence is reviewed supporting the hypothesis that negative childhood experiences can profoundly affect emotional functioning in adulthood. Specifically, certain individuals who are severely traumatized or disillusioned by loved ones might over time learn to "turn off" their emotions as an effective coping mechanism, later emerging as psychopathic personality disorder. It is argued that, with continued validation of the hypothesis, secondary psychopathy should be considered a distinctive dissociative disorder based on this detachment of emotion and cognition/behavior. . . . distinguished between two variants of psychopathy based on different etiological pathways, one (primary) being predominantly congenital and the other (secondary) primarily environmental. . . . This article suggests the possibility that over time negative environmental experiences can sometimes contribute to deactivation or vitiation of normal human emotion and eventually lead to a type of secondary psychopathy - a dissociative disorder.. . . . Despite absence of empathy for others, the volition of secondary (and fundamental) psychopaths is presumably perfectly functional. If the secondary psychopathy category receives continued validation, the salient implications relate to intervention. These individuals might represent a population for which early intervention or treatment in adulthood might be beneficial for society.

Porter, S., Brinke, L., Baker, A., & Wallace, B. (2011). Would I lie to you? "leakage" in deceptive facial expressions relates to psychopathy and emotional intelligence. Personality & Individual Differences, 51(2), 133-137. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.031 This was the first investigation of individual differences in adopting deceptive universal emotional expressions. We hypothesized that psychopathic traits would lead to a heightened ability to suppress emotional expressions and exhibit less "leakage" of inconsistent emotions during deceptive displays. Further, we predicted that emotional intelligence (EI) would lead to a heightened ability to simulate emotional expressions. Participants (N =100) viewed emotionally arousing (happy, sad, fearful, disgusting) images, responding to each with a genuine or deceptive expression. Each video frame (30/sec) was coded for emotion (in)consistent with the intended expression (365,550 frames coded for 2437 expressions). As predicted, psychopathic traits-specifically, high levels of interpersonal manipulation-were related to shorter durations of unintended emotional "leakage" during deceptive expressions. In contrast, the erratic lifestyle element of psychopathy predicted greater emotional inconsistency during deceptive displays. Individuals higher in EI-specifically, the ability to perceive and express emotion-feigned emotions more convincingly than others but were not more immune to emotional leakage.

Poythress, N. G., Edens, J. F., Landfield, K., Lilienfeld, S. O., Skeem, J. L., & Douglas, K. S. (2008). A critique of behavioral inhibition scale (BIS) for investigating theory of primary psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(4), 269-275. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.04.014 In a 1995 monograph, Lykken asserted that an innate fearless temperament underpins the development of primary psychopathy as described by Cleckley (1941). To embed this insight in a larger theory of behavior, Lykken embraced constructs from Gray's (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). Specifically, he hypothesized that in primary psychopaths the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) lacks normal sensitivity to cues of conditioned punishment or non-reward. Subsequent researchers have embraced Carver and White's (1994) BIS scale as the instrument of choice for testing Lykken's theory of primary psychopathy, a practice that this review calls into question. We note (a) a dearth of research using the BIS scales in offender samples, where more psychopathic individuals are likely to be found and (b) limited BIS scale coverage of the functions attributed to the behavioral inhibition system in RST. In addition, (c) we review literature suggesting that rather than assessing the fear sensitivity function critical to Lykken's theory, the BIS scale instead functions primarily as an index of negative emotionality. We recommend a moratorium on the use of the BIS scale to test Lykken's theory of primary psychopathy. . . . Carver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS scales have been used in dozens of studies to investigate personality functioning within the framework of RST theory, and investigators have recently relied upon the BIS scale in testing Lykken's (1995) theory of primary psychopathy with offender samples. The present review suggests that this extension is premature. Concerns about the structural reliability of the BIS scale in studies with community and student samples provide grounds for caution in extending its use to offenders.

Poythress, N. G., Edens, J. F., Skeem, J. L., Lilienfeld, S. O., Douglas, K. S., Frick, P. J., Patrick, C. J., et al. (2010). Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study. Journal of abnormal psychology, 119(2), 389-400. doi:10.1037/a0018611 The question of whether antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are largely similar or fundamentally different constructs remains unresolved. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), many of the personality features of psychopathy are cast as associated features of ASPD, although the DSM-IV offers no guidance as to how, or the extent to which, these features relate to ASPD. In a sample of 691 offenders who met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD, we used model-based clustering to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures of associated features (psychopathic personality traits) and other constructs with potential etiological significance for subtypes of ASPD. Two emergent groups displayed profiles that conformed broadly to theoretical descriptions of primary psychopathy and Karpman's (1941) variant of secondary psychopathy. As expected, a third group (nonpsychopathic ASPD) lacked substantial associated features. A fourth group exhibited elevated psychopathic features as well as a highly fearful temperament, a profile not clearly predicted by extant models. Planned comparisons revealed theoretically informative differences between primary and secondary groups in multiple domains, including self-report measures, passive avoidance learning, clinical ratings, and official records. Our results inform ongoing debates about the overlap between psychopathy and ASPD and raise questions about the wisdom of placing most individuals who habitually violate social norms and laws into a single diagnostic category.

Poythress, N. G., & Hall, J. R. (2011). Psychopathy and impulsivity reconsidered. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(2), 120-134. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.003 Extant models and measures for assessing psychopathy include impulsivity as a key feature of this disorder. In this article, we review literature that demonstrates how psychopathy-and-impulsivity relations differ as a function of manifestations of psychopathy in both person-oriented studies (i.e., mean impulsivity scores among psychopathy subtypes) and variable-oriented studies (i.e., correlations with psychopathy measures' factor scores). Also, emerging models of psychopathy within Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) challenge the notion that impulsivity is the primary personality trait associated with increased Behavioral Approach System (BAS) function that is associated with some RST models of psychopathy. Finally, recent studies with student and community samples challenge the notion that the more dysfunctional forms of impulsivity may be appropriate markers of "successful psychopathy." We conclude that the blunt assertion that "psychopaths are impulsive" is no longer defensible, and that future models of psychopathy need to consider more complex associations among the various manifestations of these two constructs.

Poythress, N. G., & Petrila, J. P. (2010). PCL-R Psychopathy: Threats to Sue, Peer Review, and Potential Implications for Science and Law. A Commentary, International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9(1), 3-10. doi: 10.1080/14999013.2010.483346 Disputes among academicians are not uncommon. They are usually played out in peer review journals in the form of point-and-counterpoint articles, or rebuttals and rejoinders. Recently however, a threat of litigation was issued against the authors of an article and the editor of the scientific journal which had accepted that article for publication following peer review. In this commentary we review legal commentary on litigation (and threats of litigation) involving academic disputes and literature regarding the values that underpin the scientific peer review process. We conclude that the use of threats of litigation to suppress the publication of articles accepted for publication in scientific journals strike at the heart of the peer review process, may have a chilling effect on the values at the core of academic freedom, and may potentially impede the scientific testing of various theories, models and products.

Poythress, N. G., Skeem, J. L., Lilienfeld, S. O., Douglas, K. S. & Edens, J. F. (2009). Carver and White's (1994) BIS scale and Lykken's (1995) primary psychopath: A reply to Newman and Malterer (2009). Personality and Individual Differences, 46(7), 678-681. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.038 Newman and Malterer (2009) recently challenged the conclusions reached in our critique of the construct validity of Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale for testing Lykken's (1995) "weak BIS" theory of primary psychopathy, and they argued instead that the problems may lie with Lykken's model itself. In this rejoinder we respond to specific issues raised by Newman and Malterer. Although we agree with Newman and Malterer that there may well be problems with Lykken's model, the additional data and rebuttal arguments presented by Newman and Malterer are insufficient to rehabilitate the BIS scale which, because it fails to assess sensitivity to conditioned fear stimuli, is not a valid measure for testing Lykken's low fear (or "weak BIS") hypothesis.

Preston, S. D., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X02000018 There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The "Perception-Action Model" (PAM) together with an understanding of how representations change with experience can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

Prichard, J.C. (1999). Moral Insanity. History of Psychiatry, 10(37), 117-126. doi: 10.1177/0957154X9901003707

Prins, H. (2001). W(h)ither psychopathic disorder? A view from the U.K. Psychology, Crime & Law, 7(1-4), 89-103. doi: 10.1080/10683160108401789 Current concerns in the U.K. about the management of dangerous severely psychopathically disordered individuals are reviewed in both historical and current contexts. Some reflections are offered on the reluctance on many professionals to engage with individuals showing this disorder.

Pryor, L. R., Miller. J. D., & Gaughan, E. T. (2009). Testing two alternative pathological personality measures in the assessment of psychopathy: An examination of the Snap and DAPP-BQ. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(1), 85-100. doi:10.1521/pedi.2009.23.1.85 The current study examined the interrelations between two measures of pathological personality, the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), and their respective relations with psychopathy. Two hundred and twenty-nine undergraduate students completed the SNAP, DAPP-BQ, and two self-report psychopathy inventories, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Results revealed good convergence between conceptually related SNAP and DAPP-BQ subscales. Both the SNAP and DAPP-BQ accounted for a substantial amount of variance in psychopathy scores although the DAPP-BQ accounted for a larger percentage of the variance and demonstrated greater incremental validity. Results suggest that both measures can be successfully used to assess traits associated with psychopathy.

Putallaz, M. & Bierman, K. L. (2004). Aggression, antisocial behavior, and violence among girls: A developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Press. This book traces the development of female aggression and violence from early childhood through adulthood. Cutting-edge theoretical perspectives are interwoven with longitudinal data that elucidate the trajectories of aggressive girls' relationships with peers, with later romantic partners, and with their own children. Key issues addressed include the predictors of social and physical aggression at different points in the lifespan, connections between being a victim and a perpetrator, and the interplay of biological and sociocultural processes in shaping aggression in girls. Concluding commentaries address intervention, prevention, juvenile justice, and related research and policy initiatives.

Quay, H. C. (1965). Psychopathic personality: Pathological stimulation seeking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122(2), 180-183.

Quinsey, V. L., Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., & Cormier, C. A. (2006). Mentally Disordered Offenders. In V. L. Quinsey, G. T. Harris, M. E. Rice, & C. A. Cormier, (Eds.). Violent offenders: Appraising and managing risk (2nd ed.). The law and public policy. (pp. 85-113). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Raine, A. (1985). A psychometric assessment of Hare's checklist for psychopathy on an English prison population. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24(4), 247-258. The research scale for psychopathy developed by Hare (1980) represents an important recent advance in the assessment of this disorder in that it emphasizes objectivity and reliability. This study compares the factor structure of the scale derived from an English prison sample with the original Canadian sample in order to assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the checklist and reassess the factorial basis of the scale. Results from the first analysis indicate substantial correspondence between psychopathy factors derived from English and Canadian analyses. Results of a second analysis suggest that four main clusters of traits (emotional detachment, superficial relationships, egocentricity, and impulsivity) are centrally important in the identification of psychopathy. Results of further psychometric analyses suggest increasing the scale's validity by deleting several items having little in common with the main features of psychopathy. It is concluded that Hare's checklist is both applicable to an English population and internally valid, and that future research may usefully investigate correlates of each of the four psychopathy factors.

Raine, A. (1986). Psychopathy, schizoid personality and borderline/schizotypal personality disorders. Personality and Individual Differences, 7(4), 493-501. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(86)90128-5 Eysenck and Eysenck's (1976) genetic model of psychoticism links psychopathy with schizophrenia and predicts a relationship between psychopathy and the Psychoticism scale of the EPQ. However, two recent studies fail to support this prediction. It is argued that this theory may be more appropriately tested using DSM-III categories of borderline and schizotypal personality disorder and more specific measures of schizoid personality. This study also assesses two claims by Howard, Bailey and Newman (1984) that an affective deficit is common to both psychopathy and schizophrenia and that Hare's Checklist for Psychopathy is lacking in clinical specificity. Several measures of psychopathy were taken on 37 male adults from a top-security prison, and related to measures of borderline and schizotypal personality disorder, and 10 scales of schizoid personality. All resulting correlations were small and non-significant. It is concluded that: (a) there is no link between psychopathy and schizoid tendencies; (b) Hare's checklist is not lacking in clinical specificity; and (c) a fundamental methodological flaw in Howard et al.'s study invalidates their claims. A main theoretical implication is that Eysenck and Eysenck's theory is best viewed from the standpoint of antisocial behaviour in general and not psychopathy in particular. . . . In conclusion, the present study provides no support for the notions that: (a) a common affective-emotivationa1 deficit is shared by psychopaths and schizophrenics; (b) Hare's checklist is lacking in clinical specificity; and (c) an intrinsic link exists between psychopathy and schizoid tendencies at a personality level. The main practical and theoretical implications of these conclusions are that: (a) Hare's checklist for psychopathy can be validly used to identify psychopaths for research purposes, at least in a prison setting; (b) Eysenck and Eysenck's genetic theory linking asocial behaviour with psychoticism is best viewed from a standpoint of generalized antisocial behaviour as opposed to psychopathic behaviour; and (c) future studies might usefully assess borderline and schizotypal characteristics in antisocial populations in an attempt to elucidate the proposed link between antisocial behaviour and schizophrenia.

Raine, A. (1991). The SPQ: A scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17(4), 555-564. doi:10.1093/schbul/17.4.555 Existing self-report measures of schizotypal personality assess only one to three of the nine traits of schizotypal personality disorder. This study describes the development of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), a self-report scale modeled on DSM-III-R criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and containing subscales for all nine schizotypal traits. Two samples of normal subjects (n = 302 and n = 195) were used to test replicability of findings. The SPQ was found to have high sampling validity, high internal reliability (0.91), test-retest reliability (0.82), convergent validity (0.59 to 0.81), discriminant validity, and criterion validity (0.63, 0.68), findings which were replicated across samples. Fifty-five percent of subjects scoring in the top 10 percent of SPQ scores had a clinical diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder. Thus, the SPQ may be useful in screening for schizotypal personality disorder in the general population and also in researching the correlates of individual schizotypal traits.

Raine, A. (1992). Schizotypal and borderline features in psychopathic criminals. Personality and individual differences, 13(6), 717-721. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(92)90242-H This study tests the prediction that criminals with medium scores on the Psychopathy Checklist have a raised level of schizotypal traits [Hare & Forth (1985), Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 541-546], and the hypothesis that this sub-group are characterized by impulsivity and lack of planning [Heston (1970), Science, 167, 249-256]. Criminals were divided into low, medium and high groups on the Psychopathy Checklist and assessed on schizotypal and borderline personality, and self-report measures of schizotypal personality. Both predictions were supported. It is concluded that a clearer separation of psychopaths with and without schizotypal features in future studies of antisocial populations may help clarify our understanding of both of these criminal sub-groups.

Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego: Academic Press.

Raine, A. (2008). From Genes to Brain to Antisocial Behavior. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 17(5), 323-328. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00599.x This review summarizes recent brain-imaging and molecular-genetic findings on antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior. A "genes to brain to antisocial behavior" model hypothesizes that specific genes result in structural and functional brain alterations that, in turn, predispose to antisocial behavior. For instance, a common polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been associated with both antisocial behavior and also reductions in the volume of the amygdala and orbitofrontal (ventral prefrontal) cortex—brain structures that are found to be compromised in antisocial individuals. Here I highlight key brain regions implicated in antisocial behavior, with an emphasis on the prefrontal cortex, along with ways these areas give expression to risk factors for antisocial behavior. Environmental influences may alter gene expression to trigger the cascade of events that translate genes into antisocial behavior. Neuroethical considerations include how responsibility and punishment should be determined given the hypothesis that neural circuits underlying morality are compromised in antisocial individuals. . . . Despite this positive evidence, the fact remains that society is reluctant to use medication to treat antisocial behavior, while at the same time being comfortable in medicating other behavioral conditions. Paradoxically, because the environment influences gene expression, our neurobiological makeup is ever-changing, whether we like it or not. Should society move toward grasping the biological nettle in order to snuff out crime and violence and reduce suffering? Or should it instead turn a blind eye to new clinical neuroscience knowledge and prohibit tampering with humankind's biological essence, even if this results in lives being lost which could have been saved by biological prevention efforts? . . . Specific genes result in structural and functional brain impairments that predispose to antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior. A critical next step in testing the "from genes to brain to antisocial behavior" hypothesis is to conduct molecular-genetic and brain-imaging research on the same population in order to identify the genes coding both for brain structural and functional abnormalities and for antisocial behavior.

Raine, A., Brennan, P., & Farrington, D. P. (1997). Biosocial bases of violence: Conceptual and theoretical issues. In A. Raine, P. Brennan, D. P. Farrington, & S. A. Mednick, (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 1-20). New York: Plenum.

Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., & Colletti, P. (2000). Reduced Prefrontal Gray Matter Volume and Reduced Autonomic Activity in Antisocial Personality Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 57(2), 119-127. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.2.119 Background Major damage to gray and white matter in the prefrontal cortex and autonomic deficits have been found to result in pseudopsychopathic personality in patients with neurological disorders, but it is not known whether people with antisocial personality disorder (APD) in the community who do not have discernable brain trauma also have subtle prefrontal deficits. Methods Prefrontal gray and white matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 21 community volunteers with APD (APD group) and in 2 control groups, comprising 34 healthy subjects (control group), 26 subjects with substance dependence (substance-dependent group), and 21 psychiatric controls. Autonomic activity (skin conductance and heart rate) was also assessed during a social stressor in which participants gave a videotaped speech on their faults. Results The APD group showed an 11.0% reduction in prefrontal gray matter volume in the absence of ostensible brain lesions and reduced autonomic activity during the stressor. These deficits predicted group membership independent of psychosocial risk factors. Conclusions To our knowledge, these findings provide the first evidence for a structural brain deficit in APD. This prefrontal structural deficit may underlie the low arousal, poor fear conditioning, lack of conscience, and decision-making deficits that have been found to characterize antisocial, psychopathic behavior. . . . men with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder have a significantly reduced amount of prefrontal gray matter when compared with normal men or with drug or alcohol-dependent men without antisocial personality disorder.

Ray, J. V., Poythress, N. G., Weir, J. M., & Rickelm, A. (2009). Relationships between psychopathy and impulsivity in the domain of self-reported personality features. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(2), 83-87. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.005 Impulsivity is widely accepted as a characteristic of psychopathy. However, both psychopathy and impulsivity are multi-faceted constructs, and theory suggests that primary and secondary variants of psychopathy may differ in their manifestations of impulsivity-related features. Using a sample of 92 offenders, this study used the fearless dominance (FD) and self-centered impulsivity (SCI) factors of the psychopathic personality inventory - revised (PPI-R; Lilienfeld, S.O., & Widows, M.R. (2005). Psychological assessment inventory - revised (PPI-R). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.), respectively, as proxy indicators of primary and secondary psychopathy, and examined their relations to multiple impulsivity-related constructs. Bivariate and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that FD and SCI have different patterns of association with impulsivity-related constructs and that these patterns are generally consistent with theoretical expectations. The results suggest that measures of impulsivity may be useful in identifying psychopathy subtypes.

Ray, J. J., & Ray, J. A. (1982). Some apparent advantages of subclinical psychopathy. Journal of Social Psychology, 117(1), 135-142. Classical descriptions of the psychopathic personality include a number of highly desirable characteristics in addition to the obviously undesirable ones. Following Eysenck, it is hypothesized that this personality type is not a type at all but merely an extreme of normal personality traits. Subclinical manifestations of psychopathy are therefore studied. The MMPI "PD" scale was administered together with other scales to a random postal sample of the Australian State of New South Wales. The resulting sample of 128 people showed a representative demographic structure. High "PD" scores were found to be associated with honesty (low lie scale scores), permissiveness, good perceived relationships with others, denial of being tough and rejection of punitiveness. They were also correlated with Machiavellianism and lesser education. It was concluded that as long as psychopaths can keep out of trouble, they may have many advantages over others.

Reid, W. H. (2001). Antisocial personality, psychopathy, and forensic psychiatry. The Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 7(1), 55-58. doi:10.1097/00131746-200101000-00008 In this column, I will discuss the diagnosis, assessment, forensic relevance, and treatment of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and its more severe subtype, psychopathy. In earlier work, I have generally equated the two terms. However, it is now more appropriate to separate them, referring to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) to define APD and reserving the term psychopathy to describe persons who meet more stringent criteria, often a high score on a version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist (e.g., on the revised checklist PCL-R or the screening version PCL-SV.

Reid, W. H., & Gacono, C. (2000). Treatment of antisocial personality, psychopathy, and other characterologic antisocial syndromes. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 18(5), 647-62. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113966. Treatment of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and ";core" psychopathy is usually considered a pessimistic clinical exercise. This paper reviews the importance of accurate diagnosis (including differences between APD and other antisocial syndromes), limited techniques for predicting and preventing adult antisocial syndromes, several kinds of treatment that have been attempted with varying success, management of specific antisocial behaviors, and the frustrations-even dangers-of working with severely antisocial patients.

Reidy, D., Zeichner, A., Hunnicutt-Ferguson, K., & Lilienfeld, S. (2008). Psychopathy traits and the processing of emotion words: Results of a lexical decision task. Cognition & Emotion, 22(6), 1174-1186. doi:10.1080/02699930701745663 Research has indicated that individuals possessing psychopathic traits exhibit a deficit in the processing of emotional stimuli. Lexical decision task studies found that psychopathic individuals do not demonstrate affective facilitation in processing emotional words relative to nonpsychopathic individuals. However, these investigations have not examined processing of discrete affective categories and their relation to the callous/unemotional (F1) and impulse control/antisocial (F2) factors of psychopathy. Sixty undergraduate men completed a self-report measure of psychopathy traits and a lexical decision task assessing response latencies to anger, sadness, fear, and happiness words. Results reflected an association between F2 and a heightened experience of anger, whereas F1 was associated with a diminished experience of sadness. Findings are discussed in terms of the relation to existing research using alternative methods of processing affect. . . . Nevertheless, the present study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, it supports research and theory suggesting that the core emotional deficits can be assessed in a nonforensic population. Second, the current findings represent a novel avenue of research into the relation between psychopathic traits and processing of emotion. Previous studies assessing the relationship between psychopathy and lexical decision making have not examined discrete affects of positive and negative emotion; but rather, the differences in the processing of neutral versus general emotion words. To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the relation to the processing of discrete affects. Third, our findings indicate that the LSRP successfully taps both the emotional deficiencies and biases associated with psychopathic personality. However, more research with diverse populations is needed t examine the affective processing in individuals who possess high levels of psychopathic traits.

Reidy, D. E., Zeichner, A., & Seibert, L. A. (2011). Unprovoked aggression: effects of psychopathic traits and sadism. Journal of Personality, 79(1), 75-100. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00691.x Psychopathic individuals engage in the most violent and cold-blooded acts of aggression. In the laboratory, psychopathy traits have been linked to the commission of unprovoked aggression. The purpose of this study was to assess affective motives that may underlie the relationship between psychopathy and unprovoked aggression. One hundred thirty-seven men viewed a series of photographs depicting violent imagery, completed a lexical decision task designed to assess state affect, and competed in a laboratory-based aggression paradigm. Results indicated that participants who responded faster to happiness words after viewing violent imagery (i.e., sadistic) were significantly more likely to engage in unprovoked aggression. Additionally, Factor 1 psychopathy (emotional detachment) predicted increased probability of unprovoked aggression; however, this relationship was not mediated by sadism. Rather, Factor 1 and sadism each independently predicted unprovoked aggression. The implications of the present data suggest that the type of violence evinced may inform the risk for perpetration of future acts. That is, the individual who demonstrates unprovoked violence may be more likely to employ aggressive tactics across situational contexts than the individual who demonstrates only impulsive acts of hostile/reactive aggression.

Reimer, M. (2008). Psychopathy without (the language of) disorder. Neuroethics, 1(3), 185-198. [special issue] doi: 10.1007/s12152-008-9017-5 Psychopathy is often characterized in terms of what I call "the language of disorder." I question whether such language is necessary for an accurate and precise characterization of psychopathy, and I consider the practical implications of how we characterize psychopathy—whether as a biological, or merely normative, disorder. . . . Blair's characterization of the facts in question employs language that presupposes, or at least suggests, that psychopathy is a disorder in more than just a normative sense. It thus effectively rules out the idea that psychopathy might be the result of natural selection, and thus no biological disorder at all. . . . How, in particular, are we to approach the question of psychopathy's status as a disorder, without being influenced—perhaps in the wrong direction—by the language in which the relevant data are formulated?

Ressler, R. K., Burgess, A. W. & Douglas, J. E. (1988). Sexual homicide: Patterns and motives. New York: Lexington Books

Rhee, S. H., & Waldman, I. D. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128(3),490-529. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.3.490 A meta-analysis of 51 twin and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior. The best fitting model included moderate proportions of variance due to additive genetic influences (.32), nonadditive genetic influences (.09), shared environmental influences (.16), and nonshared environmental influences (.43). The magnitude of familial influences (i.e., both genetic and shared environmental influences) was lower in parent-offspring adoption studies than in both twin studies and sibling adoption studies. Operationalization, assessment method, zygosity determination method, and age were significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior, but there were no significant differences in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences for males and females. . . . More than a hundred twin and adoption studies of antisocial behavior have been published.

Ribeiro da Silva, D., Rijo, D., & Salekin, R. T. (2012). Child and adolescent psychopathy: A state-of-the-art reflection on the construct and etiological theories. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 269-277. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.05.005

Rice, M. E., Harris, G. T., & Cormier, C. A. (1992). An evaluation of a maximum security therapeutic community for psychopaths and other mentally disordered offenders, Law and Human Behavior, 16(4), 399-412. doi:10.1007/BF02352266 Psychopaths present serious problems for the criminal justice system because they are responsible for many serious crimes and appear to be very resistant to treatment. The present study was a retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of a maximum security therapeutic community program in reducing recidivism among mentally disordered offenders, some of whom were psychopaths. The study employed a matched group, quasiexperimental design. The results showed that, compared to no program (in most cases prison), treatment was associated with lower recidivism (especially violent recidivism) for nonpsychopaths and higher violent recidivism for psychopaths. The clinical and research utility of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist was strongly supported. . . . We speculate, then, that patients learned a great deal from the intensive program but that the psychopaths put their new skills to quite unintended uses. What could the clinical staff have done to prevent this? An obvious suggestion comes from the finding that psychopaths were much more likely to be coded as having antisocial values compared to nonpsychopaths and that this was also related to violent outcome (Harris et al., 1991). According to modern behavioral formulations of differential association theory (Andrews, 1980), criminals behave as they do because they associate with other criminals and are thus exposed to criminal rather than anticriminal models. It has been suggested (Elliot, Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985) that therapeutic community programs fail because they place offenders in highly intensive interaction with one another and thereby foster rather than inhibit criminal identification and subsequent recidivism. Although there are no outcome data with adult psychopaths, one could predict on the basis of differential association theory that programs that involve highly structured interaction with prosocial models who demonstrate anticriminal attitudes and ways of thinking would be a more promising treatment approach (e.g., Andrews, Kiessling, Robinson, & Mickus, 1986; Wormith, 1984).

Rieber, R.W., & Vetter, H. (1994). The language of the psychopath. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 23(1), 1-28. doi: 10.1007/BF02143173 The language of the psychopathic personality is described along with a review of the literature and various psycholinguistic examples of its importance for theory and research. Recommendations are made for future advancements in this field. . . . The behavior patterns—verbal and nonverbal—which form the basic data that a theory of psychopathy must encompass are not easily translated into the unidimensional response measures of experimental psychology. . . . Appendix: Ted Bundy interview the night before his execution taken from network Television (NBC, 1989).

Ritter, K., Dziobek, I., Preibler, S., Ruter, A., Vater, A., Fydrich, T., Lammers, C., et al. (2011). Lack of empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Psychiatry research, 187(1-2), 241-247. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.09.013 The study's objective was to empirically assess cognitive and emotional empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). To date, "lack of empathy" is a core feature of NPD solely based on clinical observation. The study's method was that forty-seven patients with NPD, 53 healthy controls, and 27 clinical controls with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were included in the study. Emotional and cognitive empathy were assessed with traditional questionnaire measures, the newly developed Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). The study's results were that individuals with NPD displayed significant impairments in emotional empathy on the MET. Furthermore, relative to BPD patients and healthy controls, NPD patients did not show deficits in cognitive empathy on the MET or MASC. Crucially, this empathic profile of NPD is not captured by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The study's conclusions were that while NPD involves deficits in emotional empathy, cognitive empathy seems grossly unaffected.

Rogers, R., Duncan, J. D., Lynett, E., & Sewell, K.W. (1994). Prototypical analysis of antisocial personality disorder: DSM-IV and beyond. Law and Human Behavior, 18(4), 471-484. doi:10.1007/BF01499051 The diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder (APD) have gone through successive modifications with DSM-II, DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV. We asked 331 forensic psychiatrists to make prototypic ratings of the DSM versions, PCL-R (Hare, 1991), and the ICD-10 dyssocial personality disorder. Four distinct factors emerged that encompassed the following dimensions: (a) unstable self image, unstable relationships and irresponsibility, (b) manipulation and lack of guilt, (c) aggressive behavior, and (d) nonviolent delinquency. These dimensions are discussed in light of an earlier prototypical analysis (Rogers et al., 1992) and raise questions concerning the DSM-IV criteria.

Rogstad, J. E., & Rogersa, R. (2008). Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(2), 1472-1484. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.09.004 Traditional conceptualizations of psychopathy highlight the importance of affective features as they relate to social deviance; however, little empirical research has actually investigated specific roles of emotion and emotion processing with respect to antisocial conduct. Antisocial personality disorder (APD), prevalent in forensic populations, is commonly associated with psychopathy despite the notable omission of such core affective features in its diagnosis. In this paper, we review the empirical literature on the contribution of emotion to psychopathy and APD, highlighting in particular research on emotion processing and various facets of emotional expression, including empathy and alexithymia. Research findings are discussed on gender differences in emotional functioning and their likely effects on the assessment of psychopathy and APD. Given the known gender differences in the expressions of emotion, the article concludes with recommendations to bridge research for different offender groups, including psychopathy and APD. . . . Research suggests that the role of emotion processing and emotional expression varies substantially between male and female offenders, particularly between those classified as psychopathic and those diagnosed with APD. Despite evidence of a construct drift between psychopathy and current conceptualizations of APD (Hare, 1996), few research studies have investigated competing hypotheses between psychopathic offenders and offenders with only APD, particularly with respect to affective features considered core to the psychopathic syndrome.

Ross, S. R., Benning, S. D., & Adams, Z. (2007). Symptoms of executive dysfunction are endemic to secondary psychopathy: An examination in criminal offenders and noninstitutionalized young adults. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(4), 384-399. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.4.384 Psychopathy is a heterogeneous personality disorder exhibiting deficits in passive avoidance, emotional processing, and arousal. In a mixed-gender group (N = 293) of undergraduates and prisoners, we examined the relationship of multiple indices of primary and secondary psychopathy to components of executive dysfunction as measured by the Frontal Systems and Behavior Scale (FrSBe; Grace & Malloy, 2001). After controlling for demographic variables, we found strong associations between psychopathy and components of executive dysfunction (Rs = .55 to .70). Primary psychopathy was negatively, whereas secondary psychopathy was positively, predictive of symptoms indicative of executive dysfunction. When indices of primary and secondary psychopathy and indices of executive functioning were jointly included in a factor analysis, a two-factor solution was obtained. Secondary psychopathy and all subscales of the FrSBe loaded on a single factor, whereas indices of primary psychopathy loaded solely on a second factor. These findings underscore the role of prefrontal circuitry in psychopathy, and specifically implicate executive dysfunction in secondary psychopathy.

Ross, S. R., Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Thompson, A., & Thurston, A. (2009). Factors of the psychopathic personality inventory: Criterion-related validity and relationship to the bis/bas and five-factor models of personality. Assessment, 16(1), 71-87. doi: 10.1177/1073191108322207 Psychopathy is a personality disorder that includes interpersonal-affective and antisocial deviance features. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) contains two underlying factors (fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality) that may differentially tap these two sets of features. In a mixed-gender sample of undergraduates and prisoners, we found that PPI fearless dominance was related to low Behavioral Inhibition System activity, high Behavioral Activation System (BAS) activity, expert prototype psychopathy scores, and primary psychopathy. Impulsive antisociality was related to high BAS activity and all psychopathy measures. High Extraversion and Openness and low Neuroticism and Agreeableness predicted fearless dominance, whereas high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted impulsive antisociality. Although low levels of Agreeableness predicted both PPI factors, their differential relations with other five-factor model traits highlight differences in the way psychopathy manifests itself. Consistent with movements toward assessing personality disorder using the five-factor model, the authors report regression-based equations for the clinical assessment of these psychopathy dimensions using the NEO Personality Inventory—Revised (NEO-PI-R).

Ross, S. R., Moltó, J., Poy, R., Segarra, P., Pastor, M. C., & Montanes, S. (2007). Gray's model and psychopathy: BIS but not BAS differentiates primary from secondary psychopathy in noninstitutionalized young adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(7), 1644-1655. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.04.020 Gray's two-factor model represents motivation in terms of a behavioral inhibition (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Although this model has theoretical links to psychopathy, few studies have examined this relationship. In a sample of 326 noninstitutionalized young adults, we examined the relationship of the BIS/BAS dimensions to multiple indices of primary and secondary psychopathy. Across measures of psychopathy, primary but not secondary was related to BIS standing, whereas indices of both psychopathic dimensions demonstrated robust, positive relationships to the BAS. Generally, results support Newman, MacCoon, Vaughn, and Sadeh (2005) distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy on the basis of the BIS. However, positive associations of all psychopathy measures with BAS indices emphasize the role of a common BAS in psychopathy.

Rowe, D. (1997). Are Parents To Blame? A Look at The Antisocial Personalities. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 251-260. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0803_16 Comments on the book The Antisocial Personalities, by David T. Lykken. Role of genetic inheritance in producing criminality; Three major types of criminals; Degree of antisociality against parental competence and genotype; Effect of rearing on antisocial personalities.

Rutter, M. (2005). Commentary: What is the Meaning and Utility of the Psychopathy Concept? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4), 499-503. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-5730-2 The concept and measurement of psychopathy in young people is discussed with respect to five key issues: (1) the respective merits of self-reports and ratings by others; (2) whether callous/unemotional (CU) features may be more appropriately tapped by physiological measures; (3) the possible utility of genetic studies; (4) the distinctiveness of CU from other risk factors for antisocial behavior; and (5) the homogeneity of CU as a construct. . . . The papers in this special section have done a good job in making the case for the applicability for the concept of psychopathy to adolescents as well as to adults, as well as indicating the potential value of the construct in understanding personality functioning and the risk for antisocial behavior. Their empirical findings have opened up the topic in a most useful way. Accordingly, in this commentary, I have not used space to critique the details of their research. Rather, I have taken the opportunity to note some of the key questions that arise from an acceptance of the value of the construct of psychopathy in studies of young people.

Sadeh, N., Verona, E., Javdani, S., & Olson, L. (2009). Examining psychopathic tendencies in adolescence from the perspective of personality theory. Aggressive Behavior, 35(5), 399-407. doi: 10.1002/ab.20316 This study sought to clarify the personality correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents using the Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD; Frick and Hare, 2001] and a youth adapted version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire [Patrick et al., 2009, unpublished]. A combination of self- and parent-reports on the APSD (n=229) revealed that the three-facet model of psychopathic tendencies in youth was characterized by a similar constellation of personality traits as the psychopathic construct in adulthood [e.g., Hall, Benning and Patrick, 2004]. Specifically, low anxiety and trait aggression characterized the APSD Callous/Unemotional dimension, social dominance and trait aggression characterized the APSD Narcissism dimension, and disinhibition and low harm avoidance characterized the APSD Impulsivity dimension. The results add credence to the hypothesis that personality relationships to psychopathic tendencies emerge from an early age [Lynam, 2002] and dimensions of psychopathy in youth are associated with distinct personality profiles.

Salekin, R. T. (2002). Psychopathy and therapeutic pessimism: clinical lore or clinical reality? Clinical Psychology Review, 22(1), 79-112. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00083-6 It is a widely held belief that psychopathic individuals are extremely difficult to treat, if not immune to treatment. This therapeutic pessimism is pervasive and undermines motivation to search for effective modes of intervention for psychopathic individuals. A review of 42 treatment studies on psychopathy revealed that there is little scientific basis for the belief that psychopathy is an untreatable disorder. Three significant problems with regard to the research on the psychopathy-treatment relation cast doubt on strident conclusions that deem the disorder untreatable. First, there is considerable disagreement as to the defining characteristics of psychopathy. Second, the etiology of psychopathy is not well understood. Third, there are relatively few empirical investigations of the psychopathy-treatment relationship and even fewer efforts that follow up psychopathic individuals after treatment. Psychologists are encouraged to investigate the psychopathy-treatment relation from multiple perspectives as well as to conduct long-term follow-up studies to establish a modern view of the psychopathy-treatment relation. . . . It seems clear from the current review that the widely held clinical belief that psychopathy is an untreatable disorder is unwarranted and that conclusions either way for this first generation of research are premature.

Salekin, R. T. (2008). Psychopathy and recidivism from mid-adolescence to young adulthood: Cumulating legal problems and limiting life opportunities. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(2), 386-395. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.386 This study examined the ability of psychopathy as indexed by the following 4 scales: Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 1996/2003), Antisocial Process Screening Device (P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, 2001), Hare Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (R. D. Hare, 1991), and Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Scale (L. C. Morey, 1991, 2007) to prospectively predict antisocial outcomes including general and violent recidivism across a 3- to 4-year time span. Results indicated that psychopathy was predictive of both general and violent recidivism from mid-adolescence to young adulthood even after accounting for 14 variables theoretically linked to offending. These findings add to the recent research showing stability in the psychopathy traits across time by also demonstrating that psychopathy in adolescents also has a real-world effect, including a cost to society with higher rates of offending in the community and a cost to youth with cumulating legal records that are likely to narrow their potential for prosocial growth in the community. . . . The findings from the present study add to the recent research on child psychopathy, which suggests that it has a similar nomological net and demonstrates some stability across significant time spans. Taken together, these findings build on previous research showing stability in the psychopathy traits across time by demonstrating that psychopathy in adolescence also has a real world effect, including a cost to society with higher rates of offending in the community and a cost to youth with cumulating legal records that are likely to narrow their potential for prosocial growth in the community.

Salekin, R. T., Brannen, D. N., Zalot, A. A., Leistico, A. R., & Neumann, C. S. (2006). Factor structure of psychopathy in youth: Testing the applicability of the new four factor model. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 3(2), 135-157. doi: 10.1177/0093854805284416 Psychopathy has traditionally been viewed as a two-factor construct composed of core personality and antisocial features. This two-factor modelwas called into question by Cooke and Michie. Specifically, Cooke and Michie proposed a three-factor model that divided the original first factor into interpersonal and affective factors. The traditional second factor was reduced to only including irresponsible and impulsive behaviors, thereby deemphasizing antisocial characteristics. Recently, Hare found evidence of a four-factor model that reincorporates antisocial items. The current study examined two-, three-, and four-factor structures in adolescent offenders (N =130) via confirmatory factor analyses. The results suggest that the two-factor model was a poor fit; however, three- and four-factor models evidenced good fit and were justifiable. These findings have important implications for the construct validity of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Implications for potential developmental trajectories, dangerousness, and treatment are discussed.

Salekin, R. T., & Frick, P. J. (2005). Psychopathy in Children and Adolescents: The Need for a Developmental Perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4), 403-409. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-5722-2 The current paper introduces the special issue on research attempting to extend the construct of psychopathy to child and adolescent samples. Past special sections and reviews have typically focused on the implications of this research for forensic research and practice. The current special issue focuses on topics relevant for integrating this research within the broader literature on childhood psychopathology. Papers included in this special issue focus on the structure of psychopathic traits in youth, the relation of these traits to other important psychopathological and personality constructs in children and adolescents, and the utility of these traits for identifying a distinct subgroup of antisocial youth who differ on important cognitive processes and on the severity and stability of their problem behavior. These empirical works are followed by commentary provided by two prominent scholars who outline the potential importance of the construct for advancing our understanding of childhood psychopathology. In addition, these scholars provide a discussion of important directions for future research.

Salekin, R. T., Leistico, A. R., Trobst, K. K., Schrum, C. L., & Lochman, J. E. (2005). Adolescent psychopathy and personality theory—the interpersonal circumplex: expanding evidence of a nomological net. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4), 445-460. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-5726-Y The construct validity of psychopathy was examined in a sample of 114 male and female young offenders (Mage = 15.16) at a southeastern detention center. The interpersonal circumplex served as a framework of general personality from which to examine the construct of adolescent psychopathy. A supplementary analysis of the psychopathy measures and the Big 5 factors of personality was also conducted using a matrix approach. Measures included: (a) Antisocial Process Screening Device (P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, 2001); (b) Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1996); (c) Psychopathy Checklist—Youth Version (A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003); and (d) Interpersonal Adjective Scales Revised—Big 5 Version (P. Trapnell & J. S. Wiggins, 1991; J. S. Wiggins, 1995). Results showed substantial convergence among the three psychopathy measures. In addition, meaningful associations between psychopathy and constructs within the interpersonal circumplex and broader domains of the Big 5 were obtained. Two psychopathy scales correlated to a higher degree than expected with neuroticism. These findings provide evidence linking personality theory to the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, thereby adding to its construct validity. However, they do so with the caveat that youth may also be displaying some characteristics of neuroticism, suggesting that worry and anxiety may accompany psychopathic features in earlier developmental stages. The implications of the current study are discussed. . . . To provide validation for the construct, we sought to place adolescent psychopathy, assessed by the APSD, CPS, and PCL-YV, into a framework of general personality, namely the interpersonal circumplex as measured by the IASR-B5. Sullivan (1953) first delineated the importance of interpersonal functioning and these concepts were later used in measurement tools by Leary and refined by Wiggins (1979, 1995).

Salekin, R. T., & Lochman J. E. (2008). Child and adolescent psychopathy: The search for protective factors. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(2), 159-172. doi: 10.1177/0093854807311330 This current article introduces the special issue on child and adolescent psychopathy and the search for protective factors. Although there has been considerable research conducted on psychopathy at the adult level and a surge of research attempting to extend the concept to children and adolescents in the past decade, few studies have attempted to examine factors that might moderate or protect against the development of psychopathy. This special issue focuses on topics relevant to examining potential protective factors within a developmental psychopathology framework. Articles in the special issue are longitudinal and thus allow for the examination of protective factors as they are evidenced in real time. They focus on genetics, peer relations, parental factors, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These studies provide a foundation for examining protective factors and provide the groundwork for future research in this area.

Salekin, R. T., Neumann, C. S., Leistico, A. R., & Zalot, A. A. (2004). Psychopathy in youth and intelligence: An investigation of Cleckley's hypothesis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 731-742. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_8 Cleckley (1941) hypothesized that true or "primary " psychopathic individuals have "good" intelligence. This study examined the relation between psychopathy and intelligence in 122 detained children and adolescents. We used the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) to assess psychopathy and administered novel intelligence measures to tap diverse interpretations of the intelligence construct (e.g., traditional and triarchic intelligence). Structural equation modeling indicated that dimensions of psychopathy and intelligence were related in unique and important ways. In particular, psychopathy traits reflecting a superficial and deceitful interpersonal style were positively related to intellectual skills in the verbal realm (Kaufman's Brief Intelligence Test [K-BIT]; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990) and a nontraditional intellectual measure reflecting creativity, practicality, and analytic thinking as measured by Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT; Sternberg, 1993). Finally, the results also suggested that psychopathy traits reflecting disturbances in affective processing were inversely associated with verbal intellectual abilities. Thus, Cleckley's hypothesis was partially supported by the data, when taking into account the facets of psychopathy and when examining intelligence from the perspective of traditional and more novel and contemporary intellectual models. . . . The findings fit well with the clinical theory of psychopathy provided by Cleckley (1941), suggesting that those psychopathic individuals with the hallmark interpersonal characteristics of the syndrome are verbally facile and intelligent.

Salekin, R. T., Rogers, R., & Machin, D. (2001). Psychopathy in Youth: Pursuing Diagnostic Clarity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(2), 173-195. doi:10.1023/A:1010393708227 Psychopathy in youth has received increased recognition as a critical clinical construct for the evaluation and management of troubled adolescents (e.g., Frick, P. J. (1998). In Cooke, D. J., Forth, A. E., and Hare, R. D. (eds.), Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, pp. 161-187; Lynam, D. R. (1998). J. Abnorm. Psychol., 107: 566-575). To date, clinical research has examined psychopathy simply as a global construct rather than focusing on its specific criteria. In addition, researchers have tended to utilize downward extensions of adult conceptualizations of psychopathy to understand this syndrome in youth. This study was designed to assist in clarifying the construct of psychopathy in youth from a fresh perspective via prototypical analysis. Psychologists from the Clinical Child Psychology Section of the American Psychological Association (i.e., Division 53; N = 511) rated the prototypicality of the psychopathy construct for both male and female youth. Factor analyses for both genders resulted in 2 dimensions that reflected both personality and behavioral components of the disorder. Prototypicality ratings revealed important adult-to-child and male-to-female differences. In addition, child psychologists' views of their effectiveness at treating psychopathy in youth was surveyed. Contrary to the prevailing pessimism, clinical child psychologists reported that children and adolescents made moderate gains in psychotherapy. These results provide a framework for clinical child psychologists in their evaluations and treatment of psychopathic youth. . . . The assessment of psychopathy in children is a highly important area of research that is still in a very early and formative stage. Advances in this research are likely to be dependent upon improved definitions of the construct. This paper addressed a component of construct validity—content validity for psychopathy in youth. Adult-to-child differences in the conceptualization of psychopathy are apparent from the present study.

Salekin, R. T., Rogers, R., & Sewell, K. W. (1996). A review and meta-analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Predictive validity of dangerousness. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3(3), 203-215. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1996.tb00071.x The Psychopathy Checklist (PCL/PCL-R) continues to receive recognition among clinicians and researchers for its ability to predict violent and nonviolent recidivism. This article reviews the psychometric properties and the clinical utility of the PCL-R and reports a meta-analysis of 18 studies that Investigate the relationship between the PCL/PCL-R and violent and nonviolent recidivism. We found that the PCL and the PCL-R had moderate to strong effect sizes and appear to be good predictors of violence and general recidivism. As a component of dangerousness assessments, psychologists may want to consider utilizing the PCL-R when making probability statements regarding placement decisions in institutions, parole and conditional release decisions, and community placement decisions for psychiatric patients. The generalizability of the PCL beyond these groups, which have primarily consisted of Anglo-American samples, is still in question and requires further research.

Salekin, R. T., Rogers, R., & Sewell, K. W. (1997). Construct validity of psychopathy in a female offender sample: A multitrait-multimethod evaluation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(4), 576-585. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.106.4.576 The authors examined the construct of psychopathy as applied to 103 female offenders, using the multitrait-multimethod matrix proposed by D. T. Campbell and D. W. Fiske (1959). Instruments used in the study included the following: (a) Antisocial Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory ( L. C. Morey, 1991); (b) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised ( R. D. Hare, 1990); and (c) Antisocial scale of the Personality Disorder Examination ( A. W. Loranger, 1988). Criterion-related validity was also evaluated to determine the relationship between psychopathy and staff ratings of aggressive and disruptive behavior within the institution. Results revealed significant convergence and divergence across the instruments supporting the construct of psychopathy in a female offender sample. The measures of psychopathy demonstrated moderate convergence with staff ratings of violence, verbal aggression, manipulativeness, lack of remorse, and noncompliance. It is interesting to note that an exploratory factor analysis of the PCL-R identified a substantially different factor structure for women than has been previously found for male psychopathy.

Salekin, R. T., Rosenbaum, J., & Lee, Z. (2008). Child and adolescent psychopathy: Stability and change. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 15(2), 224-236. doi:10.1080/13218710802014519 This article introduces the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy and discusses the reasons why the concept might be developmentally appropriate. Past research has suggested that child psychopathy might be inapplicable to youth because the symptoms cannot be reliably distinguished from features of normative adolescent development. Also, concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that the syndrome does not closely resemble the adult construct of psychopathy. Studies addressing the reliability and construct validity of psychopathy have shown that the concept does appear to be reliably distinguished from normal adolescent development and that the concept has a reasonable degree of construct validity. This article discusses research on the reliability and validity of child and adolescent psychopathy. In addition, it discusses the possibility of change in psychopathic symptoms over time and points to potential protective factors and directions for future research.

Salekin, R. T., Trobst, K. K., & Krioukova, M. (2001). Construct validity of psychopathy in a community sample: A Nomological Net Approach. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(5), 425-441. doi:10.1521/pedi.15.5.425.19196 The construct validity of psychopathy was examined within a sample of 326 male and female university students. The interpersonal circumplex served as a nomological net for the examination of convergences between psychopathy measures and convergent and discriminant validity with a measure of personality disorders was examined using a matrix approach. Measures included: (a) Antisocial scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991); (b) Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Hare, 1991); (c) Psychopathic Personality Inventory (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996); (d) Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (Hyler, 1994); and (e) Interpersonal Adjective Scales Revised-Big 5 (Trapnell & Wiggins, 1991). Results indicated (a) substantial convergence between psychopathy measures; (b) high convergent validity between psychopathy measures and antisocial personality disorder; and (c) high discriminant validity from other personality disorders. The prevalence of psychopathy within this non-forensic sample is also discussed.

Salekin, R. T., Worley, C., & Grimes, R. D. (2010). Treatment of psychopathy: A review and brief introduction to the mental model approach for psychopathy. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 28(2), 235-266. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.928

Savage, J. (Ed.). (2009). The development of persistent criminality. New York: Oxford.

Scarpa, A., & Raine, A. (2006).The psychophysiology of human antisocial behavior. In J. R. Nelson, (Ed.). Biology of Aggression (pp.447-461). New York: Oxford.

Schaefer, M., Heinze, H.-J., & Rotte, M. (2012). Embodied empathy for tactile events: Interindividual differences and vicarious somatosensory responses during touch observation. NeuroImage, 60, 952-7. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.112

Schneiderman, H. G. (1996). Antisocial Personalities, Antidemocratic Solutions. Society, 34(1), 53-57. doi:10.1007/BF02697002 . . . While much of the data and many of the analyses in Professor Lykken's article "Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime," which heads up this symposium, are sound, there is almost nothing new about them and little to be learned from them.

Schouten, R., & Silver, R. (2012). Almost a psychopath: Do I (or does someone I know) have a problem with manipulation and lack of empathy? Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Schroeder, M. L., Wormworth, J. A., & Livesley, W. J. (2002). Dimensions of personality disorder and the five-factor model of personality. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 149-160). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Schrum, C. L., & Salekin, R. T. (2006). Psychopathy in adolescent female offenders: An item response theory analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist—Youth Version. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24(1), 39-63. doi: 10.1002/bsl.679 The present study examined the applicability of the PCL:YV items to a sample of detained adolescent girls. Item response theory (IRT) was used to analyze test and item functioning of the PCL:YV. Examination of IRT trace lines indicated that the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy included "callousness and a lack of empathy", "conning and manipulation", and "a grandiose sense of self-worth". Results from the analyses also demonstrated that the items least discriminating in this sample, or least useful for identifying psychopathy, included "poor anger control", "shallow affect", or engaging in a "serious violation of conditional release". Consistent with previous research (Cooke & Michie, 1997; Hare, (2003), interpersonal and affective components of psychopathy provided more information than behavioral features. Moreover, although previous research has also found affective features to provide the most information in past studies, it was interpersonal features of psychopathy in this case, followed by affective features, that provided greater levels of information. Implications of these results are discussed.

Seabrook, J. (2008). Suffering souls: The search for the roots of psychopathy. The New Yorker, 84(36). Dr. Kent Kiehl uses MRI technology to scan prison inmates for signs of pyschopathy in the hope of discovering a treatment.

Seagrave, D., & Grisso, T. (2002). Adolescent development and the measurement of juvenile psychopathy. Law and Human Behavior, 26(2), 219-239. doi:10.1023/A:1014696110850 Researchers are currently seeking antecedents of psychopathy among children and adolescents. Instruments developed for this purpose are likely to be used in the future in ways that may have serious implications for youths in delinquency and criminal cases. In this regard, and because the concept and measurement of psychopathy have been developed in reference to adults, there is reason to be concerned about potential developmental sources of false positives when measuring psychopathic traits in juvenile offenders. We provide the basis for our concern, as well as standards regarding the types of research evidence that should be provided before psychopathy measures are accepted for use in juvenile forensic assessments.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S. & Bagby, R. M. (2008). Personality and psychopathology: Mapping the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales onto the Five Factor Model of personality. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(3), 291-312. doi:10.1521/pedi.2008.22.3.291 The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales (Tellegen et al., 2003) reflect a recent shift for this instrument toward the measurement of contemporary conceptualizations of psychopathology. The current investigation aimed to replicate and extend the theoretical and empirical linkage between the RC scales and dimensional models of personality and to investigate how well the RC scales conform to a higher-order structure of psychopathology. Participants were 271 psychiatric patients who had been administered the MMPI-2 and revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) as part of a routine psychological evaluation. The results indicated that the RC scales map onto the Five Factor Model of personality as hypothesized and in congruence with previous findings in personality and psychopathology. The RC scales conformed to a higher-order structure of internalizing, externalizing, and thought disturbance, replicating and extending previous work concerning hierarchical structures of psychopathology.

Serin, R. C. (1991). Psychopathy and violence in criminals. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6(4), 423-431. doi:10.1177/088626091006004002 The present study investigated the relationship between criminal psychopathy and violent behavior. Groups were defined according to psychopathy ratings (Hare's Psychopathy Checklist) and violence. Psychopaths scored higher than nonpsychopaths on measures of impulsiveness and aggressiveness, and they were more likely than other inmates to behave aggressively, to have committed more serious past offenses, to have used weapons, threats and instrumental aggression, and to have suffered physical abuse as a child. When presented with hypothetical situations that involved a frustrating outcome, psychopaths reported that they would be more angry than nonpsychopaths, and they attributed greater hostile intent to others. Violent psychopaths were seen as qualitatively different than violent nonpsychopaths in their use of violence, yet they did not differ in terms of the seriousness of their index offense.

Serin, R. C., & Amos, N. L. (1995). The role of psychopathy in the assessment of dangerousness. International journal of law and psychiatry, 18(2), 231-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7657430.

Sevecke, K., Lehmkuhl, G., & Krischer, M. (2009). Examining relations between psychopathology and psychopathy dimensions among adolescent female and male offenders. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18(2), 85-95. doi:10.1007/s00787-008-0707-7 Aim This study was performed to investigate relations between psychopathology and psychopathy in adolescent female and male detainees. Method We examined 91 male and 123 female adolescent detainees (aged 14-19) for psychopathology -using the Youth Self Report, the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified and a Conduct Disorder Self Report Scale- and for psychopathic dimensions using the psychopathy checklist youth version (PCL:YV). Based on a linear regression analysis we compared the specific associations between psychopathology and psychopathy in both male and female delinquent juveniles. Results Our results revealed higher scores for externalizing behavior and psychopathic dimensions in delinquent males, and higher internalizing problem scores in delinquent females. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between suicidal behavior and the psychopathy total score as well as the affective, the lifestyle and the antisocial dimension only in girls. No association was found for suicidal behavior in boys. Regarding anxious-depressive behavior, we found a negative relation to the psychopathy total score and to the affective psychopathy factor for the boys. Conclusion Expectedly, the population of incarcerated adolescents exhibited a high prevalence of psychopathology. At the same time our results referred to meaningful gender-related differences with respect to associations with psychopathy. The gender-related differences in psychopathological symptoms could indicate varied subtypes of psychopathy in boys and girls.

Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G, Harari, Hagai, Aharon-Peretz, Judith, Levkovitz, Yechiel. (2010). The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in affective theory of mind deficits in criminal offenders with psychopathic tendencies. Cortex, 46(5), 668-77. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2009.04.008 Individuals with psychopathy show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as lack of emotional responsiveness to others and deficient empathy. However, there are controversies regarding these individuals theory of mind (ToM) abilities and the neuroanatomical basis of their aberrant social behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that impairment in the emotional aspects of ToM (affective ToM) rather than general ToM abilities may account for the impaired social behavior observed in psychopathy and that this pattern of performance may be associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. To assess the emotional and cognitive aspects of ToM we used a task that examines affective versus cognitive ToM processing in separate conditions. ToM abilities of criminal offender diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder with high psychopathy features were compared to that of participants with localized lesions in the OFC or dorsolateral, participants with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Individuals with psychopathy and those with OFC lesions were impaired on the 'affective ToM' conditions but not in cognitive ToM conditions, compared to the control groups. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in psychopathy resembles remarkably that seen in participants with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with OFC damage, providing support for the notion of amygdala-OFC dysfunction in psychopathy.

Shipley, S., & Arrigo, B. A. (2001). The confusion over psychopathy (II): Implications for forensic (correctional) practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45(4), 407-420. doi: 10.1177/0306624X01454002 This article is the second in a two-part series on psychopathy. The first article systematically, although provisionally, reviewed the major transitions associated with psychopathy's historical development, focusing on how changes in nomenclature, meaning, degree of social condemnation, and prognosis significantly affect the current understanding of this mental disorder. This article assesses the most pressing forensic practice issues stemming from the convoluted history of psychopathy. In particular, this article comments on assessment concerns related to the convergence and divergence of the antisocial personality disorder-psychopathy continuum, on diagnostic and treatment concerns related to countertransference and misdiagnosis, and on courtroom testimony concerns related to competent forensic evaluations particularly when clinical assessments of sexually violent predators are administered. On this latter point, this article explores the limits of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, especially in regard to predicting accurately violent sexual recidivism. Ultimately, this article clarifies much of the confusion surrounding psychopathy and forensic (correctional) practice.

Shirtcliff, E., Vitacco, M., Graf, A., Gostisha, A., Merz, J., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2009). Neurobiology of empathy and callousness: Implications for the development of antisocial behavior. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 27(2), 137-171. doi:10.1002/bsl.862 Information on the neurobiology of empathy and callousness provides clinicians with an opportunity to develop sophisticated understanding of mechanisms underpinning antisocial behavior and its counterpart, moral decision-making. This article provides an integrated in-depth review of hormones (e.g. peripheral steroid hormones such as cortisol) and brain structures (e.g. insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala) implicated in empathy, callousness, and psychopathic-like behavior. The overarching goal of this article is to relate these hormones and brain structures to moral decision-making. This review will begin in the brain, but will then integrate information about biological functioning in the body, specifically stress-reactivity. Our aim is to integrate understanding of neural processes with hormones such as cortisol, both of which have demonstrated relationships to empathy, psychopathy, and antisocial behavior. The review proposes that neurobiological impairments in individuals who display little empathy are not necessarily due to a reduced ability to understand the emotions of others. Instead, evidence suggests that individuals who show little arousal to the distress of others likewise show decreased physiological arousal to their own distress; one manifestation of reduced stress reactivity may be a dysfunction in empathy, which supports psychopathic-like constructs (e.g. callousness). This integration will assist in the development of objective methodologies that can inform and monitor treatment interventions focused on decreasing antisocial behavior. . . . Insights into moral decision-making will be gained by exploring the etiology of empathy and callousness and the interplay of peripheral physiological processes, including cortisol and HPA activity, with the neurocircuitry that promotes prosocial behavior and caring for others. In individuals described as callous, this literature indicated blunted cortisol activity and responses to stress regardless of whether the context involves distress in oneself or another.

Silverstein, M. L. (2007). Narcissistic Personality Disorder. In M. L. Silverstein, Disorders of the self: A personality-guided approach (pp. 27-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. In this thought-provoking book, Marshall L. Silverstein applies a self psychological viewpoint, as formulated and broadened by Kohut, to understanding the personality disorders designated on Axis II of the DSM-IV. He recasts the disorders as disorders of the self, grouping them into one of three patterns: those that center on (1) combating devitalization, (2) forestalling fragmentation, or (3) seeking alternative pathways to a cohesive self. For each group, he outlines the descriptive psychopathology and main theoretical viewpoints and then presents a self psychological reformulation of how the behavior and symptom patterns represent deficits in self-cohesion.The author's aim is to demonstrate how psychoanalytic self psychology, as originally developed by Heinz Kohut and further elaborated by colleagues, can explain personality disorders. He addresses both theoretical and clinical aspects of what are characterized as disturbances of the self.

Simon, R. I. (2008). Bad men do what good men dream: A forensic psychiatrist illuminates the darker side of human behavior. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Singh, J. P., & Fazel, S. (2010). Forensic Risk Assessment: A Metareview. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(9), 965-988. doi:10.1177/0093854810374274. A large number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted in the field of forensic risk assessment, and their conclusions have occasionally been conflicting. To examine the quality and findings of these reviews, a metareview was conducted. The authors identified nine systematic reviews and 31 meta-analyses from 1995 to 2009. The themes covered in these reviews and meta-analyses included the validity of actuarial tools compared with unstructured and structured clinical judgment, a comparison of various risk assessment tools, and the predictive validity of these tools for different genders and ethnic backgrounds. This metareview found that the quality and consistency of findings in these areas varied considerably. Sources of heterogeneity were not assessed in half of the reviews, and duplicate samples not excluded in approximately half of the reviews. The authors suggest a standardization of review reporting with particular emphasis on methodological consistency.

Sisco, M. M., Becker, J. V., & Beck, C. J. A. (2008). Looking forward and back: Sexual victimization prevention. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(4), 261-275. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.04.001 The field of sexual victimization prevention has been greatly shaped by societal movements of the past forty years. The social forces that have driven the study of sexual victimization have led to major research gaps which may be viewed as opportunities for new focuses. This paper will: (1) review these social movements in light of the opportunities that have arisen, (2) re-evaluate the information that has been collected in light of the research purpose, preventing harm to potential victims through providing tailored prevention messages, victim sensitive avenues of reporting, and individualized intervention tactics based on personality characteristics, and (3) provide a framework with which to conceptualize normative personality in relation to the process of victimization-related trauma. Although research has provided many insights into the basic principles of prevention, much remains to be explored.

Skeem, J. L., & Cooke, D. J. (2010). Is criminal behavior a central component of psychopathy? Conceptual directions for resolving the debate. Psychol Assess, 22(2), 433-45. The development of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) has fueled intense clinical interest in the construct of psychopathy. Unfortunately, a side effect of this interest has been conceptual confusion and, in particular, the conflating of measures with constructs. Indeed, the field is in danger of equating the PCL-R with the theoretical construct of psychopathy. A key point in the debate is whether criminal behavior is a central component, or mere downstream correlate, of psychopathy. In this article, the authors present conceptual directions for resolving this debate. First, factor analysis of PCL-R items in a theoretical vacuum cannot reveal the essence of psychopathy. Second, a myth about the PCL-R and its relation to violence must be examined to avoid the view that psychopathy is merely a violent variant of antisocial personality disorder. Third, a formal, iterative process between theory development and empirical validation must be adopted. Fundamentally, constructs and measures must be recognized as separate entities, and neither reified. Applying such principles to the current state of the field, the authors believe the evidence favors viewing criminal behavior as a correlate, not a component, of psychopathy.

Skeem, J. L., & Cooke, D. J. (2010). One measure does not a construct make: directions toward reinvigorating psychopathy research—reply to Hare and Neumann (2010). Psychol Assess, 22(2), 455-9. In our article by J. L. Skeem & D. J. Cooke, (2010), we outlined the dangers inherent in conflating the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. Hare, 1991) with psychopathy itself. In their response, R. Hare and C. Neumann (2010) seemed to agree with key points that the PCL-R should not be confused with psychopathy and that criminal behavior is not central to psychopathy; at the same time, they said we provided no clear directions for theory or research. In this rejoinder, we clarify our argument that progress in understanding the unobservable construct of psychopathy hinges upon setting aside procrustean dependence on a monofocal PCL-R lens to test (a) actual theories of psychopathy against articulated validation hierarchies and (b) the relation between psychopathy and crime. In specifying these conceptual and applied directions, we hope to promote constructive dialogue, further insights, and a new generation of research that better distinguishes between personality deviation and social deviance.

Skeem, J. L., & Monahan, J. (2011). Current Directions in Violence Risk Assessment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(1), 38-42. doi:10.1177/0963721410397271

Skeem, J. L., & Petrila, J. (2004). Juvenile psychopathy: Informing the debate. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22(1), 1-4. doi: 10.1002/bsl.580 A recent explosion of interest in the topic of "juvenile psychopathy" has been accompanied by sharp debate about whether the construct of psychopathy can validly and should be applied to youth. In the second consecutive special issue of Behavioral Sciences and the Law devoted to the topic of juvenile psychopathy, we present additional empirical articles to inform this debate. As noted in the first issue (Petrila & Skeem, 2003), three underlying controversies seem paramount: (i) the validity of extending adult models of psychopathy downward to youth, given patterns of personality development; (ii) the malleability or treatability of psychopathy-like features during youth; and (iii) the ethical and moral appropriateness of assessing psychopathy during youth. This volume contains six articles on juvenile psychopathy focused on three general topics, including the psychometrics of juvenile psychopathy measures; the relationship between psychopathy-like features and treatment progress; and a "road-map" for assessing the validity of psychopathy in youth.

Skeem, J. L., Polaschek, D. L. L., Patrick, C. J. & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2011). Psychopathic personality: Bridging the gap between scientific evidence and public policy. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12, 95-162. doi:10.1177/1529100611426706 "Psychopathy tends to be used as a label for people we do not like, cannot understand, or construe as evil," notes Jennifer Skeem, Professor of Psychology and Social Behavior at the University of California, Irvine. Skeem, Devon Polaschek of Victoria University of Wellington, Christopher Patrick of Florida State University, and Scott Lilienfeld of Emory University are the authors of a new monograph focused on understanding the psychopathic personality that will appear in the December issue of Psychological Science in the Public Interest, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

In the course of their research, the authors reviewed many scientific findings that seemed to contradict one another. "Psychopathy has long been assumed to be a single personality disorder. However, there is increasing evidence that it is a confluence of several different personality traits," Skeem says. The authors of the monograph argue that rather than being "one thing" as often assumed, psychopathy appears to be a complex, multifaceted condition marked by blends of personality traits reflecting differing levels of disinhibition, boldness, and meanness. And scientific findings also suggest that a sizable subgroup of juvenile and adult offenders labeled as psychopathic are actually more emotionally disturbed than emotionally detached, showing signs of anxiety and dysphoria.

According to Skeem, these important distinctions have long escaped the attention of psychologists and policy-makers. As a result, she and her co-authors set about to try to dispel some of the myths and assumptions that people often make about psychopathy. Although many people might assume that psychopaths are 'born,' not 'made,' the authors stress that psychopathy is not just a matter of genes – it appears to have multiple constitutional causes that can be shaped by environmental factors. Many psychologists also assume that psychopathy is inalterable – once a psychopath, always a psychopath. However, there is currently scant scientific evidence to support this claim. Recent empirical work suggests that youth and adults with high scores on measures of psychopathy can show reduced violent and other criminal behavior after intensive treatment.

Along with challenging the assumption that psychopathy is a monolithic entity, perhaps the other most important myth that the authors hope to dispel is that psychopathy is synonymous with violence. Skeem points out that psychopathic individuals often have no history of violent behaviour or criminal convictions. "Psychopathy cannot be equated with extreme violence or serial killing. In fact, "psychopaths" do not appear different in kind from other people, or inalterably dangerous," she observes. Nor is it clear that psychopathy predicts violence much better than a past history of violent and other criminal behavior – or general antisocial traits.

Effectively dispelling these myths is important, the authors argue, because accurate policy recommendations hinge on which personality traits – and which groups of people – associated with psychopathy one is examining. "Decisions about juvenile and adult offenders that are based on faulty assumptions about violence risk, etiology, and treatment amenability have adverse consequences, both for individual offenders and the public," Skeem says.

In clarifying the personality traits that characterize psychopathy, scientists can contribute to prevention and treatment strategies that improve public health and safety. "In short, research on psychopathy has evolved to a level that it can greatly improve on the current, 'one size fits all' policy approach," concludes Skeem. Provided by Association for Psychological Science.

Skeem, J. L., Poythress, N. G., Edens, J. F., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Cale, E. M. (2003). Psychopathic personality or personalities? Exploring potential variants of psychopathy and their implications for risk assessment. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8(5), 513-546. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(02)00098-8 Although psychopathy typically has been construed as a relatively uniform construct, seminal theories and contemporary research suggest that it may be heterogeneous. In this article, the most promising literature is distilled to distinguish among potential variants of antisocial personality disorder (APD) that can be derived from, and informed by, modern conceptions of psychopathy. This analysis suggests that there are primary and secondary variants of psychopathy, which may be distinguished based on the extent to which they are heritable and are characterized by affective deficits, impulsivity, trait anxiety, and characteristics of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders (NPD). These variants also may differ in their patterns of violence and responsivity to treatment. If variants of psychopathy can be identified reliably and supported empirically, psychopathy may be transformed from a global label to a set of more specific constructs that improve our ability to understand, manage, and treat individuals who have largely been regarded as dangerous and untreatable. . . . In summary, seminal theories and empirical evidence suggest that there are primary and secondary variants of psychopathy that may be distinguished based on the nature of their etiology and the extent of their anxiety, affective deficits, impulsivity, and traits of borderline and narcissitic personality disorders. . . . If variants of psychopathy can be identified reliably and supported empirically, psychopathy may be transformed from a global label that provides little "point of reference for clinical intervention" (Blackburn, 1988) to a set of more specific constructs that improve our ability to understand, manage, and treat individuals who have largely been regarded as dangerous and untreatable.

Smith, R. J., & Griffith, J. E. (1978). Psychopathy, the Machiavellian, and anomie. Psychological Reports, 42, 258.

Snowden, R., & Gray, N. (2010). Temperament and character as a function of psychopathy: Relationships between the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory in a sample of personality disordered serious or repeat offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 21(6), 815-833. doi:10.1080/14789949.2010.506617. The relationship between the concepts of Psychopathy (as conceptualised by a four-facet model of the Psychopathy Checklist - PCL-R; Hare, R.D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems) and the biopsychosocial model of normal personality (the Temperament and Character Inventory, - TCI; Cloninger, C.R., Przybeck, T.R., Svrakic, D.M., & Wetzel, R.D. (1994). The temperament and character inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. Washington University, St Louis, MI: Centre for Psychobiology of Personality) was explored in a sample (N = 121) of personality disordered, serious and repeat offenders. High total PCL-R scores were associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Harm Avoidance alongside the characteristic of low cooperativeness. At a facet level, Facet 1 (Interpersonal) was associated with low Harm Avoidance, Facet 2 (Affective) with low Reward Dependence and Facets 3 (Lifestyle) and 4 (Antisocial), with both high Novelty Seeking and low Co-operativeness. The results show that the different facets of psychopathy are related to different personality constructs as defined by the biopsychosocial model, which in turn may suggest different treatment and management regimes.

Socially challenging: Psychopathy. (2010, November 13), The Economist, 397(8708), 98.

Soderstrom, H. (2003). Psychopathy as a disorder of empathy. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(5), 249-252. doi: 10.1007/s00787-003-0338-y The socially undesirable constellation of dominance seeking, aggression, and destructive behaviours has long eluded definition. Terms such as psychopathy, conduct disorder, or personality disorders have been used to describe various combinations of behavioural and personality factors. Psychopathy assessed by Hare's Psychopathy Checklist (PCL or PCL-R in its revised version) [9] has been central to forensic psychiatric research, especially as a tool for risk assessments, while epidemiological and nosological data have been scarce. The PCL-R items reflect three factors: interpersonal attitudes, affective hyporeactivity, and behavioural inconsistency [4]. Neither the DSM-IV nor the ICD-10 diagnostic systems use the term "psychopathy", but antisocial personality disorder in the DSM-IV describes early-onset misconduct persisting into adulthood, and dissocial personality disorder in the ICD-10 emphasises personality traits. In other models, temperament traits such as monotony avoidance, low fearfulness, and heightened aggression have been operationalised to assess personality factors related to violent and destructive behaviours. In the Goteborg Forensic Neuropsychiatry Project [13], psychopathy according to the PCL-R was the clinical rating that most closely correlated with aggression and violent behaviour among offenders. But what kind of psychiatric disorder is really reflected by these ratings? In this brief proposal, I will argue that: 1. Personality as a concept must include the variation in neuropsychological abilities such as mentalising, attention control, and intelligence. 2. Psychopathy as a personality disorder is a childhood onset disorder sharing common clinical dysfunctions with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and autism spectrum disorders. 3. Disruptive behaviours per se are covered by the DSM diagnoses AD/HD-oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)-conduct disorder-antisocial personality disorder and do not warrant an additional diagnostic category. 4. Psychopathy is an empathy disorder characterised by mentalising problems, poor coherence, emotional disturbances, social brain dysfunction, and poor character maturation.

Spidel, A., Greaves, C., Cooper, B. S., Herve, H. F., Hare, R. D., & Yuille, J. C. (2007). The psychopath as pimp. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 4, 205-211. Retrieved from http://searchfortruth.info/sites/default/files/_psychopath-as-pimp.pdf

Spinney, L. (2004). Snakes in suits. New Scientist, 183(2461), 40-43. Psychopathy, say the researchers, is a spectrum of character traits, milder forms of which could even be useful and adaptive. What's more, studies reveal that the person's genes contribute to his psychopathic personality. Had people known what to look for, the traits would probably have revealed themselves at a very tender age. The researchers are going to have a battle on their hands changing the deeply ingrained popular image of psychopaths as criminals—the likes of Charles Manson or Jack the Ripper.

Sprague, J., Javdani, S., Sadeh, N., Newman, J. P., & Verona, E. (2011). Borderline personality disorder as a female phenotypic expression of psychopathy? Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. doi:10.1037/a0024134. Evidence suggests that the combination of the interpersonal-affective (F1) and impulsive-antisocial (F2) features of psychopathy may be associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD), specifically among women (e.g., Coid, 1993; Hicks, Vaidyanathan, & Patrick, 2010). However, empirical research explicitly examining gendered relationships between BPD and psychopathy factors is lacking. To further inform this area of research, we investigated the hypothesis that the interplay between the two psychopathy factors is associated with BPD among women across two studies. Study 1 consisted of a college sample of 318 adults (51% women), and Study 2 consisted of a large sample of 488 female prisoners. The interpersonal-affective (F1) and impulsive-antisocial psychopathy (F2) scores, measured with self-report and clinician-rated indices, respectively, were entered as explanatory variables in regression analyses to investigate their unique contributions to BPD traits. Across two independent samples, results indicated that the interaction of high F1 and F2 psychopathy scores was associated with BPD in women. This association was found to be specific to women in Study 1. These results suggest that BPD and psychopathy, at least as they are measured by current instruments, overlap in women and, accordingly, may reflect gender-differentiated phenotypic expressions of similar dispositional vulnerabilities.

Stadtland, C., Kleindienst, N., Kroner, C., Eidt, M., & Nedopil, N. (2005). Psychopathic traits and risk of criminal recidivism in offenders with and without mental disorders. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 4(1), 89-97. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term predictive validity of the PCL-R for offenders with severe mental disorders, substance abuse and personality disorders and for offenders without mental disorders. The sample consisted of 262 perpetrators who were assessed for their criminal responsibilities. The PCL-R was assessed retrospectively from file data. Participants were prospectively followed-up for an average observation period of 58.6 months (range-138 months), with the first entry into the official criminal records of the National Conviction Registry serving as the endpoint. PCL-R scores were significantly different between the three diagnostic groups. The highest PCL-R scores were found in offenders with personality disorders and/or substance abuse. In all three groups the PCL-R predicted violent, but not non-violent reoffenses with moderate predictive validity. The PCL-R is therefore a moderately strong predictor for violent reoffenses in offenders with mental disorders, personality disorders and/or substance abuse and for those offenders without mental disorders, but failed to predict non-violent criminal recidivism.

Standage, K. F. (1979). The use of Schneider's typology for the diagnosis of personality disorders—an examination of reliability. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 135(3), 238-242. doi:10.1192/bjp.135.3.238 Schneider's typology of the personality disorders is described briefly. Three psychiatrists made diagnoses on two sets of patients, both of which contained one example of each type. The diagnoses were made with the help of a glossary and based upon the examination of clinical summaries and audio-recordings. Values of two reliability coefficients showed considerable variation between types. High reliability was found for Schneider's asthenic, explosive, depressive and affectionless types. Low reliability was found for the fanatic, labile and hyperthymic types. The insecure and attention-seeking types were overused. Some possible causes of this variation are discussed.

Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd Ed.) (pp. 679-687). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Steger, M. F. (2011). Experiencing meaning in life: Optimal functioning at the nexus of spirituality, psychopathology, and well-being. In P. T. P. Wong & P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning (2nd Ed). New York: Routledge.

Stone, M. (1993). Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm of treatment. New York: Norton.

Stone, M. H. (2002). Treatment of personality disorders from the perspective of the five-factor model. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 405-430). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Stout, M. (2005). The sociopath next door. New York: Broadway Books.

Sturek, J. C., Loper, A. B., & Warren, J. I. (2008). Psychopathy in female inmates: The SCID-II Personality Questionnaire and the PCL-R. Psychological Services, 5(4), 309-319. doi:10.1037/1541-1559.5.4.309 The authors examined the relationship between personality disorders, as measured by a self-report screening instrument, and psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991) in female inmates. Participants included 136 women from a maximum security state prison. There was a positive relationship between the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) scale, which measures conduct disorder before age 15, and the Factor 2 scale of the PCL-R; no other significant relationships with other personality scales were obtained, and there were no evident relationships between any of the personality scales and the Factor 1 scale of the PCL-R. A discriminant function analysis and follow-up receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that the use of a criterion of 3 endorsed conduct disorder items from the 15-item APD scale was sufficient to correctly identify 71.9% of the women who had been identified as meeting the criterion for psychopathy using the PCL-R interview. However, the scale evidenced poor prediction of nonpsychopaths (specificity = 52.8%). Results indicate the value of using the self-report of conduct disorder items as part of a screening procedure in concert with other measures to select inmates who require further assessment of psychopathy. . . . There are currently conflicting opinions about the value of identifying psychopathy among female prisoners. Unlike men, psychopathy in women may not be a good predictor of violent offending (Salekin et al., 1997; Warren et al., 2005).

Swogger, M., Walsh, Z., & Kosson, D. (2007, May). Domestic violence and psychopathic traits: distinguishing the antisocial batterer from other antisocial offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 33(3), 253-260. Retrieved March 7, 2009, doi:10.1002/ab.20185 The proliferation of specialized domestic batterer treatment programs suggests that batterers differ from other offenders in important ways. The psychopathic personality represents a constellation of personality traits, which may be relevant to the differentiation of batterers from other offenders. In a sample of 172 county jail inmates, we examined whether antisocial batterers can be distinguished from the larger pool of antisocial offenders on the basis of the four-facet model of psychopathy identified for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Batterer/non-batterer status was positively related to the PCL-R affective facet and negatively related to the lifestyle facet, but there was no significant relationship between PCL-R total scores and this criterion. Results suggest that antisocial batterers are characterized by deficient affective experience and by reduced impulsivity and irresponsibility compared with other antisocial offenders. Implications are discussed in light of specialized treatments for batterers. . . . Indeed, our findings indicate that, among offenders with significant features of antisocial personality, batterers and non-batterers differ in potentially important ways that are captured by dimensions that underlie psychopathy but that may be overlooked by examination at the level of the higher-order construct of psychopathy.

Sylvers, P. D., Brennan, P. A., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2011). Psychopathic traits and preattentive threat processing in children: a novel test of the fearlessness hypothesis. Psychological science, 22, 1280-7. doi:10.1177/0956797611420730 We tested the fearlessness hypothesis (Lykken, 1957/1995) of psychopathy in an at-risk sample of 88 pre-adolescent children. Psychopathy was measured using combined child- and parentreported Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) scores. Using a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm, threat processing was evaluated at the preattentive level for the first time in the psychopathy literature. APSD callous unemotional (CU) factor scores, which assess the core affective deficits of psychopathy, predicted preattentive fear facial recognition deficits and, to a lesser extent, disgust facial recognition deficits. This finding contradicts recent suggestions that the fearlessness associated with psychopathy is solely a consequence of overt attentional artifacts. Future research should focus on preattentive processing of fear in individuals with CU traits, and on the implications of preattentive processing deficits for treatment and theory development.

Thomas-Peter, B., & Jones, J. (2006). High-risk inferences in assessing high risk: outstanding concerns in the clinical use of the PCL-R. The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 8(4), 3-18. doi:10.1108/14636646200600020

Tiihonen, J., Rossi, R., Laakso, M. P., Hodgins, S., Testa, C., Perez, J., Repo-Tiihonen, E., Vaurio, O., Soininen, H., Aronen, H. J., Kononen, M., Thompson, P., & Frisoni, G. B. (2008). Brain anatomy of persistent violent offenders: More rather than less. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 163(3), 201-212. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.08.012 Most violent crimes in Western societies are committed by a small group of men who display antisocial behavior from an early age that remains stable across the life-span. It is not known if these men display abnormal brain structure. We compared regional brain volumes of 26 persistently violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder and substance dependence and 25 healthy men using magnetic resonance imaging volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The violent offenders, as compared with the healthy men, had markedly larger white matter volumes, bilaterally, in the occipital and parietal lobes, and in the left cerebellum, and larger grey matter volume in right cerebellum (effect sizes up to 1.24, P < 0.001). Among the offenders, volumes of these areas were not associated with psychopathy scores, substance abuse, psychotropic medication, or global IQ scores. By contrast, VBM analyses of grey matter revealed focal, symmetrical, bilateral areas of atrophy in the postcentral gyri, frontopolar cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex among the offenders as compared with the healthy men (z-scores as high as 5.06). Offenders with psychopathy showed the smallest volumes in these areas. The larger volumes in posterior brain areas may reflect atypical neurodevelopmental processes that underlie early-onset persistent antisocial and aggressive behavior. . . . In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that persistent violent offenders with ASPD present markedly abnormal white and grey matter regional brain volumes as compared with healthy men. Substantially larger regional volumes in the posterior brain areas were observed among violent offenders with a history of antisocial behavior going back to childhood. These marked differences in brain structure may reflect atypical neurodevelopmental processes that are involved in the initiation and maintenance of persistent aggressive behavior.

Tsuji, H., Miyawaki, D., Kawaguchi, T., Matsushima, N., Horino, A., Takahashi, K., Suzuki, F., & Kiriike, N. (2009). Relationship of hypersensitivity to anxiety and depression in children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63(2), 195-201. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01916.x ABSTRACT Aims: Sensory-perceptual abnormalities, which include hyper- and hyposensitivity, have been identified by numerous researchers as prevalent in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Hypersensitivity has a greater impact on PDD patients' daily lives than hyposensitivity. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship of hypersensitivity to anxiety, depression and other psychopathology in children with PDD. Methods: Sixty-four children were divided into a hypersensitivity group (HG; n = 43) and a non-hypersensitivity group (non-HG; n = 21), and compared for anxiety, depression and other psychopathology on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results: The HG group had significantly higher scores than the non-HG group in Total, Internalizing, and Somatic complaints on the CBCL. On STAIC, the mean sore of Total Score, State Score and Trait Score in the HG group tended to be higher than in the non-HG group, but the difference was not significant. The score on the CDI in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the non-HG group. Conclusion: PDD children with hypersensitivity have more serious psychopathologies, especially internalizing symptoms including depression. . . . In the present study the rate of subjects with hypersensitivity was 67%. Despite the different cultural background and the different level of intelligence, as with the present study, the aforementioned studies found high prevalence of hypersensitivity in PDD. These findings suggest that sensory hypersensitivity is highly prevalent in PDD. In the present study, hypersensitivity in the auditory domain was most common. This is consistent with previous findings.

Ullrich, Simone, Coid, Jeremy. (2010). Antisocial personality disorder—stable and unstable subtypes. Journal of personality disorders, 24(2) 171-87 10.1521/pedi.2010.24.2.171 There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.

Vachon, D. D., Lynam, D. R., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2012). Generalizing the nomological network of psychopathy across populations differing on race and conviction status. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(1), 263-9. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0024683

van Honk, J., & Schutter, D. J. L. G. (2006). Unmasking feigned sanity: A neurobiological model of emotion processing in primary psychopathy. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 11(3), 285-306. doi: 10.1080/13546800500233728 Abstract Introduction. The neurobiological basis of primary psychopathy, an emotional disorder characterised by a lack of fear and empathy, on the one hand, and extremely violent, antisocial tendencies, on the other, is relatively unknown. Nevertheless, theoretical models that emphasise the role of fearlessness, imbalanced motivation, defective somatic markers, and dysfunctional violence inhibition mechanisms have complementary proposals regarding motivations and brain mechanisms involved. Methods. Presently, incorporating the heuristic value of these models and further theorising on the basis of recent data from neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, neuroimaging, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), an attempt is made to construct a neurobiological framework of emotion processing in primary psychopathy with clinical applicability. Results. According to this framework, defective emotional processing in primary psychopathy results from bottom-up hormone-mediated imbalances at: (1) the subcortical level; (2) in subcortico-cortical "cross-talk"; that end up in an instrumental stance at the cortical level (3). An endocrine dual-system approach for the fine-tuned restoration of these hormone-mediated imbalances is proposed as a possible clinical application. Discussion. This application may be capable of laying a neurobiological foundation for more successful sociotherapeutic interventions in primary psychopathy.

Vanman, E. J., Mejia, V. Y., Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Raine, A. (2003). Modification of the startle reflex in a community sample: do one or two dimensions of psychopathy underlie emotional processing? Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8), 2007-2021. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00052-7 Recent research on psychopathy has begun to explore two dimensions that possibly underlie psychopathy-one related more to emotional and interpersonal traits, and another related more to antisocial behaviors. A community sample of adults was assessed for psychopathy using Hare's (1991) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Eyeblinks elicited by startle probes were recorded while participants viewed pictures of emotionally-laden stimuli. Consistent with previous research, participants scoring high on PCL-R Factor 2 ("antisocial") showed no affective modification of startle if they also scored high on PCL-R Factor 1 ("emotional detachment"). When the factor scores were analyzed together as continuous variables in a regression analysis, however, affective modification of startle was negatively related to Factor 1 but positively related to Factor 2. The results thus provide further support for a two-factor model of psychopathy.

Varlamov, A., Khalifa, N., Liddle, P., Duggan, C., & Howard, R. (2011). Cortical correlates of impaired self-regulation in personality disordered patients with traits of psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(1), 75-88. doi:10.1521/pedi.2011.25.1.75 Psychopathic personality disordered patients would, by virtue of a failure to self-regulate, be expected to show diminished amplitudes of feedback-related brain potentials. Among a sample of personality disordered patients detained at different levels of security, those who met a Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) criterion of 25 or above were identified (N = 27). Their event-related brain potentials (ERPs), together with those of their nonpsychopathic counterparts (N = 22) and healthy male controls (N = 20), were measured while they performed a visual Go/No Go task, with feedback given for correct and incorrect performance. Psychopathic patients showed a significantly reduced amplitude of an early frontal negative ERP component maximally evoked by negative feedback, and a high rate of errors of commission. Findings are consistent with the idea that psychopathic patients' unsuccessful attempts to self-regulate reflect a cognitive deficit characterised by a failure to attend and respond to a mismatch between expected and obtained outcomes.

Vasey, M. W., Kotov, R., Frick, P.J., & Loney, B. R. (2005). The latent structure of psychopathy in youth: A taxometric investigation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(4), 411-429. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-5723-1 Using taxometric procedures, the latent structure of psychopathy was investigated in two studies of children and adolescents. Prior studies have identified a taxon (i.e., a natural category) associated with antisocial behavior in adults as well as children and adolescents. However, features of this taxon suggest that it is not psychopathy but rather a broader class consistent with the construct of life course persistent antisocial behavior. Because the only prior study of youth used a non-clinical sample, the base rate of psychopathy may have been too low to reveal a psychopathy taxon, especially against the background of a broader and more prevalent antisocial behavior taxon. Therefore, this investigation sought to increase the likelihood of finding a psychopathy taxon (should one exist) by increasing its expected base rate through inclusion of clinical cases in the samples studied. Results produced evidence for both a broad antisocial behavior problem taxon consistent with past research and a much lower base rate taxon consistent with prevalence expectations for psychopathy. These findings support the existence of latent taxa for both psychopathy and a broader class of antisocial behavior problems. Further taxometric research appears to be warranted, which should use a broader array of indicators, with greater specificity to psychopathy. . . . In summary, the present investigation provided further evidence for the existence of a taxon underlying antisocial behavior problems in childhood and adolescence as well as preliminary evidence for the existence of a psychopathy taxon, which is considerably less prevalent than the broader conduct problems taxon. These findings suggest the existence of latent taxa underlying both early onset conduct problems and psychopathy in youth. However, considerable additional research is necessary to identify the optimal indicators of both taxa-especially the latter.

Vaughn, M. G., DeLisi, M., Beaver, K. M., Wright, J. P., & Howard, M. O. (2007). Toward a psychopathology of self-control theory: the importance of narcissistic traits. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 25(6), 803-821. doi: 10.1002/bsl.789 Research on self-control and related constructs is central to individual-level explanations of antisocial behavior. However, less research attention has been paid to the psychopathological underpinnings of self-control. The current study explores relationships between self-control and psychiatric symptoms, head injury, trauma history, substance use, guiltlessness and narcissistic traits in a statewide population of juvenile offenders. Results support the importance of these variables, in particular narcissistic traits, in better explicating theories of self-control. Implications for research on the psychopathological underpinnings of self-control are highlighted

Vaughn, M. G., Litschge, C., DeLisi, M., Beaver, K. M., McMillen, C. J. (2008). Psychopathic personality features and risks for criminal justice system involvement among emancipating foster youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(10), 1101-1110. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.02.001 Although there has been a surge of interest in the study of psychopathy among juveniles, few investigations have been initiated on non-correctional samples thus reducing the potential generalizability of findings. The current objective was to examine the construct of psychopathy in a community sample of 404 foster care youths transitioning out of care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore psychopathic personality traits among a foster care sample. In total, the models indicated that psychopathic personality traits measured by the PPI-SF Narcissism, PPI-SF Extraversion, PPI-SF Unemotionality, and PPI-SF Fearless-Nonconformity were significant yet inconsistent risk factors for diverse forms of criminal behavior and subsequent involvement with the criminal justice system.

Verplaetse, J., Schrijver, J. de, Vanneste, S., & Braeckman J. (Eds.). (2009). The moral brain: Essays on the evolutionary and neuroscientific aspects of morality. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6287-2 Scientists no longer accept the existence of a distinct moral organ as phrenologists once did. A generation of young neurologists is using advanced technological medical equipment to unravel specific brain processes enabling moral cognition. In addition, evolutionary psychologists have formulated hypotheses about the origins and nature of our moral architecture. Little by little, the concept of a 'moral brain' is reinstated. As the crossover between disciplines focusing on moral cognition was rather limited up to now, this book aims at filling the gap. Which evolutionary biological hypotheses provide a useful framework for starting new neurological research? How can brain imaging be used to corroborate hypotheses concerning the evolutionary background of our species? In this reader, a broad range of prominent scientists and philosophers shed their expert view on the current accomplishments and future challenges in the field of moral cognition and assess how cooperation between neurology and evolutionary psychology can boost research into the field of the moral brain

Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A., & Vernon, P. (2012). The Dark Triad and an expanded framework of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 417-425. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.002

Viding, E., Blair, R. J. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Plomin, R. (2005). Psychopathic syndrome indexes strong genetic risk for antisocial behaviour in 7-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(6), 592-597. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00393.x Background: Individuals with early warning signs of life-long psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits (CU) and high levels of antisocial behaviour (AB) can be identified in childhood. We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children. Methods: At the end of the first school year, teachers provided ratings of CU and AB for 3687 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). For the analyses of extreme CU, we selected same-sex twin pairs where at least one twin scored 1.3 or more standard deviations above the mean on the CU scale (612 probands, 459 twin pairs). For the analysis of extreme AB, we selected same-sex twin pairs where at least one twin scored 1.3 or more standard deviations above the mean on AB scale (444 probands, 364 twin pairs). Furthermore, the extreme AB sample was divided into those who were also extreme on CU (children with psychopathic tendencies; 234 probands, 187 twin pairs) and those who did not score in the extreme for CU (children without psychopathic tendencies; 210 probands, 177 twin pairs). Results: DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis indicated that exhibiting high levels of CU is under strong genetic influence. Furthermore, separating children with AB into those with high and low levels of CU showed striking results: AB in children with high levels of CU is under extremely strong genetic influence and no influence of shared environment, whereas AB in children with low levels of CU shows moderate genetic and shared environmental influence. Conclusions: The remarkably high heritability for CU, and for AB children with CU, suggests that molecular genetic research on antisocial behaviour should focus on the CU core of psychopathy. Our findings also raise questions for public policy on interventions for antisocial behaviour. . . . Our results indicate that exhibiting high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) at 7 years, as assessed by teachers at the end of the first year of school, is under strong genetic influence.

Viding, E., & McCrory, E. J. (2012). Genetic and neurocognitive contributions to the development of psychopathy. Development and psychopathology, 24, 969-83. doi:10.1017/S095457941200048X

Vien, A., & Beech, A. R. (2006). Psychopathy: Theory, measurement, and treatment. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 7(3), 155-174. doi: 10.1177/1524838006288929 The purpose of this article is to link empirical literature to the theoretical background of the concept of psychopathy and the impact that this has had on the development of treatment and intervention procedures for psychopathic offenders. This article begins with a discussion of the different theories of psychopathy, which leads into considerations of different developmental pathways of psychopathy in the individual. The discussion will then lead on to the psychometrics and measurement tools used to assess psychopathy in the individual. The measurement section will primarily be focused on Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as this is the most frequently used and validated measure of psychopathy. The relationship between psychopathy and different types of crime is also discussed. The final section of the article considers the treatment and interventions that are available to psychopathic offenders and the implications this has for future research. . . . The development of effective intervention and treatment programs for psychopaths will render changes in the sentencing phase for psychopathic offenders, . . . characteristics of psychopaths are somewhat understood and endlessly researched. The underlying cognitions psychopaths' hold remain unclear. . . . The emergence of the "white-collar" psychopath is another area where empirical research is limited. At present, there is a huge amount of speculation to the similarity of personality structure between violent criminal psychopaths and white-collar psychopaths; however, there is no empirical research either investigating or providing evidence for this similarity. These assumptions must be empirically tested before any firm conclusions can be made.

Vincent, N. A. (2008). Responsibility, dysfunction and capacity. Neuroethics, 1(3), 199-204. [special issue] doi: 10.1007/s12152-008-9022-8 The way in which we characterize the structural and functional differences between psychopath and normal brains-either as biological disorders or as mere biological differences-can influence our judgments about psychopaths' responsibility for criminal misconduct. However, Marga Reimer (Neuroethics 1(2):14, 2008) points out that whether our characterization of these differences should be allowed to affect our judgments in this manner "is a difficult and important question that really needs to be addressed before policies regarding responsibility... can be implemented with any confidence". This paper is an attempt to address Reimer's difficult and important question; I argue that irrespective of which of these two characterizations is chosen, our judgments about psychopaths' responsibility should not be affected, because responsibility hinges not on whether a particular difference is (referred to as) a disorder or not, but on how that difference affects the mental capacities required for moral agency. . . . Finally, my claim is not just that our responsibility judgments should not be affected by how we think or talk about the differences between psychopath and normal brains, but it is rather that even if there were some fact of the matter about how these differences ought to be conceptualised or characterized, then this would still make no difference to what we ought to say about the psychopath's responsibility, because whether someone is responsible for something or not depends on their capacities (though note the aforementioned qualifications), and not on whether their condition is per se a disorder.

Visser, B., Ashton, M. C., & Pozzebon, J. A. (2012). Is low anxiety part of the psychopathy construct? Journal of Personality, 80(3), 725-47. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00745.x Low anxiety has traditionally been considered a feature of psychopathy, but there has been mixed research support for this conceptualization. We investigated the PPI-R-SF Stress Immunity subscale (a measure of low anxiety) in relation to two widely-used self-report psychopathy scales in a sample of 346 undergraduate students. Results indicated that PPI-R-SF Stress Immunity was nearly unrelated to other indicators of psychopathy, showing a near-zero loading on the common psychopathy factor defined jointly by the scales of the PPI-R-SF and SRP-III. Stress Immunity also showed a pattern of personality and temperament correlates much different from those of other psychopathy subscales. Finally, Stress Immunity had a slight negative correlation with self-reports of diverse antisocial acts. These results suggest that despite its historical importance in the conceptualization of psychopathy, low anxiety is likely not a core feature of psychopathy.

Vitacco, M., Neumann, C. S., & Jackson, R. L. (2005). Testing of a four-factor model of psychopathy: Associations with gender, ethnicity, intelligence and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 466-476. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.466 Although a 2-factor model has advanced research on the psychopathy construct, a 3-factor model was recently developed that emphasized pathological personality and eliminated antisocial behavior. However, dropping antisocial behavior from the psychopathy construct may not be advantageous. Using a large sample of psychiatric patients from the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study (J. Monahan & H. J. Steadman, 1994), the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to test a 4-factor model of psychopathy, which included interpersonal, affective, and behavioral impulsivity dimensions and an antisocial behavior dimension. Model fit was good for this 4-factor model, even when ethnicity, gender, and intelligence variables were included in the model. Structural equation modeling was used to compare the 3- and 4-factor models in predicting proximal (violence) and distal (intelligence) correlates of psychopathy. . . . Consistent with our previous PCL:SV research (Hill et al., 2004), the current results, which demonstrate good support for a four-factor model of psychopathy, are also consistent with research that used other PCL measures (Forth et al., 2003; Hare, 2003; Neumann, Kosson, et al., 2004; Vitacco et al., in press). The four-factor model continues in the tradition of including both personality and antisocial dimensions in an inclusive model of psychopathy. As such, the four-factor model affords the opportunity to examine how the interpersonal, affective, and behavioral factors are associated with the antisocial aspects of psychopathy. . . . The current results, which demonstrate structural validity for both the three- and four-factor models, may shed some light on the debate between investigators pursuing pure psychopathic personality models (Blackburn, 1998; Cooke & Michie, 2001; Lilienfeld, 1998) versus those who include a dimension of antisocial behavior (Forth et al., 2003; Hare, 2003; Neumann, Kosson, et al., 2004). Our second, and equally important, goal for the current study was to demonstrate the application of the three- and four-factor models to clinical practice and research across a large and diverse sample of civil psychiatric patients. We found excellent support for both models in relation to ethnicity, gender, and estimated IQ, as well as violence and other aggression. Moreover, the current results—which demonstrate construct validity for a four-factor model, within the context of these demographic and clinical correlates of psychopathy—suggest that the four psychopathy factors are not inordinately influenced by such external correlates.

Vitacco, M., Neumann, C. S., & Wodushek, T. (2008). Differential relationships between the dimensions of psychopathy and intelligence: replication with adult jail inmates. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(1), 48-55. doi: 10.1177/0093854807309806 Previous research with adult mental health and adolescent forensic samples has found that intelligence is differentially related to the four dimensions of psychopathy. The current study evaluated the relations between the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) factors and full-scale intelligence (FIQ) in 100 males detained in a county jail. Structural equation modeling results revealed that the PCL:SV interpersonal factor had a strong positive relationship to the FIQ latent variable, whereas the antisocial factor was moderately positively associated with FIQ. In contrast, FIQ was negatively related to both the affective and lifestyle PCL:SV factors. Overall, the psychopathy factors accounted for 25% of the variance of FIQ. The current study adds to a growing literature suggesting that features of psychopathy are differentially related to intellectual functioning. =The data suggest that it is advantageous to represent psychopathy in terms of four correlated dimensions (see Vitacco et al., 2005) rather than a global psychopathy factor; failure to do so will likely continue to result in null findings as the differential relationships between the psychopathy factors and IQ cancel each other out.

Vitale, J. E., Brinkley, C. A., Hiatt, K. D., & Newman, J. P. (2007). Abnormal selective attention in psychopathic female offenders. Neuropsychology, 21(3), 301-312. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.21.3.301 Research on psychopathy in women has generated equivocal laboratory findings. This study examined the performance of psychopathic women in 2 laboratory tasks designed to assess abnormal selective attention associated with response modulation deficits: a computerized picture-word (PW) task, and a picture-word Stroop (PW Stroop) task. Consistent with data from psychopathic men, women receiving high scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) displayed reduced Stroop interference on the PW and PW Stroop tasks. Results suggest that despite some differences in the expression of psychopathy across gender, psychopathic women are characterized by selective attention abnormalities predicted by the response modulation hypothesis and similar to those exhibited by psychopathic men.

Vrij, A., Granhag, P. A., & Porter, S. (2011). Pitfalls and Opportunities in Nonverbal and Verbal Lie Detection. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11, 89-121. doi:10.1177/1529100610390861

Wai, M. (2012). The affective and cognitive empathic nature of the dark triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 794-799. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.008

Walker, L. E. A. (2009). The battered woman syndrome, (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.

Walker's seminal, groundbreaking book The Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) has forged new directions in the field of domestic violence for over 30 years. Now, the highly anticipated, third edition offers thoroughly updated and revised research on key topics, including posttraumatic stress disorder, learned helplessness or learned optimism, the cycle theory of violence, and much more. This third edition presents updated data generated from the newly modified Battered Woman Syndrome Questionnaire (BWSQ). With a new focus on culture and ethnicity, this data details the experiences of foreign women who either live in their country of origin or the U.S. Like its popular predecessors, this new edition serves as a valuable resource for both professional counselors and students studying domestic violence.

Wallace, J. F., & Newman, J. P. (1997). Neuroticism and the attentional mediation of dysregulatory psychopathology. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21(2), 135-156. doi:10.1023/A:1021828628571 Neuroticism emerges consistently as a fundamental trait in factor-analytic studies of personality and temperament, and its association with diverse forms of psychopathology has been demonstrated repeatedly. Hence, elucidating the nature of neuroticism would be expected to advance understanding of the psychobiological processes contributing to psychopathology. In contrast to formulations that regard neuroticism as a predisposition to negative affect primarily, we emphasize neuroticism's effects on cognition. Specifically, we propose that (a) neuroticism is associated with facilitation of the automatic orienting of attention, (b) this attentional process may adversely affect one's ability to engage in the controlled evaluation and correction of problematic cognitive and behavioral response tendencies, and (c) negative affect and psychopathology associated with neuroticism result from the disruption of these evaluative and corrective processes.

Wallace, J. F., & Newman, J. P. (2004). A theory-based treatment model for psychopathy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11(2), 178-189. doi:10.1016/S1077-7229(04)80029-4 The most salient characteristic of the psychopath is the propensity to engage in maladaptive and inappropriate behavior of all sorts, including antisocial and criminal actions. Consequently, there is considerable interest—particularly in the field of criminology—in determining what sorts of treatment interventions are likely to be effective in modifying the problematic behavioral tendencies of this difficult population. We suggest that interventions are most likely to meet with success if they are based on an accurate understanding of the cognitive deficits that underlie psychopaths' tendency to engage in maladaptive and illegal acts. Herein, we describe a theoretical framework for conceptualizing psychopaths' information processing deficits (in which the concepts of automatic information processing and implicit cognition play central roles), then discuss implications of this formulation for the design and implementation of treatment interventions.

Wallace, J. F., & Newman, J. P. (2008). Reinforcement sensitivity theory and psychopathy: Associations between psychopathy and the behavioral activation and inhibition systems. In P. J. Corr (Ed.), Reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp.398-414). New York: Cambridge University Press. We review the experimental evidence regarding information processing anomalies that have been observed in psychopaths, and conclude that the body of evidence is in substantially better accord with the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), and, in particular, the current conceptualization of the BIS, than with the original version of RST. In addition, clear associations exist between psychopathy and self-report measures of the BAS and BIS constructs, and we discuss possible explanations for those associations that merit evaluation in future psychopathy research.

Wallace, J. F., Malterer, M. B., & Newman, J. P. (2009). Mapping Gray's BIS and BAS constructs onto Factor 1 and Factor 2 of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 812-816. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.019 Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST; Gray, 1987; Gray & McNaughton, 2000) has proven to be a valuable tool for understanding psychopathy (e.g., Fowles, 1980, 1988; Newman & Malterer, 2009; Poythress et al., 2008). Recent research has linked two RST constructs, the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS), to individuals with primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy (Lykken, 1995; Newman, MacCoon, Vaughn, & Sadeh, 2005): Primary psychopaths manifest low BIS reactivity and secondary psychopaths manifest high BAS reactivity. In the present study, we examine the relationships between the BIS/BAS constructs and Factors 1 and 2 of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a sample of 472 incarcerated male offenders. Paralleling their relationships with primary and secondary psychopathy, the BIS/BAS constructs were differentially related to the two PCL-R factors. Specifically, the influence of the BIS was found to be more prominent than the influence of the BAS for Factor 1, and the influence of the BAS was more prominent than that of the BIS for Factor 2.

Wallinius, M., Johansson, P., Larden, M., & Dernevik, M. (2011). Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions and Antisocial Behavior Among Adults and Adolescents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(3), 286-301. doi:10.1177/0093854810396139 The reliability and validity of the self-report questionnaire How I Think (HIT), designed to assess self-serving cognitive distortions related to antisocial behavior, was tested among Swedish offender and nonoffender adults and adolescents (N = 364). The results showed self-serving distortions to be more common among offenders and to predict self-reported antisocial behavior when tested among adults. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed, in contrast to earlier findings, that the underlying structure of the HIT was best explained by a three-factor solution with one major cognitive factor, referred to as "criminal mind." It was concluded that the HIT, after further examination of its structural and divergent validity, could be used as a measure of criminal thinking in adults as well as in adolescents.

Walsh, A., & Wu, H. H. (2008). Differentiating antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and sociopathy: evolutionary, genetic, neurological, and sociological considerations. Criminal Justice Studies, 21(2), 135-152. doi: 10.1080/14786010802159814 This paper examines the separate but overlapping constructs of psychopathy, sociopathy, and antisocial personality disorder from evolutionary, genetic, neurological, and sociological perspectives. Evidence indicates that psychopaths are a stable proportion of any population, can be from any segment of society, may constitute a distinct taxonomical class forged by frequency-dependent natural selection, and that the muting of the social emotions is the proximate mechanism that enables psychopaths to pursue their self-centered goals without felling the pangs of guilt. Sociopaths are more the products of adverse environmental experiences that affect autonomic nervous system and neurological development that may lead to physiological responses similar to those of psychopaths. Antisocial personality disorder is a legal/clinical label that may be applied to both psychopaths and sociopaths. . . . Depending on whom you ask, psychopathy, sociopathy, and antisocial personality disorder are synonymous terms describing the same constellation of traits, or they are separate concepts with fuzzy boundaries. This paper proposes to show that the weight of evidence favors the distinction between psychopathy and sociopathy, each with their own causal mechanisms, with ASPD being a clinical diagnostic term applicable to both. . . . There appears to be an emerging consensus that psychopathy is a stable trait with a constant prevalence across time, culture, and socioeconomic status. This constancy has led psychopathy researchers to posit that the construct is an evolutionarily stable trait forged by frequency-dependent selection analogous to what biologist call cheater males in non-human animal species. . . . Sociopathy appears to be a condition less strongly tied to genotype than psychopathy and more tied to development in extremely adverse environments rife with abuse, neglect, and violence. The number of sociopaths therefore fluctuates with changes in socioculture environments, particularly with the rate of children born into fatherless homes.

Walsh, Z., & Kosson, D. S. (2008). Psychopathy and violence: The importance of factor level interactions. Psychological Assessment, 20(2), 114-120. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.20.2.114 The power of scales based on the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; R. D. Hare, 1980) for prediction of violent behavior is well established. Although evidence suggests that this relationship is chiefly due to the impulsive and antisocial lifestyle component (Factor 2), the predictive power of psychopathy for violence may also reflect the multiplicative effects of this component with interpersonal and unemotional traits (Factor 1). The determination of the extent to which psychopathy subcomponents interact to predict violence has theoretical and practical implications for PCL-assessed psychopathy. However, the relationship between violence and the interactive effects of psychopathy subcomponents remains largely undetermined. The authors used prospective and cross-sectional designs to examine the independent and interactive effects of the factors of PCL-assessed psychopathy in 2 samples: (a) 199 county jail inmates and (b) 863 civil psychiatric patients. The Factor 1 × Factor 2 interaction predicted violence in both samples, such that the predictive power of Factor 2 was attenuated at lower levels of Factor 1. . . . Our findings were consistent with those of prior studies, in that F2 appeared to be a stronger predictor of violence than did F1 (Skeem & Mulvey, 2001;Walters, 2003). However, F1 played an important role; in both studies, F1 interacted with F2, such that the predictive relationship between F2 and violence was accentuated at higher levels of F1 and attenuated at lower levels of F1.

Walsh, Z., Swogger, M. T., & Kosson D. S. (2009). Psychopathy and instrumental violence: Facet level relationships. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(4), 416-424. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2009.23.4.416 The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed using the PCL-R based on interview and file review. We controlled for potentially important covariates, namely IQ and prior violence. Results were in part consistent with findings from studies with adolescents, in that we identified a positive relationship between instrumentality of violence and manipulative interpersonal style. Results differed from youth studies with regard to relationships between instrumentality and other facets of psychopathy. The implications of our study are discussed with regard to treatment and the developmental stability of the relationship between psychopathic traits and instrumental violence.

Walters, G. D. (2004). The trouble with psychopathy as a general theory of crime. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48(2), 133-148. doi: 10.1177/0306624X03259472 The concept of psychopathy, as defined by Robert Hare, is reviewed with respect to its status as a general theory of crime. A hybrid of the medical pathology model and personality trait approach, the psychopathy concept proposes that a significant portion of serious crime is committed by psychopathic individuals. Hare's version of psychopathy, besides demonstrating weak applicability and a propensity for tautology, is subject to labeling effects, over simplicity, reductionism, the fundamental attributional error, inattention to context, and disregard for the dynamic nature of human behavior. It is concluded that the psychopathy concept is substantially limited with respect to its ability to describe and clarify general criminal behavior but that it may still have value as a partial explanation for certain types of noncriminal predatory behavior. . . . Findings from the current review suggest that the psychopathy concept runs into problems on two counts. First, it is debatable whether psychopathy meets its own criteria of a good theory as established by the medical model and personality trait theory because there is no definitive proof that psychopathy can be diagnosed, studied, and applied similar to the medical diseases that serve as its standard of comparison. Furthermore, the internality, consistency, and stability of the psychopathy concept may not be as strong as Hare (1996) contended.

Walters, G. D. (2008). Self-report measures of psychopathy, antisocial personality, and criminal lifestyle: Testing and validating a two-dimensional model. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(12), 1459-1483. doi: 10.1177/0093854808320922 This article reports results from five studies. Exploratory factor analysis was used to select indicators from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scales, and Personality Assessment Inventory—Antisocial Features Scale. The 10 indicators were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis, the results of which show that the two-dimensional model (proactive, reactive) achieves significantly better fit than a general one-factor model and a two-factor social learning model (criminal thinking, antisocial behavior) with 521 medium-security and 116 maximum-security inmates. The construct validity of the two-dimensional model is confirmed in a path analysis pairing (a) proactive scales with positive outcome expectancies for crime and (b) reactive scales with hostile attribution biases. Implications for a unified theory of aggression and criminality are discussed. . . . A principal implication of this study is that it provides support for a unified theory of antisocial behavior, from childhood aggression to adult criminality. . . . Correctional assessment and classification should consider both proactive and reactive criminality when evaluating inmates. Because reactive criminality leads to more overt and obvious forms of acting-out behavior, it is more likely to be disruptive to the orderly running of a correctional institution. . . . There is no reason why psychopathy, antisocial personality, and criminal lifestyle cannot individually contribute to our understanding of criminal behavior now that it has been shown that proactive and reactive criminality may account for a certain portion of the variance shared by each.

Walters, G. D., Marcus, D. K., Edens, J. F., Knight, R. A., & Sanford, G. M. (2010). In search of the psychopathic sexuality taxon: Indicator size does matter. (C. P. Ewing, Ed.) Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 29(1), 23-39. doi:10.1002/bsl.964 Recent research has suggested that a qualitatively distinct subtype of psychopathic sex offender can be identified via taxometric analyses (Harris et al., 2007). In this study we attempted to replicate the hypothesized psychopathic sexuality taxon in a group of 503 male sexual offenders using data from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R: Hare, 2003) and five coercive and precocious sexuality items. Ambiguous to dimensional results were obtained when, in a replication of the Harris et al. (2007) study, dichotomized indicators were analyzed with summed input maximum covariance (MAXCOV). Clearly dimensional results, however, were obtained when higher correlating and more valid quasi-continuous indicators were analyzed with traditional (input variables not summed) MAXCOV, and both dichotomous and quasi-continuous indicators were analyzed with mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC) and latent-mode factor analysis (L-Mode). These results suggest that Harris et al. (2007) may have mistaken the random fluctuations of weakly correlating and poorly differentiating indicators for a taxon. Consistent with the vast majority of earlier research, our results suggest that psychopathy (with or without coercive and precocious sexuality) is a dimensional construct.

Walters, G. D., & Schlauch, C. (2008). The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles and Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version as predictors of official and self-reported disciplinary infractions. Law and Human Behavior, 32(5), 454-462. doi: 10.1007/s10979-007-9117-5 A total of 159 male inmates screened with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R:SV) were followed for a period of 24 months for evidence of disciplinary infractions (incident reports). Eighty-three of these inmates also furnished a self-report of disciplinary infractions occurring during the 24-month follow-up. The PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score and LSI-R:SV total score correlated with and accurately identified the presence of an officially recorded disciplinary infraction, an officially recorded severe disciplinary infraction, and a self-reported disciplinary infraction but only age and the GCT score achieved incremental validity when age, GCT, and LSI-R:SV were included as predictors in the same probit regression or loglinear survival equation.

Warren, J. I., Chauhan, P., & Murrie, D. C. (2005). Screening for psychopathy among incarcerated women: Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Hare P-Scan. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 4(2), 175-189. In this study, we explored the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Hare P-SCAN, as scored by correctional officers for 115 women incarcerated in a maximum-security prison. Using correctional officers' ratings, we present psychometric properties of the P-SCAN and the interrater agreement obtained by paired correctional officers coding the same female inmate. We explored construct validity by examining the correspondence of P-SCAN scores with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Structured Clinical Interview of Personality Disorders (SCID-II), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), prior criminal history, and institutional infractions. The P-SCAN demonstrated high internal consistency but moderate interrater reliability, a finding related at least in part to the limited training provided to the correctional officers in using the instrument. The P-SCAN did not correspond with psychopathy or psychopathy factor scores as measured by the PCL-R but did relate to other features, namely Cluster A psychopathology and security level. These two aspects of behavior may be of interest to prison officials but relate only indirectly to the psychopathy construct as defined by the Hare PCL-R.

Weber, S., Habel, U., Amunts, K., & Schneider, F. (2008). Structural brain abnormalities in psychopaths-a review. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 26(1), 7-28. doi:10.1002/bsl.802 The biological basis of psychopathy has not yet been fully elucidated. Few studies deal with structural neuroimaging in psychopaths. The aim of this article is to review these studies in order to contribute to our understanding of the biological basis of psychopathy. Data in the literature report a reduction in prefrontal gray matter volume, gray matter loss in the right superior temporal gyrus, amygdala volume loss, a decrease in posterior hippocampal volume, an exaggerated structural hippocampal asymmetry, and an increase in callosal white matter volume in psychopathic individuals. These findings suggest that psychopathy is associated with brain abnormalities in a prefrontal-temporo-limbic circuit—i.e. regions that are involved, among others, in emotional and learning processes. Additionally, data indicate that psychopathic individuals cannot be seen as a homogeneous group. The associations between structural changes and psychopathic characteristics do not enable causal conclusions to be drawn, but point rather to the important role of biological brain abnormalities in psychopathy. To gain a comprehensive understanding of this, psychopathy must be viewed as a multifactorial process involving neurobiological, genetic, epidemiological and sociobiographical factors. . . . The documented brain abnormalities are not sufficient to explain the emergence of psychopathy. As mentioned above, "psychopathy" may result from the interaction of various factors and is probably best explained by a vulnerability stress model or a bio-psycho-social approach. Experiences during the formative years and socialization as well as neurobiological and genetic endowment interact with the emergence of psychopathy.

Webster, C. D., Douglas, K. S., Eaves, D., & Hart, S. D. (1997). HCR 20: Assessing Risk for Violence (version 2). Vancouver: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

Webster, C. D., Eaves, D., Douglas, K. S., & Wintrup, A. (1995). The HCR 20 scheme: The Assessment of Dangerousness and Risk. Vancouver: Simon Fraser University and British Columbia Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission.

Wetzell, R. F. (2000). Inventing the criminal: A history of German criminology, 1880-1945Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

Whitlock, F. A. (1982). A note on moral insanity and psychopathic disorders. Psychiatric Bulletin, 6(4), 57-59. doi:10.1192/pb.6.4.57 It is commonly believed that Prichard's 'moral insanity' (1835) was the forerunner of our present-day concept of psychopathic (sociopathic) personality. Prichard confirmed Pinel's observation and coined the term "moral insanity" which led to "a marked perversion of the natural impulses". The word 'moral' denoted 'affective' and was not being used in the usual ethical sense. A careful examination of the cases mentioned by Pinel (1801) and by Prichard should make it abundantly clear that except for the first of the three patients cited by Pinel, there was not the remotest resemblance between their examples and what today would be classed as psychopathic personality. Nor do the authors' general delineations of the disorder conjure up the picture of present-day psychopathy.

Widiger, T. A., & Frances, A. J. (2002). Toward a dimensional model for the personality disorders. In P. T. Costa, Jr., & T. A. Widiger, (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). (pp. 23-44). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Widiger, T. A., & Lowe J. R. (2008). A dimensional model of personality disorder: Proposal for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31(3), 363-378. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.03.008 A proposal made for DSM-IV was to include a means with which to provide a dimensional profile of a patient in terms of the diagnostic categories. However, a suggestion of the DSM-V Research Planning Conference on personality disorders was to develop a more fundamental revision through an integration of alternative dimensional models of personality disorder and general personality structure. A purpose of the current article is to provide this proposal. Also discussed is a primary concern with respect to the implementation of any such dimensional model: clinical utility. Discussed in particular are concerns regarding feasibility and treatment implications. . . . This proposed dimensional model for DSM-V begins with the description of the person in terms of general personality functioning at the level of the five broad domains of the FFM (eg, conscientiousness). Each of these five broad domains would be assessed with five to seven diagnostic criteria comparable to the format currently used within DSM-IV but this time referring to normal, adaptive behavior. . . . An FFM dimensional model of personality disorder would describe abnormal functioning with the same model and language used to describe general personality structure. It would transfer to the psychiatric nomenclature a wealth of knowledge concerning the origins, development, and stability of the dispositions that underlie personality disorder; it would bring with it well-validated and researched instruments and methods of assessment; it would facilitate the development of a more truly universal diagnostic system; and it would represent a significant step toward a rapprochement and integration of psychiatry with psychology.

Widom, C. S. (1989a). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106(1), 3-28. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.106.1.3 Critically examines the "violence breeds violence" hypothesis broadly defined. Organized into seven sections, the literature review includes (a) the abuse breeds abuse hypothesis; (b) reports of small numbers of violent/homicidal offenders; (c) studies examining the relationship of abuse and neglect to delinquency; (d) to violent behavior, and (e) to aggressive behavior in infants and young children; (f) abuse, withdrawal, and self-destructive behavior; and (g) studies of the impact of witnessing or observing violent behavior. A detailed discussion of methodological considerations and shortcomings precedes the review. The author concludes that existing knowledge of the long-term consequences of abusive home environments is limited and suggests that conclusions about the strength of the cycle of violence be tempered by the dearth of convincing empirical evidence. Recommendations are made for further research.

Widom, C. S. (1989b). The cycle of violence. Science, 244(4901), 160-166. doi:10.1126/science.2704995 Despite widespread belief that violence begets violence, methodological problems substantially restrict knowledge of the long-term consequences of childhood victimization. Empirical evidence for this cycle of violence has been examined. Findings from a cohort study show that being abused or neglected as a child increases one's risk for delinquency, adult criminal behavior, and violent criminal behavior. However, the majority of abused and neglected children do not become delinquent, criminal, or violent. Caveats in interpreting these findings and their implications are discussed in this article. . . . Early childhood victimization has demonstrable long-term consequences for delinquency, adult criminality, and violent criminal behavior. The results reported here provide strong support for the cycle of violence hypothesis.

Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., & Paris, J. (2009). A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(5), 433-446. doi:10.1521/pedi.2009.23.5.433 Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.

Widom, C. S., & Newman, J. P. (1985). Characteristics of non-institutionalized psychopaths. In D. P. Farrington & J. Gunn (Eds.), Aggression and dangerousness (pp. 57-80). New York: Wiley.

Wileman, R. (2008). Mistakes That Let The Light In. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 29(2), 115-117. Retrieved March 7, 2009, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database A highly intelligent psychopath is not easily identified, and counsellors can fall victim to their manipulations unless aware of the characteristics by which psychopaths can be identified and to the feelings and sensations that they provoke. When working individually with clients, engaging other family members may be a necessary safeguard against clinical manipulation and its undesirable consequences.

Wilks-Riley, F., & Ireland, J. L. (2012). Cognition and psychopathy: Identifying negative and positive schemas in general and forensic samples. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 23(4), 466-484. http://doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2012.694464

Willemsen, J., De Ganck, J., & Verhaeghe, P. (2012). Psychopathy, traumatic exposure, and lifetime posttraumatic stress. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56, 505-24. doi:10.1177/0306624X11407443

Williams, C. R., & Arrigo, B. A. (2002). Law, psychology, and the "new sciences": Rethinking mental illness and dangerousness. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 46(1), 6-29. doi: 10.1177/0306624X02461002 Clinical and legal research on the meaning of mental illness and on definitions (and predictions) of dangerousness continue to offer the mental health law arena mostly disappointing results. In this article, the authors argue that much of this failure is linked to the prevailing Newtonian paradigm of cause-effect relationships, linear logic, and absolute order. In its place, the authors draw attention to the "new sciences"; that is, advances generated from quantum physics and chaos theory. To situate the analysis, the authors explore how psycholegal decision making unfolds. Specifically, the authors examine what contributions the new sciences offer society on the nature and meaning of psychiatric disorder and on the forecasting of violence. Along the way, the authors suggest how the new sciences advance the regard for citizen justice within the domain of mental health law.

Williams, K. M., Paulhus, D. L. & Hare, R. D. (2007). Capturing the Four-Factor Structure of Psychopathy College Students Via Self-Report. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88(2), 205-219. A number of self-report psychopathy scales have been used successfully in both clinical and nonclinical settings. However, their factor structure does not adequately capture the four factors (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial) recently identified in the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and related measures. This deficit was addressed by upgrading the Self Report Psychopathy Scale (SRP-II; Hare, Hemphill, & Harpur, 1989). In Study 1 (N = 249), an exploratory factor analysis of this experimental version revealed oblique factors similar to those outlined by Hare (2003). In Study 2 (N = 274), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed this structure, that is, four distinct but intercorrelated factors. The factors exhibited appropriate construct validity in a nomological network of related personality measures. Links with self-reports of offensive activities (including entertainment preferences and behavior) also supported the construct validity of the oblique four-factor model. . . . Our studies indicate that a self-report measure of psychopathy can capture the oblique four-factor structure similar to that found in forensic instruments such as the PCL-R and PCL: SV. Our experimental SRP item set provided a useful set of items, but further refinement is required before distribution as a research instrument.

Williams, K. M., Spidel, A., & Paulhus, D. L. (2005). Sex, Lies, and More Lies: Exploring the Intimate Relationships of Subclinical Psychopaths. Poster presented at the 1st conference of the Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Although relationship violence is of great interest to researchers and the general public, studies examining connections with personality rarely consider the most destructive personality — subclinical psychopathy. We examined the influence of subclinical psychopathy on the intimate relationships of 612 undergraduates as measured by self-reported attitudes and behaviors. Subclinical psychopathy was associated with a wide range of risky and violent sexual behaviors, various negative attitudes and cognitions towards their partners and towards relationships in general, and several indicators of infidelity. Overall, these results suggest that the intimate relationships of subclinical psychopaths are extremely abusive and volatile, with respect to both attitudes and behaviors.

Wilson, D. S. (2002). Evolution, morality and human potential, In S. J. Scher & F. Rauscher (Eds.), Evolutionary Psychology: Alternative Approaches (pp. 55-70). Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Wilson, D. S., Near, D., & Miller, R. (1996). Machiavellianism: A Synthesis of the Evolutionary and Psychological Literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 285-299. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.285 Manipulative strategies of social conduct (Machiavellianism) have been studied by both psychologists and evolutionary biologists. The authors use the psychological literature as a database to test evolutionary hypotheses about the adaptive advantages of manipulative social behavior. Machiavellianism does not correlate with general intelligence and does not consistently lead to real-world success. It is best regarded as 1 of several social strategies, broadly similar to the "defect" strategy of evolutionary game theory, which is successful in some situations but not in others. In general, human evolutionary psychology and evolutionary game theory provide useful frameworks for thinking about behavioral strategies, such as Machiavellianism, and identify a large number of specific hypotheses that have not yet been tested by personality and social psychologists. . . . It is difficult to imagine a more fundamental theme in human life than the interaction between exploitative and cooperative behaviors. Machiavellianism has become the symbol for manipulative strategies of social conduct, but the psychological literature on Machiavellianism has not done justice to the importance of the subject, in part because it lacks a conceptual framework for guiding empirical research. Evolutionary biology does provide a conceptual framework, but it has developed in an empirical vacuum, especially with respect to human social behavior. We hope that our review has helped to bring these disciplines together and to organize the existing literature around the conceptually relevant questions.

Wilson, L. C., & Scarpa, A. (2010). The link between sensation seeking and aggression: a meta-analytic review. Aggressive Behavior, 37(1), 81-90. doi:10.1002/ab.20369 Substantial empirical evidence supports low resting heart rate (HR) as the best replicated psychophysiological correlate of aggression [Ortiz and Raine, 2004]; however, researchers continue to debate the explanatory mechanisms of the phenomenon. Sensation seeking has been proposed as a possible outcome of low resting HR that may lead to aggressive tendencies but findings have been inconsistent in terms of showing a relationship between sensation seeking and aggression. A meta-analysis was conducted on 43 independent effect sizes, from studies with a total of 32,217 participants, to test the hypothesis that sensation seeking would be positively related to aggression across studies. A significant overall effect size was found (d = .1935, P < .001), supporting the hypothesis. Moderator analyses revealed that the relationship differed based on participant and methodological characteristics, such as participant age and the nature of the aggression measurement; however, these conclusions are limited by the uneven number of studies in many of the moderator classes. Overall, the findings provide support for higher levels of aggression in high sensation seekers and have theoretical implications for arousal theory. Further research on the links between arousal, sensation seeking and aggression can inform clinicians about potential interventions.

Wong, S. C. P., Gordon, A. & Gu, D. (2007). Assessment and treatment of violence-prone forensic clients: an integrated approach. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(suppl. 49), s66- s74. doi: 10.1192/bjp.190.5.s66 Background A risk-reduction treatment programme complemented by a focused assessment, both guided by the risk-need-responsivity principles, is suggested as the preferred treatment for violence-prone individuals with personality disorder. Aims Violence Reduction Programme (VRP) and Violence Risk Scale (VRS) were used to illustrate the design and implementation of such an approach. Participants from a similarly designed Aggressive Behaviour Control Programme were used to illustrate the principles discussed and to test programme efficacy. Method The VRS was used to assess risk/need and treatment readiness, and DSM III/IV psychiatric diagnoses of federal offenders. Results Participants had a high probability of violent recidivism and many violence-linked criminogenic needs, similar to offenders with high PCL-R scores. Most had antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorders; in terms of treatment-readiness, most were in the contemplation stage of change. Outcome evaluation results support the objectives of the VRP. Conclusions Integrating risk-need- responsivity principles in assessment and treatment can provide useful guidelines for intervention with violence-prone forensic clients with personality disorder. . . . The VRP and VRS are complementary: each providing the other with information required to fulfill the tasks of assessment, treatment and risk reduction.

Wright, E. M. (2009). The measurement of psychopathy dimensional and taxometric approaches. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53(4), 464-481 doi:10.1177/0306624X08319416 This article extends the debate over personality disorders as dimensional or taxonic phenomena to the study of psychopathy and relates this issue to questions surrounding whether behaviors or personality traits best represent psychopathy. Proponents of dimensional measurements of psychopathy consider personality traits to be important constructs of psychopathy, whereas proponents of taxometric measurements consider behaviors to be important characteristics of psychopathy. After a brief introduction to the measurement of psychopathy, taxometric and dimensional measurement techniques are explained, their assumptions addressed, and their strengths and weaknesses discussed. Empirical evidence for each technique is then critiqued, and methodological problems are described. It is argued that methodological problems of existing studies largely preclude conclusions regarding whether psychopathy is dimensional or taxonic. Suggestions for future research are provided to address some of these methodological limitations. This review informs readers about each measurement approach and identifies problems regarding the dimensional or taxonic measurement of psychopathy. . . . It appears that questions regarding whether psychopathy is a dimensional or taxonic entity or whether it can be conceptualized simultaneously as both have not yet been answered.

Wygant, D. B., & Sellbom, M. (2012). Viewing psychopathy from the perspective of the personality psychopathology five model: Implications for DSM-5. Journal of Personality Disorders, 26(5), 717-26. http://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2012.26.5.717

Zahn, M. A. (Ed.). (2009). The delinquent girl. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Despite the extensive involvement of girls in delinquency, for many years criminologists neglected the topic of female delinquency. This compilation is the result of a year-long effort in which members of the "Girls Study Group" reviewed large bodies of research on the extent and nature of girls' delinquency, the causes and correlates of such delinquency, and the juvenile justice system's response to this delinquency

Zeier, J. D., Baskin-Sommers, A. R., Hiatt Racer, K. D., & Newman, J. P. (2012). Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. Personality Disorders, 3(3), 283-93. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0023137

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Zuckerman, M. Antisocial personality disorder. (1999). In M. Zuckerman, Vulnerability to psychopathology: A biosocial model (pp. 209-253). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.